SPTP INTRNL POLAR YEAR
SPTP INTRNL POLAR YEAR GEOS 489
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Date Created: 10/21/15
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macrofaunal biomass SW of St Lawrence Island trend lines through station means BSEOS sites embedded FEE quot1quot a winter 39 E El spring E39v l all ir i iw E m 1 g 39a i mig39iei im mfg Ad H F i 3 j39isl iii Ill 7 13931quot l Ifquot7 r quot U a 39 39 r 8 Eiii L Brim 39g M mg I l 7 1m E is E lm at 7 7 m 5 1 I w i ii w m airm ii393quot i a 5 5 mu 1 Grebmeier et al 2006 Science 311 Simpkins et al 2003 Polar Biology 26 23 7 g 45 mm I J lt Side 24 8 GRP FAMILY m i i A Nuculanidae 53 was quotLquot at Nuculidae 26 1 1quot Nuculanidae 40 m 8 Nuculidae 12 i E c Nuculidae 20 9 39 3quotquot Nuculanidae 16 v D 39 D Nuculidae 26 i 139 r 1W F Nuculanidae 24 i Time g Group Station Year A SL P 12 19881998 E SL P 3 19881993 5 B SL P 12 19992002 SL P 3 19932002 C 8L P 123 20022006 Si P 5 2007 D SL P 4 19982007 SL P 5 19982006 modified from Humphrey MS thesis 2008 in review 24 mgh sumual may a anew PuHuck 1n M hun new Sennun mne N Benny Sea n2EIEI4 Envydeth mmeased nunnwam muvemem UVpuHucklcnuneSJad 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of the absence of food in those areas and their 39ia il39t I to d39vi to d ti 39e39 393 an 2 neters74 alrus upreme Qlourt of it QEImlPh tales b 3 L 53 W 1 1 00 1 W calves are dependent on maternal care tor two or more years before they are able to forage for themselves so the presence 39 of seasonal seaice appears to be critical to their survival7D COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS et a1 As the sea ice disappears adult walrus may be forced to abandon their calves to search for lbod Petztzoners V in the summer 01 2004 researchers in the Chukchi and 39 Beaufort Seas observed nine abandoned walrus calves76 UNITED STATES These observations coincided with a rapid melting of sea ice ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY in that area77 It is likely that other walrus calves have been Respondent abandoned and presumably many have drowned If as a result of environmental changes in the Arctic ON WRIT OF CERTIORARI sea ice continues to decline in thickness and extent or if as To THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS the researchers observed seasonal sea ice retreat occurs FOR THE DISTRICT or COLUMBIA CIRCUIT rapidly with the onset of summer it is possible that female walruses will have dif culty nourishing themselves and caring for their young79 Separations of walrus may become BRIEF 0F AMICI CURIAE ALASKA INTERTRIBAL more common and widespread Since walruses have a low COUNCILI COUNCIL OF ATHABASCAN TRIBAL reproduction rate and a high investment in maturing young GOVERNMENTS AND RESISTING ENVIRONMENTAL with single calves born only evety two to three years the DESTRUCTION 0N INDIGENOUS LANDS Pacific walrus populations may soon decline IN SUPPORT OF PETITIONERS 0 73 Lee W Cooper et al Rapid Secr39rn1cr Sewcc Retreat in the Arctic Frances M Raskin Could Be i l 39ecring Pacific ll uirus Recruitment 32 Aquatic Mammals 93 TRUSTEES FOR ALASKA April 2006 1026 W 4th Avenue 7quot I d Anchorage Alaska 99501 75 I 907 276 4244 quotA 7quot Id CounselforAmici Curiae 77 1d at EOOV THE LEX GROUer 1750 K sum NW Suite 475 0 Washington DC 20000 78 kl at 98 202 95541001 0 00 815 3791 Fax 202 955002 wwahelexgroupdncnm 7quot Id at lOl quotquot Id 35 RELATIONSHIP TO SEA ICE Moore and Huntington Ecological Applications 2008 II39E EJEHITI39E FIFEEIEE H117 1M5LEI HIE l mine 7 up an 13951 1 In lhlf d m I hl39 I fertile v39 fL i 39t Liking51 km pits a 17215 i 39rIlii1r 1llquota gl r i l EPA 39 39 i 1134 ka 3 n V a y we uni Murmur Jil mt huh I tl mushtiri f i L39 nn39tllfa 39 c il ITI mammal ihi u lull MauiIIIHMJAquot IfHA 951 Eiil 39TIE fv i Fm Irish mpheh adult sh quotshalt idler whit 36 Threatened 51am W th reducter Sea eec current and pendmg7 Summary Pacmmn uenced cummema sheregmn m We nunhem Benng Sea 5 expenencmg eavhev apnnghanamun be ween ceccweyeg ang EEJVEE ungmuna ang maveasmg seawatenempevamves changes n theummg cw pmducwny ang gvazmg we ahehwm change cavbun expunmthe bemhus ang Unphm stvucmve cunen y cavbun gepuamun uccms we daysrweeks m Mawune n the nunhem Benng Sea asthe apnng mucnn 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much is there uxnm u Nun szIzeIImd Ima 1525 I I Wynquotmm quotmum 140 m n A 7 m mam quotmamas gamma A I l I V930 I5 Issu Imu IEI7D Isan IEBD Veal What is it good for The Chaman Ccle 1 2 3 4 5 Stratosgheric Chemistry Chagman cycle 02 hvgt O O O02Mgt03M O O M a 02 M very small contrbution 03hVHO3902 Alt320nm O 03 2 02 A lt 240 nm Nullcycle eg for 1 2x2 4 5 Explains maximum ozone at 25 km However ALTITUDE km Chapman model 39 ted total ozone too high I 4 10 15 n 03 10 2 molecule cm3 WameckAP1BBB Catalytical ozone destruction x o xo 02 03 r gt o 02 o x0 gt x o2 nut 26 m 7 7 gt 36 x Noon Cl Br XO 7 N02 1103 C10 BrO39 Source MPl for Chemlary Mam Germany Catal ical Ozone destruction Nobel PrlZefor Chernlstr 1995 H02 03 e OH 2 02 OH 03 e H02 02 lxlooaeNozo2 Oahv eooz oNozeNoo2 Sources of stratospheric HO and NOl HOX OH and H02 radicals o CH4 s OH CH3 OH2OZMA OHH02M o H20 a 2 OH NOX NO N 7 Natural nltrous oxlde NZO rnalor source 7 Dlrect lnputnom alrcraft small N20 hv a N2 o A lt 220 nm N20 04 2N0 or N202 11 llml ll 4 m l m my PRESSURE ALYmJDE mhzl m Wnl ll my Stratosgheric Chemistry Halogens halogenated hydrocarbons generally longlived in Troposphere 4 penetrate to Stratosphere natural halogencontaining HC 7 ctlacl cH3 r CHal HCCl3 etc 7 oceans are rnalor source anthropogenic com unds e 5 l a ons CH3CCl3 CHaBr etc 7 retngerants propellants tlameretardants solvents etc stratospheric impact through photolysis l3 vgC 2C Alt250nm Sources of Chlorine l 5w 2 m 1250 W n awn M m an 1992 um mm mm m m mm m w mm mm M Ma ms ccn W us my w mm mm m Stratos heric Chemistr Halo en chemistr Halogencatalyzed ozone destruction 0 0 a 2 OZ mostly higher elevations Cl 03 a CIO 02 CIO HOZ a HOCI 02 HOCI hv a HO Cl 0Ho Hozo2 Net 203 a 30Z nithOXreglons Stratosgheric Chemistry Halogen chemistry ChlorineBromine connections CIO BrO 4 Br CIOO or OCIO Br 03 a BrO 02 CIOO A4gt CI 02 OCIO hv 4 CIO O Halogen temporary reservoir species CI CH4 4 HCI CH CIOlBrO N02 M 4 CIONOZIBrONOZ M Br H02 4 HBr 02 lHBr OH 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Nutty m 2005 zone em th menlum m M Sn 0 m m m Fun w Aw my Why is there no hole in the NH 2 SUN zonal mean 191555 9192 Temperature K 80 S zonal mess 92 Temperature K Antarctic ozone hole extent EPITOMS Vevslon B Total 020m Vw Sep 20 2005 mum emammema wm Dabmumls DMmYltvDOandsoam mm column ozone ldobson units Antarctic ozone hole extent 0mm Hm Mlnlmum 4439s no oxamnl ma tmtlllan km Antarctic ozone hole extent I ODCs aka the bad guys 01mm mu m Mrs 7 Mrs CFC11 Will the ozone hole close mmwm mm My new Anurnlc 01ml vale nn Gas Index mum A mm mm mm mm 7 m mum um um W m an 2m mm mm m mu Ninmgzll Wm M Wm 51 m1 1 a mu wan xuuu nu mu 2m 2w 2 Suuvce JGR39 2mm Weathering Rock acid soilsediment salt ocean Mechanical Chemical Climate important Climate important Vegetation significant vegetation important Bedrock important Fragmentation by water Carbonation Wind and Water erosron Organic acids Abras39on Macromolecular acids Transport eg fulvic acid Anthropogenic Chelating agents Gravity eg landslide lncongruent vs congruent Ferromagnesian Series Felsic Series Cu Fcldspar CaAlz i203 plngi class Olivine Fe Mg2 Show isolaled units Pymmne Cm Mg Fe suoI2 chain NuFaldspar NaAlSKJOR alhilc Krf cldspar KAlSi 3o V ortlmclase I 5 ml Ll B u c K Fe Mg Show sheels Musccvile mica 1g Al Show Quanz siaoR 2 hr 1 quotomnguvsiun scritquot and he Among lhc frrmmagm Figure 41 Silicnlr mincrals arr dividt39d inlu W0 39lkh l39vlsh series lum39don Ihl39pzcsencv nfMgux39Al in xhc HI I xiun scrics minerals lhnl quotx15 Is isolalwl 39n slal uuiu 955 nlivinu are most sxlsrrpiihlc m n39sml units and u luwcr raliu nl39umgt u m siliclm weathering whilc 1050 showing linkage oh I I urL morv I39vsis ant Among lm lk39lsic scrim le eldspm39 plagim39lusc 39H nmro suscvplihlc lo x valhcriug than Nu1bltlspar ulhile 21ml K l cklspzu39 m39lhnclusLL Quarll Ls Ihc nmxl l quot oh This wvulhcring s rics S the rcwrsc uflhc mkr in whiz39h lllk SC Inim39ruls arc pru39ipilmcd E Inning the Fouling or magma Casio 2CD2 H 207 Ca2 211cc Organisms use ions carbonate shells CaCO3 C3 ZHCOS CECOJ C02 H20 Increa d pres C an mperal e N I Jl 5 l quotw J win un A I 1quot 1 k v H I Mal In quot J quoty quot LAW r39 C l G u quot77 H Subduction T Caco3 5102 gt CaSiO3 COZ Fi ure 14 The interaction betwsen the carbonate and the silicate cycles at the surface of the EMU Lungierm control of atmospheric CO is achieved by dissolution ofCOZ in surface waters and its pa lpalion in the weathering ofrocks This carbon is carried to the sea as bicarbonate HCOE and his eventually L J L J 1 g k 4 l hiu39h temperature irpl amquot 39 r and pressures deep in the Bank Modi ed Crom Knuing El 31 1988 Mollisol Alfis 01 i 100 clay 2 microns W x 20 Loam V o NSandy loam SIII loam A 0 1o Laamy I Smack WWsn 100 a a gamwg Percent sand 539 Mollisols map DDMINANT Suratan Q Aquuhs 4 umms Humuns H mm Uduks Ultisols map Cryulls l Usmlls THE GLOBAL AMMONIA CYCLE A term paper presented to Dr Gunnar W Schade in fulfillment of the requirements for the end of semester examinations in Trace Gas Biogeochemistry By CONTENTS w i J 4 1 Sources and sinks of 4 Emission from soil and 4 Emission from 39 1 5 Oceanic emission 5 Global variations in emission and deposition 8 Diurnal variati n 8 Seasonal varquot 9 Altitude varquot 0 Spatial varquot 9 Atmospheric importance 10 Possible negative impacts from 11 Emission control 12 Re ections and quot 12 cc INTRODUCTION Ammonia NH3 is a colorless gas with a very sharp odor which dissolves easily in water and evaporates quickly It is the most abundant nitrogen gas in the atmosphere after N2 and N20 Having relatively short residence time of about lOAdays its mixing ratio is highly variable in space and time with a surface continental value of about 01 10ppbv 1 It is produced by Wilmrigwcmc and natural mocessese Most of it produced in the chemical factories is used to make fertilizers and the rest in textile plastics explosives pulp and paper production food and beverages household cleaning products refrigerants and others It is produced naturally in soil by bacteria decaying plants and animals as well as animals and human wastes Ammonia does not build up in the food chain W1 lA39l39 DO Yl39 MEAN SOILS but serves as nutrient for plants and bacteria Most agricultural crops are nitrogen limited and hence higher yields are achieved by the application of nitrogen fertilizers Following the application of urea to soil it is hydrolyzed to ammonium NHJ which is then oxidized to nitrite N05 and finally to nitrate N05 by chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria This process