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by: Wilfredo Turcotte


Wilfredo Turcotte
Texas A&M
GPA 3.61

T. Dewitt

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T. Dewitt
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wilfredo Turcotte on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BESC 201 at Texas A&M University taught by T. Dewitt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/225911/besc-201-texas-a-m-university in Environmental Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
BESC 201 Introduction to Bioenvironmental Science Lecture 2 27 August 2008 BLE 1239 The United States with 45 Ecological problems Percent of the World s I denudation a v Populatlon I deforestation CONSUMES PRODUCES I desertlflcatlon 26 of all oil 50 of all toxic wastes 39 depletlon 24 of aluminum 26 of nitrogen oxides I pollution 20 of copper 25 of sulfur oxides I n 19 of nickel 22 of chlorofluorocarbons consump on 13 of steel 26 of carbon dioxide Us is lt5 of Obal p Op Source World Hesourceslnslilule 199899 consumes about 25 of many Growing Disparities in Incomes among Regions resources and produces gt25 of Per Carma Income by Region 1970 2000 industrial waste 25000 N M T Europ menca Awg u e f Polltlcaleconomic d1spar1ty 20000 Lam America Xx Asia x I NorthSouth division I classist division within countries Africa Per capita income in conslanl dollars Wealthy countries located mostly in Northern Hemisphere 970 1975 1950 1985 1990 zooc 20 of world population are rich gt 25000 yr poor people exist here as well however Gap between rich and poor continues to increase Wealthiest 200 people in the world have combined wealth of 1 trillion more than total wealth of poorest half 3 billion of world population Poor countries tend to be located in Southern Hemisphere 20 world population live in acute poverty of lt 1 per day 78 live in poverty lt2 per day 70 women and children Selfsustaining lifestyles Daily survival needs drive over harvest of resources precludes sustainability When we discuss these problems we will also address remedies where economic and cultural issues come strongly into play al Economies rst World Industrialized marketoriented democracies of Western Europe North America Japan Australia Second World Centrallyplanned socialist countries such as former USSR N Korea China Third World 7 the economically underdeveloped countries of merica Asia Africa Oceania and Latin A Fo orld Poorest nations and indigenous communities within larger sovereign nations eg Tibet Palestine Kurdistan Average lndimmrs nf Quality of Lil for the 20 Richest and Poorest uuntnvs Rirli ludimlm ounllivs UP tha 27 A Total let m z i 5 we excecianw m ears t lax mnna l 5 Safe donktrg water 1A5 99 mm mm m 9 sum pa tam gwwth gt m u 3 u Military spending income of 2 world pop 1995 United Nat ns Summit for Social Development 0 called all nations to ensure basic needs for everyone 0 2020 Compact 0 wealthy countries contribute 20 of aid to humanitarian concerns and social develo ment 0 developing countries contribute 20 ofbudget to human primary concems develop friendly relations among nations to cooperate in solving international economic social ulm l freedoms from m waw un orgaboutunbasicfactsunorg htm UN Development Program created the human development index HDI to evaluate quality of lifebased on life expectancy child survival adult literacy education gender equity and basic environment eg clean water sanitation US does not top the list Ethnic disparitg 0 Of 6000 recognized cultures 5000 are indigenous cultures 0 These people make up only 10 ofglobal population Usur ed by encroaching powers rarely well embrace Sustainable Development 0 velopment means improving peoples standard ofliving 0 can this be maintained over a long timecourse many economism see continual economic growth as essential in o 02 83 ES 38 m rm Si 00 SR 8i 32 5 o 78 El 0 1 0 25 o E o wth as impossible due to nite nature ofresources and limited ecological wastedisposal capabilities Want U2 Jitll Greenhouse 0 IN estimate Of hOW gas em39mns much it would cost to provide vaccination adequate schooling family planning safe water food suplements strategic microcredit lncreasing wealth loans Severity 26Bwk over 20 yr to Global abolish extreme poverty Local immediate 09 an and infecitious disease Threaten health gt Threaten ecosystems Shlltmg environmental burdens Do some practice questions if time permits Into which environmental camp do you most fall Why utilitarian aesthetic health and toxicology naturalist amp EampL Which of the following is a first world country a Guyana b Turkey c North America d Australia What proportion of the global populations earns 1 or less each day a one fifth b one half c nine tenths d 7Er2 What is the HDI Chapter 2 Values Rights and Obligations Morals and values 0 Morals right V wrong 0 Values priority of things eg food amp shelter are first biological imperatives Indigenous cultures typically embrace stewardship the responsible management of and care of land and resources Typically this is due to recognition that people are dependent upon land and environmental degredation is a plight for all Others with a close relationship to land also embrace these values traditional farmers ie not industrial farms ecologists naturalists rural peoples hunters amp fishermen Worldviews where morals values politics knowledge etc meet Does a person have the right to burn down the forest on his land for reasons other than sustanence Is it moral to do so Does a person have the right to be immoral Should we value biodiversity over commerce Environmental Justice Be aware that people of color both within first world countries and across the world are disproportionately eXposed to higher levels of environmental health problems By twofold minorities live in proximity to LULUs locally unwanted land uses incinerators landfills etc This problem is growing ie disparities are increasing ToXic colonialism is part of the problem Despite international accordstreaties rich countries take advantage of developing countries Targeting vs unplanned outcome Is the association of underpriveleged race ethnic and economic classes with LULUs the result of targeting due to racism targeting due to path of leastpoliticalresistance or an unplanned result where LULUs end up on least valuable areas and for the same reason so do the poor Science and the Scienti c Method 0 The Zen of science two complimentary modes 0 deductive reasoningistarts with general principle proceeds to speci c case 0 inductive reasoningigeneral principles are inferred from examination of speci c cases 0 Eg mistatement by Darwin On the voyage I worked from true hypetheticodeductive priciples Hypotheses Theories Refutations Probability 0 Its just a theory is an abject misunderstanding of the nature of scienti c inquiry o Hypothesisiprovisional explanation that can be falsified by further investigation 0 When tests support a hypothesis it is only considered provisionally true 0 Scienti c theoryihypothesis supported by multiple tests and solid logic 0 There are no truths only probability statements 0 Scienti c method 7 dennfy question Form teslable hypolhesis 4quot av 39 r t Consul i prior Collect data I rhypoyhegs knowledge 7 late h thsrs 5 eecwd L V Interpret resulls v1 Report for peer review V PUbllSh ndings Note the interpret results ellipse is generally statistical analysis Statistics Asllv39m Clintn 1 l i i 33 4o 50 an 23 25 3 3 so 45 50 55 an 55 7 Yb so ancumm mm unrr What results from continued application of the scienti c method in a prevailing historical cultural and political setting is paradigms The history of science is one of paradigm growth and upheaval Thomas Kuhn 1982 The Structure of Scienti c Revolutions Normal science Scientific revolution 9 New normal science Revolutions are spurred by data that do not fit Antagonism and advocacy are part of scientific progress notice the Marxist sentiment here Bodies of thought are not considered to be science if they are not refutable testable Karl Popper 1963 Conjectures and Refutatz39ons Technology Case sdy an example with electric cars Use of science to solve problems with ingenuity Technology allows mistakes to be made faster and on a larger scale than before Technology is typically reactive rather than proactive Appropriate Technology Promotes machines and approaches suitable for local conditions and cultures Technology is generally economically driven not ideal driven Technology since 1970s Original electric unpopular due to inconvenience of plugin Note that plugm electric is not really clean fuel Hybrids are becoming successful sort of Some exist with Wide market share Fuel cell vehicles are being sold in this country


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