provides several biochemical pathways leading to the release of nitrogen N2 Willmms oxnlc N20 and nitric oxide NO into the atmosphere Investigations have revealed that nitrogen fertilizers are the main source of N20 and NO emission from agricultural soils is expected to increase from the 6 7 per annum in 1990s to higher values looking at the increase in food production to meet the growing demand of world population PLEASE REWORD THIS SENTENCE Fig2 The N20 and nitroggus oxides NOX NO N02 produced from soil impact the chemistry of the atmosphere considering the role that NO and N02 play in the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere hence the recent increase in the research into ammonia exchange with the atmosphere In this paper based on the findings and publications of researchers worldwide the global or regional sources and sinks of ammonia will be elaborated lt s atmospheric importance abundance lifetime and variability will also be discussed Finally a general re ections as well as suggestions for future considerations will be given SOURCES AND SINKS OF AMMONIA NH3 This section gives some of the sources and sinks of ammonia in the atmosphere Followed by description of some of the major emission sources Source of ammonia After its application to soil ammonia is hydrolyzed to NH4 which can remain on the exchange sites nitrify to N03 or decomposed to NH3 depending on soil and environmental conditions NH4 H NH3 H NH4 1Oz eZHJ H20 N07 391 HERE IS A CHARGE REA39llilJ IN 1 HIS Nli N027 02 N037 Major sources of ammonia include emission from soil biomass burning losses during the production and application of fertilizer and emission from the ocean Also from industrial activities such as wastewater treatment petroleum refining coal and oil combustion etc 1 Emission from soil and vegetation Ammonia in the form of urea is applied to soil to boost the soil nutrient however not all the ammonia applied to the vegetation is used up Some are lost through evaporation and part also through microbial activity called lgnitrification The amount of NH4 volatilized after application depends much on factors such as type of fertilizer used temperature rainfall soil type humidity and soil acidity In general it has been investigated and proven that high temperature high wind speeds and low relative humidity favor NH3 loss Unfertilized soils and vegetations have also been found to emit NH3 depending on the NH3 partial pressure in the plant stomata However the mechanism leading to NH3 emission from unfertilized land is very poorly understood eg Schlesinger and Hartley 1992 estimate of emission from undisturbed land of about 10TgNNH3 yr391 is believed to may have contain inputs from wild animals Emission from combustion processes The burning of charcoal biomass and fuel in automobiles emit NH3 Coal contains about 1 2 of nitrogen however the production of NH3 from coal burning in the industries is insignificant since at high temperatures in power plants much of the NH3 produced is oxidized to NO hence coal burnt domestically can be said to release significant amount of NH3 eg B ttger et 31 1978 calculated an emission of 003Tg yr391 from coal burning It should however be emphasized that not much research has been conducted in this area Contributions from boimass burning have been found to be the most significant with the following recent estimates of NH 3 emission 0205 Crutzen and Andreae 1990 52 Andreae 1991 and 37 TgNNH3 yr391 Laursen et al 1992 Oceanic emission Ammonia is released from the ocean through mineralization of organic material with a global estimate of about 82 515 T g N yr391 1 Most of it is used up and the rest remain in solution and volatilized The magnitude of the NH3 released from the ocean is however small as compared to the concentrations over the continent Table 1 Sinks of ammonia Ammonia is the only SK lNlFlCAN39l39 naturally occurring alkaline gas in the atmosphere and thus plays an important role in neutralizing the anthropogenic acidity of the atmosphere by undergoing chemical reaction with acids such as sulfuric acid H2804 and nitric acid HNO3 emanating fromSOz and NOX emission to form ammonium NH 4 containing particles NH3 H2S04 gtNH4HS0 NH3 NH HS04 gt NH4 2 so The H2804 NH4 H804 and NH 42S04 exist as aerosols The amount of NH3 and NH together in the atmosphere is referred to as reduced nitrogen NHX And the major pathway for its removal from the atmosphere is through precipitation wet deposition and also by dry deposition which involves the direct capture of gases and aerosols by the land surface Fig1 The hydroxyl radical OH has also been found to undergo homogeneous gas phase reaction with NH3 hence serving as a relatively small sink for ammonia Nevertheless this reaction is important because it leads to the production of N20 the main precursor of NOX in the stratosphere Dentener et 31 1994 NH3 0H gtNH2 H20 NH2 No2 gt N20 H20 NH2 H02 gt NH3 02 NH2 N0 gtN2H20 others NH2 03 gt NH20 02 others NH2 02 gt N0 H20 HNO 0H others Atmospheric lifetime gas to particle Precipitation 13 hours conversion Scavenging HNO3 r NH3 gt NH4 H2504 Aerosol Wet Deposition Dry deposition lifetime 1 3 days N H3 BIOSPHERE Fig1Schematic diagram of the processes that lead to the removal ammonia from the atmosphere Reproduced from httpwwwnbuacukcaraintrohtml1 FIGURE 2 14 12 Kglha NOXN arms 2 N apphcallan rate kgha Do YOU REFERENCE THIS FIGURE SOMEWHERE Glnbal variau nns in emissinn and depnsitinn result ufphys1 cal and chemmal processes Uncumngln the atmosphere These lnclude Dlumal Seasonal Alumde and spaual Vaxmtlunsjust to menu on a few Diurnal variau39orts E a phase NH mm a smaller volume Erisman et 1 1988 a W anomninr at al 1992 Nr temperature and dlmlnlshed mmublal actwlty Seasonal variations Spring and summer have been found to provide the highest concentrations of NH3 when high temperature combine with fertilizer use promote greater microbial activity as well as a faster volatilization from fertilizers soils and animals Levine et 31 1980 Valigura 1994 whiles the minimum concentrations occur in winter due to low rate of biological activity in soils and volatilization Valigura 1994 Variations with Altitude The amount of NH3 emitted and penetrating up a few hundred meters in the atmosphere depends on turbulence and the degree to which the air mass is polluted and acidified Apsimon 1987 In the lower atmosphere there can be a strong decrease in NH3 concentrations with increasing height Extremely high NH3 concentrations near NH3 emitting surfaces may react with virtually all existing HN03 before it can be deposited at the earth s surface Observations have shown that concentrations of NH4 decrease slightly with altitude especially during the day A pronounced Vertical gradient of NH4 was not observed because compared to atmospheric mixing NH3 reacts slowly to form NH4 Furthermore dry deposition velocities are low Erisman et al 1988 Spatial Variations There is little evidence that wet deposition is in uenced by the land surface onto which it falls Gardner et al 1997 Over land measurements of NHX deposition may not be representative of over water deposition due to different meteorological processes Valigura 1996 Furthermore the Henry s Law constant for ammonia may be such that it can be volatilized from the water at significant rates as opposed to ammonium This could be important when ammonia sources are close to water e g manure piles It will determine if andor when ammonia is dry depositing to water surfaces Further studies are necessary for a better understanding of this air water exchange of NH3 Julisuu pramquot 39 lm7Yl39 DID NOT OMMI NIFA39W WI39I39H VALIGLTRA IN 1997 DID YOU Atmospheric importance of ammonia One of the major importances of ammonia is the neutralization of the atmospheric acidity that results from anthropogenic emission of SO and NOX Furthermore NH3 is assimilated as organic nitrogen by bacteria or by host plants which may be consumed by animals These animals excrete the nitrogen or die and the organic nitrogen is eaten by bacteria and then mineralized to ammonium NH4 which may be assimilated by other organisms Bacteria may also use NH4 as a source of energy by oxidizing it to N 0239 and further to NO339 through the process called nitrification The nitrate formed is highly mobile in soil and so easily assimilated by plants and bacteria leading to the formation of organic nitrogen Under anaerobic conditions bacteria may use N0339 as an alternate oxidant to convert organic carbon to C02 through a process called denitrification and in this way NO339 could be converted to N2 and thus returns nitrogen from biosphere to the atmosphere Fig3 ATMOSPHERE combustion lightning N2 gt No Oxidation enitrification HN03 Fixation IIOSPHERE Org N Decay NH3 NH gt 0 Nitrification deposition Assimilation Burial Weathering SEDIMENTS Fig3 The nitrogen cycle major processes Reproduced from 2 Possible negative impacts from ammonia Exposure to high concentrations of ammonia in the air can cause severe burns in your skin eyes throat and lungs And in extreme cases blindness lung damage or even death could occur But breathing lower concentrations will cause coughing and nose and throat irritation However its effect with respect to health related problems such as cancer and reproduction is not well known As nitrogen containing pollutant NHX deposition leads to autrophication The extra nitrogen results in plant species change in sensitive habitats such as moorlands and under tree canopies WHAT ABUFI I Illlquotl 39I I 3939 Ammonia containing aerosols have been found to lead to a reduction in visibility through their light scattering properties Emission control The control of ammonia emission involves the collaborative efforts of those in fertilizer management livestock management fossil fuel combustion and many others This has become necessary due to the effect that the N 20 and NO emitted could have on global warming through the depletion of the ozone layer However the increasing world population with its corresponding increasing food production means ammonia application to cultivated soils is expected to increase In view of this there has been an increase lately in research into the possible use of nitrification inhibitors in ammonia in order to reduce the N20 that is emitted Akiyama et 31 1999 But knowledge in this area of research is scanty therefore much needs to be done in order to have a clear understanding of the reaction mechanism surrounding the use of the inhibitors Re ections and suggestions Atmospheric concentrations of ammonia are difficult to measure because of the partitioning between the gaseous NH3 particulate NH4HSO4 NH4ZSO4 and NH4N03 and solution eg NH4 in clouds fog and precipitation phases are highly variable and complete picture generally requires simultaneous but separate measurements of the phases Furthermore ammonia has a tendency to form strong bonds with water and thus absorb on the surfaces of most materials exposed to air leading to high background concentrations and memory effects due to retention on sampling tubing and other plumbing It has also been found that in areas where NH3 and or seasalt concentrations are high chemical equilibrium between HNO3 NH3 NH4NO3 can in uence the measurements Hence before a general global ammonia budget can be estimated to give the current trend as well as to project into the future many more investigations must be conducted It is suggested that more researches should be conducted in the world countries where biomass burning is rampant Global budget of ammonia AMMONIA TgN yr391 SOURCE 1 Domestic animals 213 2040 Human excrement 26 264 Soil emission 6 645 Biomass burning 57 19 Wild animals 01 016 Industry 02 Fertilizer losses 9 510 Fossil fuel combustion 01 0122 Ocean 82 515 SINKS2 Wet precipitation land 11 1180 Wet precipitation ocean 10 624 Dry precipitation land 11 10150 Dry precipitation ocean 5 Reaction With 0H 3 19 Table1 Reproduced from 1 H N The best estimates are from Bouwman et al 1997 and the ranges adapted from Warneck 1998 Quinn et al 1990 Schlesinger and Hartley 1992 and Dentener and Crutzen 1994 The best estimates are from MOGUNTIA simulations Dentener and Crutzen 1994 and the ranges adapted from Warneck 1998 and Duce et al 1991 II SHOULD TRY TO BALANCE TlllS BUDGET References Y I N U Fork Guy P Brassear John J Orlando and Geo rey S Tyndall 1999 Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change Pages 191 195 Daniel J Jacob 1999 Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry pages 91 93 Dentener F and Crutzen PJ Journal ofAtmospheric science I 9369 994 A Three Dimensional Model of the Global Ammonia Cycle http39www nbn ac nkcaraintro html htt 39www aoor DOCREP004Y2780E 2780e02html Geosciences 489689 Th e International Polar Year 20072008 C onclluling Lecture 1L Ice Ice and More Ice Earth s Polar Regions Summm Pulzx ludun Ounll 12 unm n um quot11me Pulzl min OuImi 12 unm In rm Pular regiuns 15 quotI Infill Earth Maps of the Polar Reglo Maps of the Polar Regions The Arctic Region Guest Lectures Arctic Region An Ocean Surrounded by Continentsquot mm mm Idlmnk Nemoxrchnmlm emsmum HgdomrnI Gintuna 39 The Arctic Region Arctic Ocean and surrounding lands TheArctic Ocean 15 times the size orthe us 45339 km of coastline and an area of 141 million sq m Polar climate persistent cold narrow temperature ranges winters of continuous darkness and summers of continuous daylight Economic activity exploitation of natural resources including petroleum natural gas fish and a s Transportation sparse network of air ocean river and land routes the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route seasonal watenways u Vt ttzn39lm Pun39 ammo Sunam 39n39lnzlt l l39tmlltnlnlt Arctic Indigenou eo 1e and Cultures m Settlements and Population Del 39 3 People Across Borders r E Indigenous Peo es in the Arctic 39 Arctic Peoples by Language Families i Alaska Native Health Status Allskzl upnlnn39unl m39mzlcs mquot puma Suva1t By A x n 5quot 2n Alaska Subsistence Food Harvest Health Disparities r Lil39rrxprclancy ant u di anquot I Inram quotimam WINNIE Uninlmlinnal mm 3 mnnalilv Ethavlnralhtallh id sH mnicida Oral hall The Arctic Nati ns Aninungwmmmna fnnnn rnr addr lg at an o mum on c minus and challengas y In A us aunul I a uniqm mm m m nnprmlinn tn national gnvu nmu m indigmnus rs alinnal algaimam 39rprrsmling u ununims haw In mm at Pumaum Pm ants Guest Lectures Antarctic Region Antarctica Dntinent Surrounded by39 Oceans Antarctica muAmar tic Circle 39 an area I f 141 millm q I arg x um 17no31un uftuaslline limate vu eluwtempem u arvwi 1 ml levaliun and distance rum m Incean urmnpu alur u uri anuaxy alunglhe and avua e 11th belnw fruzil 39 ain quot1 ice Ilvu ban en ruck an inn cc helve ut the cnaslline Hating ice shelve quotminute 11quot Ilfthe area quotthe cumin 1 Natulalr Iul metals mimra hvdrucarbuns have been inundin II fil lt1 and ab culpmercial I Pupulaliun nu indigenuus Inhabitants Cumian unsl uthn mesa quot l C ali higl cua Temporary Populat n Antarctica A C 39 C 39 39 A ontlnent meredhy Ice Amarcnmwmmmlce Wes Anlarcrllca Human uwm mam snmzm mmhunhsl Amanda In sum m an nu hduw 12th Ice Streams 9m mmmm Seunm Sen Ice lnluml 1nn 39s muslmckand saw Pumas 1 39s muslmck and 1m Subglacial H lrology and V The Antarctic Treat Aquatic Emlronments ngned inwmungmnmx in use Territorial Claims The Antarctic Treaty Parti Antarctic Treaty System Antarctic Treaty Natio s A Warming Arctic CIS39or A WARMING Amine Amiga w quot Regional Warming Arctic Sea Ice La Loss of Arctic Sea Ice New Slplmhlr 5 Ice Exunl observation Ind Modi Run m mummul mumunsung Antarctic Temperature Trends Ecology and Culture Disintegration of Ice Shelves January 31 to Eariy March 7 2002 12 p v 3 International Polar Year a WWW u a 19 mum S 2 Please Complete Evaluations You opinion is important for improving the class QUESTIONSCOMMENTS 7 KIWWWTIE WWSPHEWE 17 er uf uya vy Tm A5 Iniymrry WE WWHE That part of the earth that is strongly in uenced by periods of extreme cold or Prolonged Show and ice cover WE WWRE The portions of the Earth39s surface where water is in a sow form usually as snow or ice The wort cryosphere comes from the greek work knjos39Y meaning frost or icy colt Modi ed From MM My W W Show Glaciers Ice Sheers Sea Ice Freshwater Ice Pennftosr IPCC Mutant Annmhe 39 come from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 43911 assessment in panicular the portions ofWorking Group 1 relevant to the cryosphere The whole document is availab e at httpwwwzpccrh pcmepurtsardrwghim WW 2007 Seasonal Show Snow in Lhe Atmosphere I Snow on the Ground Snow as a major Water resource I Seasonal 5Mquot W1 emu the amount ml mmfpv5ltwm m 1 am 5quot I39ll 1 aquot J 1 39 MM 11 F will ii il mni l39lii l k ll quotI thl u I I I II II I m quot EMMA III Ii Ill 39quot A 31 h 1 l NuthernrHemisphere mumth snnwrcuvared am Th1 graph covers the years 19V L2005gbased on NOAA snow Charis orangelam l W Image by m h r Brodzxk Nauonal Snow and IceDaLa Center Unwersxty ofColorado Boulder 52mm hm mm Mysoremammaryquot Snnw Depth Wmomh 24mm 154mm 2 quot Snnw Water Equivalent 7 o a E o c w 6 n o 5 v 5 45 bmtz hm www rd m usda govzmw mgtzswzmzmtanplotsdaprsmzsbogusba gtf mimwnmm 5M 1m 2m Mug Aun NH lav 59mg 53 v w 2 mm mm vszn 195 m me man ma mamswmww w Immunruu Flaw z VMMNWNALW Wm M m summmmmmmwmm m m L mmmwmm bymmmmm vawnummwmm WMWMW mummmmw WWW Sea Iceamp Snow Pack 5 u rface T Albedo Ia hunky mud duW ulnaunmixmmrwinw m mmw 112w Wm 5m mmmmw am an mmwy Snnwpack mm m Snow tk m TnIxS39r cu swm pm 5M ha Mm Dummy mm39w hm WarEv 4r Safer 35in What is a glacier A glacier is a large mass ofice resting on land that shows evidence of present or past internal deformation and motion Today they cover about 10 ofthe Earth s Land Surface but in the past they covered as much as 30 ofthe Land Surface Glacier Mass Balance Accumulalion zone 5 I Foslllve balance Equilibrium line Negallve balance A Ablation zone R 7m a a Direction A glacier is a dynamic body ltsquot healtl1 is determined by its mass budget 7 itgains mass snow during the winter 7 it loses mass during the summer melting 7 Iflh e amount gained and lost during a year are equal the glacier is in equilibrium 7 Ifmore ice is lost than is gained the glacier retreats 7 Ifmore ice is gained then is lost the glacier advances e um am am MW Gum me amzm Glider MoVement Crevasses Di lance of r baswshv Dlstance or N mama aw Selma Gmiophavson Gnogmms anlmodmommthme mm Q Andmw mm Vanea Glacier Omwash plaln sow Gmdophavsow Gnoymms anlvmoductwntoPhysnalGnoyrip y mm 1 QAndvaw am Exa ggia 4553 iii 5 is ES 2 9a xineuiis im a Ea uiom 536 quot355 Continental Glaziers Extensive glaciers mat cover large portions of the World Ice Sheets big Greenland and Antarctica Ice Caps not so big lt 50000 km Ic e an Ice Fields smaller does not form domes Patagonia V n w Mm 1 It Field m mmu sawmean 2m 1371murknwymk mm Imml mmlv m mo 111mm vlmm rum Ibmdm mmumx eht and volume of ice areanms kmz sea eve equlva an m 361 GT 1 mm 0 6le G s 5m mmmmmn 27m11371mnrknwymk um 11 m 5m AA2r ma mmkam Ehwvahmm Lammka a zmz Lamhack mm Lammka 3mm Vem b21015 present 6000 mass 25510 1171mm E2 M5 mm I mm Recent global Sea ex21 5mm sumcw L8 1 u a mmlyv ussu m mm chum at u znual 2mm um gug 1920 mo men wso 2mm 2 Projected sea IeVeI rise Three methods used to assess health of an ice sheet by satellite L v 5 5 V All 1quot Direct measurement of change in elevation with time using altimeters Measurement of mass change With time using GRACE l 7 I6 9 H E E a 5 o o n E m using SAdeerived velocities amp ice thickness from altimetry Source 1 when sowuse 0pm 3mm Covfeveme mm Talk a amtng July 2003 391 Greenlah39ci ice sheet g nnmvv39wmn E m a i Wm in In III mu nu Greenland mass loss is increasin Loss due to melting and increased glacier discharge Greenland is gaining mass in the interior but losing more at the margins Source m r reehland balance estimates Accelerating mass loss from 10 Greenland Q a 0 E E 7100 E E 5 E 39200 3no rrrrrrrrrrrrrrr 1992 1996 2000 2004 Observalion period Modifiedmm 1 Allison SWAPAx 0pm 5mm Conmm Plenary mm Fetastxugc My 2003 Ongmnl Source Thomas M M ice sheet Rm uf elewuanchange denvedfmm ms durum measlxzments healem 19927 mu Dams a a mus my mum own an 5m 1 mmnmn imnm uuwukoul m to m mummmm Basal melt of Me rtz tongue Depth m 50 100 Distance from grounding line km Madmed an I Allison s 0 ngmalSamce Warner et at unpub Unedegreeacean Warming aver zuyem Collapse of the Larsen 5 Ice Shelf httpnsidc0rgiceshelvesla rsenb2002animati0nhtml Ice Velocity firemhej 21m October 2003 qacier December 2002 s ll has BREAKUP FEB 2002 ice shelf October 2000 Janualy 1996 Modi ed am I Allison s SCARIASC Open Sexenee Conference Plenary Talk HUN Sea ice Sea Ice Cross Section mm pm Damn mm pnnd suunen nbvnucu Z coovulnam anKh anbom o snow Hummus Mm pom snow Waker Ice floe my m anwlapadmovyWIalmaga InaIoalpammsihgpng Sea Ice Types Mm 0 ng me ofna more than one year s n BLhatha39s summed atleast one melt growth devel rng mm a season1txs39typxcally 2M meters 6 5 u unekness from 0 3w 2 meters 1 to 5 e 131feetthxck and unekens as more ree feet hmctensucally revelwnere gows onus undersrde unduturbed bygr sgure buLwhEre ridges occu ey are rough and sharply my NSIDCovg glossary Photos comics of m Maksym Ummd may NavalAcadamy Open Water in Sea Ice Ld mym Leads mum hawk m m m Am m yemsum oyenwzknmds mrmwmmnm Mus m Thymndmbemgldyovdox mummyquot mmmmh cmummmmmmm mm megubdy 31mm 11 mm mm mmqm ohms m mm m rmrumu mmm J m muddy mm m m cm W M mm mm m ammmma Mumfmgxm n winy xuMm mdhmcnx gt H humminn m c mm Hymnal Types of Leacls mm m M NW MN mm mm 11w 4mm amnmlummbllm mewmm m mm M 0m 9mm 34mm 0pm mm Mimwklknmn pmmm m m mum Arr 5 Versus Antarctic mammmum 5M matw 5m m own SW 955am Madam mks myquot my my mgrMAW mm mm Muamu hpnk4m m w mm wirwtwwwzw mw m A Sam mmwyMMMM 2 WWW n m mm w m m m W m WWW a la lwu ymmmlm m i 4 E 3 its area anoma es was PWSEM 5 mmmmmmmmmmmm W I gt gt I WMMWMW 1M3me F mun Slplombor sun In sum Obsurvnllun and Model nun 3 Sea WWM Ice obsm ons and models Selma 00mm mw Dnyo mmm m Walm Slush Luv7 Franurrs Different IceTypesm MSTF Pane 7 x H Snnw mm 94 Sauna m www g alasa1 adualuonAUSUILS clincum m1 5m mWWammmmmmmwmw W1 mum W 1mMmmuwzazmmumyu RJVCr Ice Freezeup Jam Breakup Jam my hwvlca Gm 11711610me n2 Mackenzie 2 31mm Selma an sta7cwlualbavta cawatavFi cksMaclmnm him 87 Ba aw 53 as 57 55 m I3 us I7 Data suuvce sow h pMww 2W Vincoopmdnspoca m 5M 1m 2m mum 1 w M m 1m 2m 5m m m W In mm was mmuu a la mm IdaEvlmnwnmmagu mm u in 7M 7n 412 u u an autumn mm m warm gam me warm tspmally m Aime mm m mm mm m an mm ow m me win due by manual vauabmly mu msz 5M mum c wm u mam mm Gwrulw Slkm atalssoiiu m hWmmmmmwnmMW Wm WW HmmumxmycmsmnsxxuLundmmm 9 u mkmmm y m M my mum mm m my m M 4mm Kw m mum M m n m 1141 a u Aw I npxdanLh u wwwmym mm was Review Global Sulfur Cycle Largest Reservoirs Rocks CaSO4 FeS2 Ocean Waters as 8042 largest biogenic reservoir is the terrestrial biosphere Fluxes through Denundation weathering gt river input to oceans Gaseous emissions 802 DMS COS H28 largest biogenic emission is oceanic DMS largest geologic emissions are volcanic H28 and 802 largest anthropogenic emission is 802 Loss through sedimentation gt geologic cycle Most abundant atmospheric trace gas is COS lifetime important source of S to stratosphere Junge Layer Strong connection between gaseous SEmissions and Climate through SO4CCN Oceanic DMS emissions feedback mechanism CLAW Fixed N NE develogment 200 150 p Populauon b hons S c Nr arcane Tg N yr l lf39f W 1 0 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Population Habchusch C BNF Fossill nel Tmal er Figurel The purple line global population from 1860 to 2000 left axis population in billions right axis Nr creation in Tg N yrquot showing green line NI creation via the Haber Bosch process including production of N113 for nonlertilizcr purposes blue line Nl39 creation from cultivation of legumes rice and sugar cane brown line N1 creation from fossilfuel combustion and red line the sum created by those three processes source Galloway et al 2003th Fixed N Nr creation distribution Table 7 Nr creation rates or various regions of the world in mid719908 TgN yrquot World regions F erriizEr production Cultivmion Combustion Net imporlexporr Total Africa 25 18 08 02 53 Asia 401 137 64 87 689 Europe FSU 216 39 66 56 265 Latin America 32 50 14 02 94 North America 183 60 74 33 284 Oceania 04 11 04 03 22 World 86 30 23 01 l40 Source Galloway and Cowling 2002 b Figure 3 Global nitrogen budgets for a 1890 and b 1990 Tg N yril Emissions to the left N Oy box from rst from left Vegetation include agricultural and natural soil emissions and combustion of biofuel biomass savannah and forestS and agricultural waste and emissions from second from left coal re ect fossil fuel combustion Emissions to the right NHX box from third from right agricultural elds include emissions from agricultural land a nd combustion of biofuel biomass savannah and forests and agricultural waste and emissions from second from r1ght the cow and feedlot re ect emissions from animal waste For more details see text for global N cycle past and present source Galloway and Cowling 2002 The Global Nitrogen Cycle Fixation in Z lightning a F lt 3 Atmosphere J r V Efhrx I rmwmwwn 1124 9 Biolcgical Denilri calion l 10 Denitrificaiion l 5200 A Human 3 activities Biological fixation 15 l Soil organic N lntemal cychng Internal 8000 I Groundwatsr Q Cyc hng Oceans Permanent l0 Figure 122 The global nitrogen Cycle Each flux is shan in units of 10 g NYT values are derived in th Lexi Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenmuse Cares 320 39 1 l Bottle 62 0 015 j F100k1ger e 0 310 315i A Moch1do sf 0 I i Stee1e 191 0 9 23 3m V Lomgenfe1ds 6 0 300 0 3 011 305 i A 7 A o l 8 290 300 e A 3 7 AA39 7 005 O 1 1 1 1 ASA Z 280 i 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 u A A A YEAR 0 A AA O O O 7 o o 0 o 0 270 39 o 00 39 39 o o C 200 i 250 1 1 1 1 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Year Figure 42 Change in N20 abundance for the 12151 1000 years as deleunined from ice corcs rm and Whole air hamples Data sets are from Machida er a 1995 Bat e et al 1996 LangenfeIds em 1996 Stee1e et 01 1996 Fliickiger er a 1999 Radiative forcing approximated by a linear scale is plotted on the right axis Deseasonalised global averages are plotted in the inset Butler e1 01 1998b Rodmtive Forcimg Wm z OCEAN DEPTH m lxxlxl x I 001 102 1L0 180 220 CON CEN T RATION mnol dm393 FIGURE 95 Vertical commutation pro lcs of N30 and OZ in the Atlantic Ocean Gulf Stream area and Sargassn Sea in 197171972 according to Ynshinari 1976 nu lllllllll 4 11 11 11H EQUATORIAL MlDLATlTUDES 20 N2O ALTITUDE km IlllVIHl 1 l gtImm 10 50 100 300 10 50 100 300 MIXING RATIO nmol moi1 FIGURE 38 Vertical pro les of the N20 mixing rano at low and high laumdes From measurements of Tyson at 1111 19783 Vedder at al 1978 1981 Fabian et a1 1979 1981 Goldan et all 1980 1981 The solid lines are results of calculauons by G1de1 er a1 1983 based On a twodimensional model The global cycle of atmospheric Nitrous Oxide N 20 Stratosphere ltlt3OO ppb strong gradient Troposphere 315 ppb increase 08 ppb a391 16 Pg N20 as N2 38 Tg a39l Fluxes are in Tg N a391 N20 FLUXES FOR JUNE Figure 527 Global distribution of N20 emissions for June based on data from Nevison 1994 Humans have doubled the fixed N inputs to earth A I Total anthropogenic T m 150 N fixation I at 5 Range of estimates of t5 natural N fixation g 100 E N fertilizer 9 775 03 g 50 Fossul fuel 39 39 Legume crops 1 l l 1 1960 1970 1980 1990 FIG 1 Anthropogenic xation of N in terrestrial ecosys tems over time in comparison with the range of estimates of natural biological N xation on land Modi ed from Galloway et a1 1995 Fig 5 Review of terrestrial bioqeochemical cycling ll NPP distribution within ecosystem ANPP z BNPP ANPP leaves branches trunk BNPP roots root exudates Loss to herbivores and volatiles NPP distribution on Earth NPP fPAR T H2O LAl morphology nutrients CO2 Limited by photosynthesis and its dependencies climate nutrients Latitudinal gradient high in tropics NPP fate Biomass accumulation eg high in boreal forest Input to soils SOM Large appropriation by humans reading assignment Sail Rcspiration Abuvcgmund Lillerfnjl Turnover in 0 o yams Tumuvcr in 100 s or rs Turnover in quot100 s or yczrs Permancm Accumummns in lhc Lawtr Pro le Figure 517 Turnovcr ol liuc r and il organic fractions in a grassland soil Num Lhal maul 39x idex limit can be alrulated for AL39h fraction From measurrmenls of the quantity in ho mil and Lhc annual prozlm ion or rcspiraliou l39rom hill fraction Flux mlinmtes an in C m 9 yr From Schlesingrr 1977 Table 53 Disu39ibution of Soil Organic Maucr by Ecosystem Typesquot Mum soil 39I39ulal world Anmunl in organic soil organif mauer World urea carbon surface lilur Ecosystem type kg 1 m39 ha X 10 mt C X IIJ ml 391 X IOquot Tropical Inest 104 245 255 56 39I omperalv forest 1 I S 12 142 145 Bnrml forest 149 12 179 240 Waodland and shrublaud 69 85 59 24 Tropical savanna 37 15 56 15 Tcmpm39alv grnwlmvl 192 9 173 18 Tundra and alpine 216 8 173 1L0 ert scrub 56 18 10 02 2 me lescn rotk and icc 01 24 8 002 Tuhivaled 27 14 178 07 Swamp and marsh 386 2 137 25 Totals 147 1456 552 From Schlesingcr 1977 walk Potentials for Carbon se uestration or conservation in forests as an aid to reduce atmospheric C02 concentration Sequesterul or 39nnsen ml Gtyr c H u 3 i 7A 39c 0 o m C Sequesterud or Conserved Gtyr 3 3 i4 M Di 3 u C m 906 I E SW C IU 1 m lt a D x A 5 m m 5 7f 5 1 m i 4 5 C L L V 39JI J tons C ha O t t t t t t t t t t t 20 JD 40 50 50 7D 30 9G 00 l vOtZUVdD V4015CHED17D 801905100210220210240250 years l C quot983 E C m products mmate al substm energy SUbSl J Fig 720 COg czu39bon xation and XLsaving potentials of a Norway spruce stand Picea dries rotation age 80 years due to forest growth wood use and wood use as substitute for fossil fuel intensive mulerials and energy Burschcl cl al 1993b Table 615 Biomass and Eleman Art39umulalion in Biomass 0139 M Alure Forests Total himnns s Punimll ut39 lotal biomass Mass r211 10 Forest biomc Number of stands Lha Leaf Branch Bole R0015 CN CP NP NothCrnsuhalpine Conifer 12 233 45 102 528 1713 1246 871 Tempcraw broadleaf deciduous 13 286 11 152 631 165 138 840 Giam cmpcrale c0111 er 5 624 25 1012 664 158 1345 853 Temperate bmadleaf Evergreen 15 315 27 1L7 662 159 1583 873 Tropicalsubtropical dooed forest 13 494 19 2118 98 161 1394 865 Tropicalsubtropical woodland and savanna 15 107 36 191 604 147 1290 880 From ilousck et al 1988 OXIDATION STATES OF NITROGEN N has 5 electrons in valence shell 9 oxidation states from 3 to 5 Increasing oxidation number oxidation reactions I 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 NH3 N2 N20 NO HONO NO2 HNO3 Ammonia Nitrous Nitric Nitrous Nitroge Nitric NH4 oxida oxide acid 11 acid Ammonium NOi diOXidB N03 R1NR2R3 Nitrite Nitrate Organic N 4 I Decreasing oxidation number reduction reactions New C N dccompo b lu decumpn hlc rob I bmmms N Immubilizu 39 gt I m n usmn N 39 quotquotquotL39ui I Nu Figure 69 A conceptual modcl hr soil nitrogen yr From Dmry El 3 1991 Table 67 Ratios of Nutrient Elements 0 Carbon in tht Littcr o f Scots Pine Firms sylzwln39x at Sequential Stages of DecomposiLionquot CN CP CK CS CCa CMg CMn Needle litter Initial 134 2630 705 1210 79 1350 330 After incubation of 1 yr 85 1330 735 864 101 1870 576 2 yr 66 912 867 ND 107 2360 800 3 yr 53 948 1970 N1 132 1710 1110 4 yr 46 869 1360 496 104 704 988 5 yr 41 656 591 497 231 1600 1120 Fungal biomass Scots pine forest 12 64 41 ND ND N1 N1 quot Some Values for fungal tissues are also given Note that CN and IP ratios decline which indicates retention of these nutrients as C is lost whereas CCa a d CK ratios increase which indicate that these nutrients are lost more rapidly than carbon From Staaf a Berg 1982 r for xganic Mutter autl Nuti39u39nts in the Surlare Table 68 Mean Residence Time y Li er 0139 FOIKhl and Vnotllanrl Ecbsvslr39ms Mvan rcSidt l lCC tunr yr Region Organit maum i39 P K In Mg Boreal forest 333 230 1124 94 14 43W Tempvrate for M Couxlm39ous I7 170 155 22 511 129 Deciduous 4 55 58 13 30 34 Meditlt39n39ane2n 38 12 36 14 50 98 39Fropiml rainlkn39est 04 20 16 07 5 L Va urs arc t ilCttlaLt 1 by dividing hc Forest Hour mass by fht moan ammle litm all Burcal and temperate values are from Inle and Rapp 1981 tropical values are from Edwards und Grubl 1982 and Erhmx ds 177 1082 and Merlimrzmean alnes are from Gray and Schlcsinger 11181 Oceans in Bioqeochemical Cycling Winddriven gyres and mixing in surface short turnover times in surface ocean Thermohaine circulation at depth Increasing residence times with depth OceanAtmosphere coupling most obvious in ENSO global changes due to shifted oceanic and atmospheric cycling changed pacific biogeochemical cycling C N Salinity nearly constant 35 o z 35 g NaCl kg water long 17 Na Cl39 short I Ca2 804239 Highest primary productivity in upwelling surface waters gt95 from phytoplankton making use of abundant nutrients gt90 turnoverloss in thermocline lt1 export to depth nutrient useuptake in thermocline recyclingmineralization at depth C N and P cycling driven by changing p002 and p02 with depth Indicators of the human influence on the atmosphere during the Industrial era Radiative uman Wm 2 N20 wb Radiative iurting vnrzp s10 Niimus Oxide concentration Via bane some i Radiative fuming Wm2 IPCC i Sulfate aemsais deposiin in Greenland ice 02 emissions imm Uniten States nd Europe ITIGURE 2 SYR WG1 F GURE SP l INTERGOVERNMEN AL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Global Distribution of Atmospheric Methane NOAA CMDL Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases 39 39 Data ow the NOAA r MhI 39 39 39 39 Principaiinyc iggitm mm Dlugokcncky NOAA CMDL Carbon Cycl Greenhuuse Gases Buulden Colman 303 49775222 wimpmckngnuugav hawwwmmdj nunaguvccgg a 1750 1 Grip 0 5 790 a Ewucore V g suu 335 quotA 5 mu mm W 7 as a g a g V 550 g m 5 a m r can u 0 550 A RM mm 1400 w m 20 o m Tman Wuyr gen Year 1935 men on no we W m y 5127 Methane Measurements 0AA CMDL Carllun Cycle Greenhouse Gases A GLOBAL AVERAGF 9 won V f 675 9 650 625 A 15 i T gt r D U GLOBAL ZROWTH RA E l l l I I 5586875889909193939495369 00 4 hp 010an mmge nmmsyhcnc mclhmw miung mm mm mm duelmined using memummcms mm m NUAA mm wovench m umpllng quotmm I ma hm mpmscnu un ang4crm hend Baum 39 39 39VHM urban C Grecnimum L 39v 3mm Cnlnmdu 303 wuux ledglugukcncLym nouagun hupsww cmdl mm gmlccggy Lu Lu D CI 3 x r t E E 4 A La LLJ Lu 2 a 7 a U 3 Q 4quotD 5415 430 513C per r39m39 1350 J 1300 CHaippb I 73950 173900 1995 1999 2000 2001 YEAR g 3 IE 13 f mm punul and 11ml trucnml tlmumm punch u ulniuaphcrlu 391 H4 L11 Harm quotHzlaku HEW LI l rmn 1993 Us 3 I lusus an MCIages Inf S l l39lf Mir L39uHucicd Suqumumlh39 ml the 5mm day quotHIEquot a snlid runUh an lHU39l h Hue Ln IIH alum Mummy mi 1989 WATER AIR CH4 EXCHANGE Al CH4 H CH4 CH4 i i f NR I i U 00O EBULLITION C o n CH4 oxidation by CH4 production by methanotmphic methanogenic bacteria bacteria Figure 76 Prm esses of mellmnc production oxidation and escape mm w llzmd 5 x From SChl39llA l a 1991 gt 5 n r r l Y E 330 352 C 0 5501 32cc 3 400 070 3302 35 C 660 355C 5 200 11 1 330 158 C Am 550 we E CL 0 7 gtlt 6 O 200 D 0 A g 39 8ih283 7400 g I g RikJ hnsgsjgi m I 1 20 4o 50 so 100 120 1 0 DAYS AFTER PLANTlNG yx potentials at a depth of 020 Ill ill th relative to a saturated a Unit IL L placed In the Hand water l at each of LL elertrnrle Fig 1 Red the E I Allen et al J Environ Qual 32 2003 1978f szsm Allen et 31 J Environ Qual 32 2003 1978f I I um um PM I 660 an Mal 1 c o 330 Mme man 1 0 cm EMVSSlON mg rrr2 d a P m ma vAv 5m mbmrv u H L TOTAL CH4 EFFLUX ma m2 p o u so 70 so 90 Iowa 02 uPtAKE ma m z mum m cm mm mm manna plum m m m m m co um um n un n ml 04 heavnm e m pom in ame g y Hamlinrm at 3223 DAYS Ar r L wuuphnClheummlnunmu d ma WWW a m Wm u H mm mmquot m marpd m mu yenmlx E590 H l E U fi 9 1 33 39 E E E 15nn cc F m no a s e E P mun g a mum9 Itth 233399 233599 EMT E F II FFI SI ITI at of rTlEEiStJFEM39tlEiI IE Potential Mitigation Fig 1 Suppression of methane emission by ironlll fertilization in the year 1999 Black bars represent methane uxes of the control field and gray bars methane uxes of iron fertilized plot At three different time points during the vegetation methane uxes were measured in mornings am and evenings pm using the closed chamber method Measurements represent a series of quadruplicateistandard error Jackel et al Soil Biol Biochem 37 2005 2150f f Wetlands lstribution o D t of Agriculture esources Conservation Service Soil Survey Division World Soil Resources U S De Natural 01 150 120 120 an 79 3 fa rzs r q i 96 a swat2 Miller Projection 000300 4000 KILOMETERS 6000 5000 C 3000 r 39 rr Upland Lowland i Organic Salt affected Permafrost affected i Inland water bodies l No Wetlands or too small to display 60quotquot 250quot 120 1 120 15 Washington DC 1996 Country boundaries are not authoritative The cowcalf sector of the beef industry is the largest emitter of methane within US livestock industries Although efficiency gains have also been achieved in this sector over time there is still much room for improvement Emissions from beef cows are high for a number of reasons beef cows are very large animals diets consisting mainly of forages of varying quality are generally poorer than in the dairy or feedlot sectors the level of management is typically not as good and the beef cow population is very large Better grazing management and dietary supplementation have been identified as the most effective ways to improve efficiency and reduce emissions from this sector because they improve animal nutrition and reproductive efficiency Source EPA Methane Emissions From Beef and Dairy Cattle in the 35 Dairy 23 awCalif 53 Feedlats and Stackers 19 Humanrelated Sources of Methane in the US went tetal methane emisslens l Landfills I Livestock nteric Fermentation El Natural Gas and Petroleum Systems El Ceal Mining I Livestock Manure I We stewater Treatment I Other Source EPA Sources of Methane px Ruminant exhalation and atulence Managed wetland emissions Leakage Pyrolysis Fermentation Coal mining emissions Uncontrolled escape Fermentation k Hellman Concentration Leakage from industrial processes Tm Per rear A 4 uooqoxu1gmm excl93 quot 3 0quot it 0039 Nate VIMquot offing art them Some US EPA I994 39699 ip gk 4x5 3618 fw g f g Estimates of the global methane budget in TgCH4yr from different sources compared With the values adopted for this report TAR Reference Fung et al Hein et al Lelieveld et al Houweling et al Mosier et al Olivier et al Cao et al SAR TARa 1991 1997 1998 1999 19983 1999 1998 Base year 1980s 1992 1994 1990 1980s 1998 Natural sources Wetlands 115 237 225D 145 92 Termites 20 20 20 Ocean 10 15 15 Hydrates 5 10 Anthropogenic sources Energy 75 97 110 89 109 Landfills 40 35 40 73 36 Ruminants 80 90b 115 93 80 93 Waste treatment b 25 14 b Rice agriculture 100 88 D 2554 60 53 Biomass burning 55 40 40 40 34 23 Other 20 15 Total source 500 587 600 597 598 Imbalance trend 37 22 Sinks Soils 10 30 30 44 30 30 Tropospneric OH 450 489 510 490 506 Stratospneric loss 46 40 40 40 Total sink 460 535 580 560 576 a TAFl budget based on 1745 ppb 278 Tgppb lifetime of 84 yr and an imbalance of 8 ppbyr b Waste treatment included under ruminants Flice included under wetlands Analysis of trends in methane sources Source Tg CH4 Trend Mitigation options Very small Trend depends on feedback WCtlandS mechanism or with global warming Rice Small Very important food source Only change cultivation in water management during growth helps Medium Improved bovine nutrition and Rumlnants a reduced meat consumption can help Small Increased urbanization counteracts Land lls progress in CH4 recovery for energetic use Large Venting aring and leakage prevention FOSSll fuel I can be improved Energy efficiency also Biomass a Medium Largest source is domestic Burning consumption Alternatives are needed World population of cattle 105 head 1400 1200 1000 1930 1940 800 1 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1950 1960 1 970 1980 Date 20m I900 I800 I709 lam Methane 39500 Contentration mm IDDD 900 300 l d Figure l I increases in Methane Concentrations Compared to World Population Growth mm IEMI 4995 65 billion k 50 billion 55 billion 50 billion 45 billion 40 billion 35 billion 311 billion 1395 billion 10 billion LE billion 13 billion IllllllIIIIIIIIIIlIIIlIIII IBM I39HH IQIO I940 WM WEE 10W Population Hothanxe Concentration ppbv Sourto Ethoritlge at a Hillll EDIE2 W93 IPEC HEM 115 Bureau of the Census Review of early Earth Age 456 billion years from rock dating Accretion of solar gases and dust Likely the result of a supernova explosion in this area Favorable position in solar system First atmosphere mostly lost to space H2 He Early atmosphere from degassing volcanic metamorphic N2 C02 H20 noble gases traces of CH4 NH3 H28 etc reducing Slow cooling let to torrential rain storm Liquid water then removed soluble gases Life likely appeared first in newly formed oceans First metabolic pathways CH3COOH CO2 CH4 AE scavengers C024H2 CH42H20AE methanogenesis Archaebacteria 2 CHZO 2 H SO42 HZS 2 CO2 2 H20 after availability of sulfate in the oceans CO2 H28 AB 2 S CHZOn H20 sulfide photosynthesis sulfur bacteria CO2 H20 AB 02 CHZOn first occurrence 38 Ga ago Banded Iron Formation BIF m at 1 105g g I a huurld i as I FEE33 35 I l u 5 Ed at I E n 14 l 33quot I Tgntgttlw ri e 1139 39 2 I1 mm ElfE E E I mean rstgm El haund I sum wi39 J HEM autumn Err 39 gagng Malaaulzlr r a I 11 gm I ncumrbm m 39 39 bunEIIIdlrnn J Iii I39nrmnhanl i m an 2 111 Twat Tilharm mm hafnium prawnt abundance B IF 45 4 3 2 1 0 Age Ga shallow water photosynthesis producing dissolved 02 moxie ocean hydrothermal Fe2 and Si 513C organic matter a g as g g Oz 29 93V 9391 o o 513C carbonates o u o H 29 93V Z39Z VZ O39Z 8391 Metabolic pathways using oxygen 0 CHZOn 02 CO2 H20 respiration 2NH43O2 2N02392H204H 2 N02quot 02 2 N03quot nitrification ZS2H203O2 28042394HJr Thiobacilli Geological Time Arrow sum oumrnsly mm 1 100mm liecam Miocene Naogana Proterozoic Oligocevm Slluriar Alchaan Paleogana Patamrw Global Biogeochemical Cycles GEOS 489 Guest Lecture Biogeochemical Cycles in the Oceans Dr Shari YvonLewis Dept of Oceanography Rm 412 OampM Building 9794581816 email syvonIewisoceantamuedu Microscopic Algae Produce food for 99 of marine animals Most planktonic Golden algae Diatoms tests of silica Coccolithophores plates of calcium carbonate Dinoflagellates Red tide HABHarmful Algal Bloom Toxins Fish kills Human illness Coccolith v I httpwwwgeoucalgarycamacraepalynologydin oflagellatesdinoflagellateshtml Photosynthetic Bacteria Extremely small May be responsible for gt half of total photosynthetic biomass in oceans Photo John Waterbury Woods o e Oceanographic Institute httpgenumeng CyarlObamer a PmOhWDWWUS psrotgramsheLmtctobessynwssynw8home http wwwsciencenews orgarticlesZOOGO lBfo html b3 asp 3 Plankton Growth Curve Lag lack of balance in enzymatlc reactlons Ex onential Phase In N kt Nnumber of cells ND lnltlal number of cells Retardation phase depletlon of nutrlents Stationary phase no net Increase Death phase die off Some go lnto restlng state and survlve tor a long tlme LOG number of algal cells Staliumu39y Decline Expo en al Photosynthetic Compensation Depth pre d uethity at s urfee e is limited because of intensity of euniig ht preduethitybegine to decline with depth and lees light penetratien Bettern ef Euphetie Zane Respiration Fiete i rn depth Phytoplankton Production Standing Stock amount of living phytoplankton at a given time in a given amount of seawater mg C m39 seawater Biomass total weight of all or specified organisms in a given area of volume g kg g m393 Rate of Primary Production P weight of inorganic carbon fixed photosynthetically per unit time per unit volume mg C m393 hr39i Both contribute to the availability of organic carbon to the food chain PT PNEW PREG f PNEWPT In Vitro Component Timescale 14C Assimilation PT PN Hours to 1 day 02 Evolution PT Hours to 1 day 15N03 Assimilation PNEW Hours to 1 day 15NH4 PT Hours to 1 day 1802 Evolution PT Hours to 1 day Physical Transport Sediment Traps PNEW PC Days to months Bulk Properties N03 flux to photic zone PNEW Hours to days 02 Utilization PNEW Seas to annual Net 02 Accumulation PNEW Seas to annual 238U234Th PNEW Days to year 3H3He PNEW Seas to annual Bulk Properties Photons absorbed PT Instan to arm Depletion of winter N09 PNEW Seasonal Remotg Sensinq Pli Days to annual Chemical Oceanography Millero O2 Liberation Method 39 A series of 300 mL bottles filled with seawater and held under various light levels 39 Dark bottles After 3 8 hours analyzed for O2 Increase of O2 in the light bottles is a measure of the net photosynthesis Loss of O2 in dark bottles from respiration nsufficient sensitivity Organic pollutants can result in loss of 2 Lipids or proteins bias result low Bacteria oBottle Effect a httpmaritimehaifaaciIdepartmIessonsoceanIect26htm 140 Method Now primary productivity is measured using radioactive carbon 40 Paired light and dark bottles are injected with a known quantity of bicarbonate containing labeled 140 Amount of assimilated radioactive carbon is measured and net primary productivity is then computed using a conversion factor This method is much more accurate than the oxygen measurements particularly when the productivity is very low Regional productivity North polar North temperate Phytoplankton biomass Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Month Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fig 1314 Polar ocean productivity Availability of sunlight and High nutrients due to upwelling of North Atlantic Deep Water No thermocline No barrier to vertical mrxrng Blue whales migrate to feed on maximum b Antarctic upwelling Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc zooplankton productivity Fig 1311b 11 Polar ocean productivity Winter darkness Summer sunlight Phytoplankton diatoms bloom Zooplankton mainly small crustaceans productivity follows Example Arctic Ocean Winter Spring Summer Fall Increase Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugSep Oct NovDec Barents Sea productivity quot I l a 1 3 1 Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Tropical ocean productivity Permanent thermocline is barrier to vertical mixing Fig 1312 Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Tropical ocean productivity Low rate of primary productivity lack of nutrients High primary productivity in areas of Equatorial upwelling Coastal upwelling Coral reefs Symbiotic algae Recycle nutrients within the ecosystem httpoceancolorgsfcnasagovSeaWiFSGallerylmages Temperate ocean productivity oWinter LOW Spring HIGH Summer LOW Fall High lots of nutrients lots of nutrients Depeted More nutrients little sunlight More sunlight nutrients Decreasing oLots of sunlight sunlight w 3 r 1 I it 4 1r 41 1 4 v 5 F V Iquot 9 O o o o o oo o o O 0 o o o o o O O O O O O O quot C 5 D a l Strong Isothermal gt Thermocline gt Thermocline gt Thermocline gt Dec March June Sept Dec WINTER SPRING SUMMER FALL Sunlight Lowest Increasing Highest DecreasingH Nutrients Highest Decreasing l Lowest H Increasing H b Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fig 1313 Temperate ocean productivity Limited by both available sunlight and available nutrients Highly seasonal pattern Phytoplankton Nutrients Spring bloom Increase Zooplankton Fall blo Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 3 OPhytoplankton I O Zooplankton i Fig 1313 6 Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Passage of energy between trophic levels 500000 units of radiant energy 2 efficiency 98 loss Trophlc level 5 10 units 1000 units Trophic 100 units 1 unit of radiant energy equivalent converted to human mass level 1 10 efficiency 394 Trophic level 4 level 2 10 efficiency 10 e iCiency ea u Trophic level 3 Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fig 1319 Fate of primary production About 90 of surface biomass decomposed in surface ocean About 10 sinks to deeper ocean Only 1 organic matter not decomposed in deep ocean Biological pump CO2 and nutrients to sea floor sediments Oxygen in the Oceans 0 MM 1000 2000 North Atlantic E m E m 3000 f D North Pacific 4000 i A 5000 Chemical Oceanography Effect of Photosynthesis on O2 TEMPERATURE C 02 MM 02 SATURATION 020 21 22 23 24 25 26 212 220 230 240 100 105 110 115 x x 1 x x x x w 1 0 0 7 7 7 7 7 20 Q 7 7 7 7 7 40 A 0 s A A 7 A A 60 E 9 7 7 7 7 A 80 E o 7 7 7 7 0 7 100 0 7 7 7 7 I 7 120 ll 7 7 7 7 up 7140 Chemical Oceanography Millero Surface Waters Are Usually Supersaturated with 02 039 39 I I I I I 350 1 39 39I SURFACE o WATERS 396 f 3 300 E 3 N o gt 250 I 0 039 o 200 l I I I I I o 7 IO 20 30 TEMPERATURE C Effect of Upwelling on 02 10 6 39 Supersaturated o 39 g photosynthetic go 5 39 production 2 O O 3 o 77777777777777777 777fm iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii e Undersaturated 3 5 7 o A upwelling deep E 10 7 A yvater where 02 gquot Is consumed Surface 15 Waters A SOS 5 0N LATITUDE 22 Chemical Oceanography Millero Apparent Oxygen Utilization Apparent Oxygen Utilization is the difference between the quotsaturatedquot value of oxygen and the measured value The saturated value is the concentration of oxygen in equilibrium with the atmosphere but corrected to its value at the salinity temperature and pressure where the measurement was taken The quotapparent oxygen utilizationquot is a measure of how much oxygen has been taken up by sea life 23 Apparent 02 Utilization 00 Formation of deep water leading to more of a horizontal than vertical gradient Slow increase in deep waters over time during thermohaline circulation due to oxidation of sinking organic matter DEPTH km DEPTH lkm Strong vertical O 5 stratification a w 3 no sinking of Eows 200 225 250 more 0 to m 2 a 275 lO f L C 3 compensate for consumption 36 6quot t 3 V25quot quot5 Z I Oifs 25 30 W50 39 39 39 360 230 5387 3 I70 I90 32 Major 0 quot2 I60 220 250 2 mo gggj mlnlmum zone 3 2o itS leg 200 4 WESTERN 397 PACIFIC Iso 190 ISO LLmoIkg I40 nggo 5 I60 150 a I I I I I I so 40 o 20 40 s LATITUDE N 24 Why is it important to understand the CO2 system 002 is the raw material used to build organic matter 002 controls the pH of the oceans 002 controls the fraction of inbound radiation that remains trapped in the atmosphere greenhouse effect which controls planetary climate Distribution of 002 species affects preservation of CaCO3 on the sea floor 25 Simple Model for C02 in the Ocean Weathering Inpul of Ca and H003 MirSea co2 Exchange Biologic Formation m C360 and org 0 Slnklng Biogenic Material Dissolution d Decomposition in water CoYumn Carbonate DISSOIUHOYI and Org Decampo in Sediments CO2 Speciation 002 has multiple possible transformations upon interaction with H20 Various forms include 0029 com HZCO3 carbonic acid HCOS39 bicarbonate ion and 003392 carbonate ion Species interconvert readily Perturbations to one part of 002 system leads to redistribution of species Buffering Reactions not always intuitive 27 Equations for CO2 Speciation The equilibrium of gaseous and aqueous 002 0029 9 CO2ltaqgt C02aq Subsequent hydration and dissociation K H2C03 reactions 0 H20C02aq 002 H20 lt gt HZCO3 lt gt H0034 H HHCO3 0 K1 1ZT HCO39lt gtCO392H 2 3 K 3 K H60 2 2 HC03 Mineral solubility Ca2 0032 lt gt CaCOS Ksp Ca2602 PhotosynthesisRespiration 002m H20 lt gt CH20 02 28 Causes of Changes in pCO2aq Removal Photosynthesis Dissolution of CaCO3 Solar Heating Upwelling airsea exchange Addition Oxidation of Organics Precipitation of CaCO3 Input from Fossil Fuels airsea exchange Chemical Oceanography Millero 29 Flux of Gas Across the AirSea Interface Flux dCdt D dCdz Flux DH C PGair PGson Flux k PGair PGson k APG k is gas exchange coefficient 1 is boundary layer thickness H is Henry s Law constant D is diffusion coefficient 30 Chemical Oceanography Millero AirSea Gas Exchange Flux K Xaq Xg where Xg pXH The gas exchange coefficient K is often estimated as a function the Schmidt number and wind speed at a reference height typically 10m K Sc fV Schmidt number So u pD where u is the viscosity of the seawater p is seawater density and D is the molecular diffusivity of the gas n 067 at low wind speeds 05 at high wind speeds Kgas SCgasScrei n fV 31 FIUX Kw C02aq COZQ 100 x I I a u v I Iw a mumu z obal ocenmz 01 uptake esummea Usmg dx elem gas extlmngewmd nninkhnruz speed reluhombps m1 Wevem ma speed produdx39 Vnnninkhof amp McGilIis JO 80 Vlgmquvmmw L 60 S u 34 40 20 gt M w wage unany W I prcdud mm man than ms 0 39 m em m ummneom mud sped Icnmlmmu O httpwmmpmnlnnanu r39 39 39 lfnnlw nshtml The Global Carbon Cycle Basics Global Biogeochemical Cycles Class November 2005 y W Ca5i032C01H30 39 gt Ca 2Hcog 102 39 y Caz moo Organisms use ions v In WA 43 m carbonate shells CaCOS T Ca2 ZHCOS gt cacos C02 H20 Increa d pres as an A mperat e A V m mm l 7 1 Subduc on CaCO3 SiO2 gt Casi03 COZ gt GLOBAL PREINDUSTRIAL CARBON CYCLE ATMgfiHERE 1 v 60 A 60 V SOIL 2000 Inventories in PgC Flows in PgC yr1 DEEP OCEAN ZS OO SEDnmmmnS 90x106 GLOBAL CONTEMPORARY CARBON CYCLE Atmospheric Poo 3 2 yr Net destructivn of vegetation Burial 01 Figure 111 The presanlay global carbon Cycle All pools are expressed in units of 10 g l and all annual fluxes in nnh of laquot K Cyr averagel for the 19805 Most of the Values are from Schimel at al 1995 others are derived in the text Table 312 ESimaex 0 termrial carbon slot139 and NPP global aggregaecl VaLtes by binme Biome Area 101 ha Global Carbon Stocks PgC11 1 Carbon density MgCha NPP PgCyr WBGUquot1 MRSb WBGU 1 MR3b 1013 1 WBGU MRSh IGBP Agay MRSh 1 Plum Soil Total 1 Plants 1 Soil Total 1 Plants Soil 131216ts Soil Tropical forests 176 175 212 216 428 340 213 553 120 123 194 122 137 219 Temperate 101mm 104 104 59 100 159 1 139C 153 292 57 96 134 147 65 81 Borea1foresls 137 137 88d 471 559 57 338 395 64 344 42 247 32 26 Tropical savannas 84 grasslands 225 276 66 264 330 79 247 326 29 117 29 90 177 149 Temperale grasslands amp shx39ublands 125 178 9 295 304 23 176 199 7 236 13 99 53 70 Deserts and semi deserts 455h 277 8 191 199 10 159 169 2 42 4 57 14 35 Tundra 095 056 6 121 127 2 115 117 6 127 4 206 10 05 Croplands 160 1135 3 128 131 4 165 169 2 80 3 122 68 4 1 Wetlandsg 135 7 15 225 240 7 1 7 7 1 43 643 7 7 43 7 Total 1512 1493h 466 2011 2477 1 654 1 1567 2221 1 599 1 626 From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2001 7 The Scienti c Basis IPCC 2001 Cambridge University Press 300 ppm u u o 1 C07 1 l 200000 1 x I 1 y y I 50000 100000 ISQOOO Age ypb Figure 15 39 rimiuns in zmuusphcl h39 20 in buhblus 0139ng cullcrml from he Vosmk in mm and 739 rulios in the ice we 1hr pasx2201llycals Hrs 31 hr Sumh Pnlr as 39ulruluml from isman Motliliml frmnjuuzel AL 1993 unions in mean anquot lmnlu ATMOSPHERIC CO2 INCREASE OVER PAST 1000 YEARS CO concentration ppm C02 concentration ppm 380 a 360 002 Mauna Loa 34 002 South Pole 320 300 0 2230 e E Q7213 260 7 N 40 240 1988 1992 1996 220 e 02 Cape Gr39m 200 7 O2 Barrow 1 30 I I I I I 1950 1 960 1 970 1980 1990 2000 ear 330 350 b 340 320 T 300 a 280 vauno wv VWq 260 C Mauna Loa 240 i Law Dome 220 7 v Adelie Land 200 e o Siple South Pole 180 t I I 800 1 000 1 200 1 400 1 600 1 500 2000 Year From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric COZ Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2001 4 The Scienti c Basis H CC 2001 Cambrrdge University Press Monthly Mean Carbon Dioxide rccnhous scs NOAA CMDL Carbon Cycle G c Ga llll 3 2 1 OIKIIII 75 74 75 7b 77 7a 79 so 515 as 54 55 35 a7 55 39 90 9 9391 93 94 95 95 9 YEAR Almosphen c caxban diaxnle mlxmg mm deem1 ubsenam es 39 39 Dr 1mm 9mm msnunagov hup wwwcmdl nonAgovCtgg d mm the cuniinmns munnuxing prugmms m m 4 n rum n H x x t 1 798wv0w NCAA 0 203 CMDL bascxmu Fl w 13034976678 Global Distribution of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide NOAA CMDL Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases v wvmlm 39339 v QQ as Q 6 9 ya Cf ltg 638 3 Q m g5 EWR mm Tans and Thomas Conway NCAA CMDL Carbon cm Gmenlmusa ease Emddcn Cnlumdu 1303 49776673 piet nrgnsj1mgav httpwwwLmdLnoan govccgg Measurement Programs NOAA CMDL Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases up 60 N mamal 27 u w mum I 30W mum m MWHN H m mum 1w 7 e7 4mm 9mm scum m 90 90 looE 1401 180 mm mow 60 w 20 w 201 60 E mouE Th N0 Mnl R thIH lel l 39 network includes samples rmm xed em and coml39llel39clnl ships Mcasul39cmems From mll mwurs end elmmn began in 1992 Plesclllly quot u a a l a um n eml methane are measured Group Chlef Dr mm Tans Carbon Cycle Greenhouse case Buuldel Calumuo mm 49mm pielenaesguneeagov lmpwxmcmdlneanguvccggl a Carbon Dioxide Measurements NOAA CMDL Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases GLOBAL AVERAGE E Q 360 Q d 350 Q 340 H A 7 GLOBAL GROWTH RATE gt E K 77 t L g g v N O Q Tup Glubulnvemgeal 39 g 39 39 rm m NOAA CMDL cuupemuvu air umplmg nelwuxk The red ms mpmcms we lungrlen39n rend Eunom Glubnl average grmuh mm r carbun dJoxide Pnnclpnl mvesugmur Dr P gt Tum NOAA c L Farbun Cycle Greenhume Cms Boulder Fulumdu 303 49775273 pm allsagnozmguv hp wwwcmdl nuuzgu CCEQL RECENT GROWTH IN ATMOSPHERIC CO2 N t39 o Ifitmospheric increase is 50 of fossil fuel emissions large interannual variability fossil fuel emissions annuala nosphe cincrease monthly atmospheric increase filtered PgCyr Arrows indicate El Nino events 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2001 AThe Scientific Basis IPCC 2001 Cambridge University Press GLOBAL C02 BUDGET Pg C yrl 19805 9903 ALmospheric increase 33 i 0 3210 Emissions fossil fuel cement 54i03 63 i0 4 Oceanatmosphere flux 19 06 l 7 i 05 Landatmosphere ux 02 07 14i0 7 parbinned as dlows Landmu change 1 7 06 I0 25 NA Rmidunl ferreslrial sink 19 38 m 03 NA From The Carb on Cycle and Atmosphenc C02 Chapter 3 R IPCC21 329 UPTAKE OF CO2 BY THE OCEANS CO2 K223 3x10392 M atm1 K 9x10397 M C02H20 1 HCO339 H 52 0 K27x10quot M Hcog C03239H 5 000 a 1 03 5 3 39 E 395 00239H20 HCO339 0032 E E g 04 Net uptake 92 c02gco327gt 2Hco3 0 2 4 6 E 10 12 EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONIN G OF C02 BETWEEN ATMOSPHERE AND GLOBAL OCEAN Equilibrium for presentday ocean NC02g 003 varies rou hl as H NCO2gNCO2aq g y I Q only 3 of total inorganic carbon is in the atmosphere But CO2g 739 w W z gt F positive feedback to increasing 002 Pose problem differently how does a C02 addition dN partition between the atmosphere and ocean at equilibrium dNC02g dNC02g chozaq f 028 varies roughly as Hquot2 gt 28 of added CO2 remains in atmosphere Equilibrium calculation for Alk 225x10393 M HolHco fl FQN39 10quot LIMIT ON OCEAN UPTAKE OF C02 CONSERVATION OF ALKALINITY The alkalinity is the excess positive charge in the ocean to be balanced by carbon Alk Na K 2Mg2 2Ca2 Cl39 23042391 Br39 HCOs 2c032 It is consenled upon addition of C02 gtuptake of CO2 is limited by the existing Increasing Alk requires dissolution of 1 8 H005 1396 104M 7 14 a 4 COf supply of C032 3 1 04 M 2 36 34 Ocean pH 2 13960 200 300 400 500 pcozmpm CaCOs 1 Ca2C032 which takes place over a time scale of thousands of years FURTHER LIMITATION OF CO2 UPTAKE SLOW OCEAN TURNOVER 200 years ATMCEPI IERE El Fm g c W msmh DEAN 03 2 GOLD SURFACE OCEAN LAYER 34 2 It A m h 12 1r 04 03 INTERMEDIATE UCEAN deep 360 15 water funnatiun 3 Am 63 T w Inventories in 1015 m3 water Iquot if Flows in 1015 quot13 yr391 DEEP GEEAN WU Uptake by oceanic mixed layer only Vac 36X1016 m3 would give f 094 94 of added CO2 remains in atmosphere GLOBAL C02 BUDGET Pg C yrquot 19805 19905 Atmospheric increase 33101 12101 Emissions fossil fuel cement 54 i 03 63 r 04 Oceanatmosphere ux 49106 1 7 i 05 Landvalmosphcre quX39 702 i 07 l4 ir 07 parli mwd a39f0I0ws Landuse change 17106 I0 25 NA Rm v rluul Ierm39lriul sink 19 38 m 03 NA From The Carbon Cycle and Atmosphenc C02 R Chapter 3 IPC C 200 1 NET UPTAKE OF CO2 BY TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE 14 Pg C yr391 in the 1990s IPCC 2001 is a small residual of large atmospherebiosphere exchange 0 Gross primary production GPP GPP CO2 uptake by photosynthesis 120 Pg C yr39 Net primary production NPP NPP GPP autotrophic respiration by green plants 60 Pg C yrl Net ecosystem production NEP NEP N PP heterotrophic respiration by decomposers 10 Pg C yrl 39 Net biome production NBP NBP NEP reserosionharvesting 14 Pg C yr39 Atmospheric CO2 observations show that the net uptake is at northern mid latitudes but cannot resolve American vs Eurasian contributions PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CO2 CONCENTRATIONS IPCC 2001 SRES cmsslons ODE Ennsslons 1FgCm CO2 causenuamn ppm Biooeochemistrv in anaerobic environments Sediments Ocean lakes estuaries Soils permanent or seasonal flooding WFPS gt anaerobic pockets at depth groundwater anaerobic lacking oxygen 02 diffuses 104 times slower in water than air O2 gradients develop other oxidizers necessary for metabolism Voluneter aw Fe3 e39 Z Fe2 Agar KC Oxidized species reduced species Oxygen accepts electrons gt gets reduced 202 4e 4H gt 2HZO Hydrogen donates electrons gt gets oxidized 2 C1 Fe Cl Fe2e Fe3 Fe3 39 Fe2 Figure71 AL L 1 L 1 n rm n iquot I 1quot u a oxidation states The ow of electrons e39 can be prevented by the application of 771 mV at the voltmeterl The agar salt bridge allows Cl ions to diffuse between the containers a 13911 Modi ed from jenny 1980 Reference reaction Fe3 aq 1390 Fe OH Zaq Fe0H aq I 08 I Fe39OH3 E hv01ts G N Fe3OH8 Fe0H 2 pH Figure 72 The stability of iron and iron hydroxides in soils relative to It and pH at 25 C All conditions refer to l mMFe solution Modi ed from Ponnampcruma et al 1967 Eh and pH are environmental properties i availability of organic matter determines reducing power Eh determines dominant microbial mechanism redox reactions influence pH Table l inorganic substances by organic matter Thermodynamic sequence for reduction of 1 Reaction Et JGb V Reduction of 02 03 4H 4e ed 2H30 0812 7 299 Reduction of NO NO 6H 6e 2 N2 0747 7 284 31 120 Reduction of Mn4 to Mn2 MnoZ 4H 2e Mnl 0526 233 2H30 Reduction of Fe3 to Fe FetOH 3H equot Fey 0047 101 3HZO Reduction or so to H35 503 10H 8e HIS A 0221 59 4H10 Reduction of CO to CH4 C0 8H Se 2 CH4 70244 56 21 130 OUI39L C Schlesinger 1997 Units are ll xll mnl l39 equot assuritiug cougling to lhe oxidation reaction 1 3H20 C0 H e A6 RTln K pH 70 Anaerobic Metabolirm Linkage to Tmce Gare mm Aerobic Pracemex by Megonical et at in Biogeachemimy Ed WH Schlesinger Aerobic Nitrate reduction l l l l l N0 reduction Iron reducti un Sulfate reduction Methane reduction Figure 1 Vertical hiogeuchemical zones in sediments The top is the sediment water interface Processes on the left represent the use of various electron acceptors resplrations during the degradation of organic matter Plots on the right represent the chemical pro les most widely used to delineate the vertical extent of each zone Rotating the gure 90quot to the left shows the sequence of electron acceptors used over time xaxis if 39d sample of oxic sediment were enclosed and allowed lo become anaerobic over time Denitrification dissimilatorv Depth m occurs at low 02 soils oceans sediments etc obligate anaerobes nitrifiers themselves N20 uM 0 51015202530 0 i i it 1000 r 2000 r 3000 r 4000 5000 eooottttt Depth m 1 000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 N03 9 NO 7 gtN204gtN3 A Nitri cation N70 1X03 Denilti cation NH3gtNHZOHa NO 2 gt N0 9N5 gtN2 Nitri er Denitri cation Figure 13 Relationships between three pathways of inorganic nitrogen oxidation and reduction Wrage er 1 2001 reproduced by permission of Elsevier from Soil Bi l Bim39hem 2001 33 1723 1732 02 HM 200 300 1 50 250 Polymers polysaccharides proteins Monomers cg monosaccharidcs amino acids Sulfate reduction so 11 siimlatoiw H23 C SD m 807 SO4 st lLS 1 135 62 G7 1 504 c chJC H35 H Figure 24 A simpli ed biological redox cycle fOI sulfur Figure 25 Anaerobic decomposition with sulfate reduction as lhc terminal step Fermentation leads to several posxiblc products including low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols and hydrogen and carbon dioxide Incomplth oxidizers i produce acetate as an end productl whereas complete oxidizers Anaerobic Metabolism Linalga 0 Trace Garerarszerobic Processes c Inineralizc organic compoundx including acetate to by Megonicai at at in Biogeochemirtry Ed WH Schlesinger C rmn 0x ids Sulfate S edirnent Oxidized zone Reduced zone FeS Fe 52 6392 Sulfum reduction m H quot Figure 810 Transformations of sulfur in a coastal marine sediment Now that of 62 g S 1112 yrquot undergoing sulfate reducu on only 07 g S rn g yrquot is permanently stored in the Sediment as pyrite or oLher reduced minerals From Inrgenscn 1977 Polymers palysaccha des pro l Exormzymes Monomers eg manomccharides amino acids Primary fermentation Figure 4 Metabolic scheme for the degradation of complex organic matter culminating in methanogeni 39 r 3 ed via extracellular or cell is formed primarily from the oxidation of H2 coupled to C02 reduction or by the fermentation of acetate Acetate is formed by primary fermentation acetogenesis from HzCOZ and from secondary fermentation of primary fermentation products Amemblc Membolzsm39 Linkages to Trace Gases aMAeroblc Processes by Megonicalet all m Bzogeothzmzstry Ede W H Schlesinger Table 4 Examples 0139 reactions occurring in methanogenic environments illustrating the effect on energy yie1tl of the consumption of fermentation products Maintenance of 10w reactant concentrations allows secondary fermentation reactions that are endergonic under standard conditions to be cxergonic negative Reaction F recenergy change kl AGtta AGb Glucose 4H20 gt 2 acetate 2HCO 4H 4H2 207 i 319 Glucose ZHZO butyrate mm 3H 2HZ 135 e 284 Butyrate ZHZO gt 2 acetate H 2H1 4812 17 6 Propionate 3HZO gt acetate 4 HCO H H3 762 55 2 Ethanol ZHZO a 2 acetate 2H 4H2 194 37 47 18 Benzoate 6HZO 3 acetatequot 2H C02 3H Source Zinder 1984 Standard conditions solutes 1 M gases 1 mm quot Concentrations of reactants typical of anaerobic habitats fatty acids 1 mM glucose 10 MM cm on aim H2 10quotquot nun HCOJ 20 mM Anaerobic Metabolixm Linkage to Trace Gate and Aerobic Procemex by Megonical et 31 in Biogeochemixtry Ed WH Schlesinger CH4 flux pmol nr2 5quot E CH4 flux 1411101 10 2 s cw 00 haam r 0 5101520253035 b GPP 11mm 1112 squot 15 T a E 10 E r3 089 3 2 0 5 39 o 350 ppm Wet q n 350 ppm dry 1 700 ppm wet U 700 ppm dry 00 00 05 10 15 c Whole plant photosynthesis 11mm 3quot Figure 6 The relaLionship between wetland CH4 emis ions and various measures of primary pro ductivity a emissions versus net ecosystem pfo duction NEP in North American ecosystems rfmglng respectively Anaerobic Metabolism Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes by Megonieal e1 31 in Biogeochemistry Ed WH Schlesinger Table 6 Selected estimates of the pruportion 0139 803 reduction in marine sediments that is mediated by anaerobic 4 oxidation Site Peak cmm39ibmion Depthintegrated Citation m 303 reduction canniburimz to 03 reduction arhus Bay Denmark 4757 9 Thomsen er al 2001 attegat Denmark 61 10 lverson and Jytrgensen 1985 Skag 89 10 Iverson and Jargensen 1985 ilpwelling Zone Namibia 100 Niew39cibner at a 1998 39 azon Fan 5 iment 50 85 Burns 1998 orsminde Fjorde 10 30 Hansen at all 1998 g Soda Lake Nevada 2 Iversen er al 1987 Jigsing Fjord ltO1 Iversen and Blackburn 1981 Hydrate Ridge Oregon 100 100 Boetius et al 2000b inferred by comparing SRR above decompmmg CH4 hydrates to nearby nonhydmte sites Anaerobic Metabolixm Linkage to Trace Gale and Aerobic Procemex by Megonieal et 31 in Biogeochemixtry Ed WH Schlesinger N pox H nM n F r r Methane Sulfate FeIlI N ltrale or Mm lV 39 r duction production reducuon reducnon Figure 27 Steadystate H3 concentrations in sedi ments with different dominant terminal electron accepting processes Lovely and Goodwin 1988 reproduced by permissinn of Elsevier from Gearrim Casmochim Anal 1988 52 2993 3003 The Global Carbon Cycle Details Global Biogeochemical Cycles Class November 2005 a Main components of the natural carbon cycle ATMOSPHERE 730 vulcanism c I11 p 120 I I i M 9 l quot I weatherin I Sm F39ianrs J 3 I 15905 5er 02 l LAND lt16 391 DUB expart I14 FL i 39 II I r quot river transport CJCEAN 39 w 03 331303 391 I quotweathering burial l r I 02 32 39 r FossJI Rom 39 organic mmnsres 439 SLUIMELNT carbon 39 h GEDLOGICAL HESEH U DIRS From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2001 The Scientific Basis IPCC 2001 Cambridge University Press 3 Carbon cycling in the ocean EFF NFF 103 45 CO l l UGDE quot 2HGO39 WWquot I 30quot a 2 quot 3 aulmrwhic rewira on 5E Henleth plauktnn DIE irt su am water Chatamuaphic respiratinn 34 A L J g quot3003 It 0 39 39 n thamline um n1 nag 4m 31 42 33 NEW 90 a m n d llthUQ 1 sport H 1 Eth Di I 1 H 1 umle Q3303 coastal manic T aw 39 sediment 139 W 11 DIG a 39 39 39 39 I w I lysmlina quot gigtgpfmion i 3501 m a D1 39339 39 39 1 r 39 39 12 39l39 Slammer From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2001 The Scientific Basis IPCC 2001 Cambridge University Press a Voslok o Mum WeluL a A W loom Lua h w wngulVlFou g m Em E ii i an 7m N 04 g m was 6521993 N D S 22quot io maem u 2 028Mrmv mo mm me man mo 20 m w 20a wn Veal ABE KW BF am b 6 pagan m1 quot m E 39 Poarsnn and Palmuv 20 g g anu g v am my wavaw g g D39 mm 5 km mum 220 v mm 2M 5W4 a mm mm m mm mm mm 20 s 5 Year m A9 My Em w cTaylolDome w 320 300 m M m 240 m m 002 mmummwm csnuam ppm I 39WL x x x moo mm man soon 2500 Me yr am no as m we 2 Ag My a mess IPCC 2001 Rn From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric co2 Chapter 3 b The human perturbation l ocean uptake LEI 1 Fassii Hock DC EAN g W I car anatas cat an I GEDLUGIGAL HESEHVGIRS EP39EENI From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2001 The Scientific Basis IPCC 2001 Cambridge University Press GLOBAL C02 BUDGET Pg C yrquot 19805 19905 Atmospheric increase 33101 12101 Emissions fossil fuel cement 54 i 03 63 r 04 Oceanatmosphere ux 49106 1 7 i 05 Landvalmosphcre quX39 702 i 07 l4 ir 07 parli mwd a39f0I0ws Landuse change 17106 I0 25 NA Rm v rluul Ierm39lriul sink 19 38 m 03 NA From The Carbon Cycle and Avmasphcnc coz Chapter 3 A W 700 edgemissions Imm indusifial processes m mum am M wumwmmmmwammmmwm 0 emissions flom and use change v D J m housanu ms gm mmmwnmnmmumxmuw Emis39sians 0130 s lecie Countries 1995 Total million tonnes Tonnes per capila 5mm 9mmmmmmbwwklmmm m wn vsmn znmo 25mm mm lem mama RECENT GROWTH IN ATMOSPHERIC CO2 Notice atmospheric increase is 50 of fossil fuel emissions large interannual variability fossil fuel emissions annuala nosphe cincrease montth atmospheric increase filtered PgCyr Arrows indicate El Nino events o 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year A 8 co emissions PgCyr 53 002 emissions PgCyr v 502 COHCGMWIOquot Wm M 4 a g 8 r i i L I I i D 9 m u g m w I i E l g 6 I i a i i E i l N 5 I l m o l o 5 39 E 1 E 39 E I s s s e s 139 m m m m g g g 3 g From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 Chapter 3 in Climate Change 200 7 The Scienti c Basis IPCC 2001 Cambridge University Press Carbon Cycle Dynamics Ecosystem Flux Measurements using eddy covariance EC CO2 and other C compounds water latent heat sensible heat and momentum FLUXNET httpWWWeosdisomlgovFLUXNET Soil Respiration Measurements automated chambers subcanopy EC FACE facilities International Effort 0 Satellite Measurements of greenness NDVI Leaf Area lndex LAI biomass httpWWWngdcnoaagovsegglobsysthrrshtml land use and land use change C02 and other trace gases in the atmosphere human activities such as biomass burning N 0AA CMDL CCCG network 0 International Effort Measurement Programs NOAA CMDL Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases up 60 N mamal 27 u w mum I 30W mum m MWHN H m mum 1w 7 e7 4mm 9mm scum m 90 90 looE 1401 180 mm mow 60 w 20 w 201 60 E mouE Th N0 Mnl R thIH lel l 39 network includes samples rmm xed em and coml39llel39clnl ships Mcasul39cmems From mll mwurs end elmmn began in 1992 Plesclllly quot u a a l a um n eml methane are measured Group Chlef Dr mm Tans Carbon Cycle Greenhouse case Buuldel Calumuo mm 49mm pielenaesguneeagov lmpwxmcmdlneanguvccggl a Global Distribution of Carbonl3 Composition of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide ducNDAACMDI m Miami vzinuipuumvmigm DnJimWIIiEIUMSTAAKEqudanlundo ym4916494 jm LJ Lr i 513C time 1 Db Isotopic Diseqm A i Atm Faa photosynthetic flux Fha respiration flux d Carbon cycling on land u It a GPP amarrnphic hetermmphic 120 respirmnon respiration I30 55 NF P l5 Animal JI cambustim39l 1 I11 DETRITUS 1 lt1 try 3001 1r 39INEFIT39 CARBON nTOCOyr 15G DOC MODIFIED SOIL CAHBGN 0A 1 lDt 1000 439 1050 From The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 Chapter 3 in Climate Change 2001 The Scientific Basis IPCC 2001 Cambridge University Press Photosynthetic Isotopic Discrimination A LEAF ATM BNDARV EPIDERMIS INTERNAL MESOPHVLL PHLOEM LAYER AIRSFACE Diffusion Dissolution Garbo 25 39 44nau 11 oo 20 s 13C discrimination in per E 15 C3 plants 44 lt A lt 275 3 i0 04 plants 3 lt A lt 5 b O 00 05 10 siniotitude dillerente mm stannam Ipnm 02 nancentmti 5 4 345 W 350 1533 fuel hurrung x x s r x ahnosphanc I Increase y H KHK 355 360 365 37 CD2 Concentralion ppm EVIDENCE FOR LAND UPTAKE OF CO2 FROM TRENDS IN 02 19902000 Terrestrial Carbon Cvcle Modelinq Terrestrial Biogeochemistry Dynamic Global Vegetation Models TBM Models DGVMs Simulath llan of mainlw additional feedbacks within 39 carbOIl ecosystem structure and 39 Water composition interactive 39 nltfogen changes in plant domains Dependence on Interaction and0r dominant ecotype with climate C02 soil parameters nutrients etc Feedbacks limited Currently less than 10 models 0 Currently 30 models CYCLING OF CARBON WITH TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE Anne Sphere 76D 22 v25 A Tree leaves 4n Tree wood Ground 630 vegetation 60 51 22 22 10 V 3 11 litter 110 v 3 Inventories in PgC soil 1 Flows In PgC yr 18 Time scales are short gt net uptake from reforestation is transitory Climate Temperature ation Pmcipil Product Poe s 1 Figure 1 Ovcwmw m 7 may to mm the conunan cum 0 mucusng mmuspnem co cmume vunahl w and umpund wnww y x I y were usm m dnvc he models a 05 rcsnluunn 13mm by unguudc All of m TBM esnmated ncl pnmAIy n 0 m mm u Vymr lUO yar p001 lumber md lungAlAallng pmuum r I0 ycarpmdun w H l muuu 1nda McGuire et al 2001 GBC 151 p 183f Net BiosphereAtmosphere Exchange human L ANOMALDUS FLUX 31 C yr 5 19 1992 m4 I936 193 1990 1992 19 YEAR ux to the atmosphere our cases are illustm 1 temperature anomaly only TP T precipitation anomaly TPS TPx 5013 irradizmce anomaly and quotPP PP with nlmrnntive anomaly dams z s99 39ext The re ult of the deconvolution by Keeling et al 1995 S and Rayner et al 1997 are also shown for comparison Figure 1 Calculated anomaly of the biospheric 02 F Gerard C aL GRL 26 1999 Figure 5 39 almusphenc m7 39 station hemten 1960 and 1992 relauve 10th mnpmude buwzen I950 and 1964 as estimated um um am or NPP and RNsunulamd by m 0 he trends sumde from m almosph Ls Manna Lna quotREM 51 e Relative Change in Amplitude 1960 1955 1970 1515 1930 195 1990 1560 1955 1910 1915 19m 1935 1590 c obmvauons The trends far a h M IBIS LP and mm slmulaunm are shown Incmaslng ach 0 cm i on y mcxcasmg Almusp an 01 and Lhmntc vnnammy and mcrczsmg almosphmc coy chmule mummy and cropland csrahmhmem and abandnnmcm McGuire et al 2001 GBC 151 p 183f PROJECTED FUTURE TRENDS IN CO2 UPTAKE BY OCEANS AND TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE b Terrestrial models 002 and Climate COZflux to atmosphere PgCyr l l 10 7 712 l 1 range 0 Tewesmsl models cog nnxy panel a i iilitiiiy 1 Ocean models C02 and Climate mean 3 Ocean masts 02 mly Dawel cl 5 COzllux to atmosphere PgCyr L l l l 1 1850 1 900 1950 2000 2050 21 00 Year in Climate Change 2001 4 The Scientific Basis IPCC 2001 me The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2 Chapter 3 Cambridge University Press Extra info and references Fung et a1 1997 Carbon 13 exchanges between the atmosphere and the biosphere Global Biogeochemical Cycles 114 507533 Post et a1 1997 Historical Variations in terrestrial biospheric carbon storage Global Biogeochemical Cycles 111 99109 100 NITROUS OXIDE NO 50 2 O A I I 0103 05071 5 10 15 20 100 METHANE CH4 50 O I I I 100 MOLECULAR I O OXYGEN 02 3 ANDOZONE 50 03 aquot Oi I I I I C 9 Q L 100 g F WATERVAPOR lt1 H20 50 0 I I CARBON DIOXIDE 100 002 50 0 I I I I I 39 I I I I 01 03 0507 1 5 10 15 20 Wavelength rim Fl G U R E 2 1 1 Absorption of radiation by gases in the atmosphereThe shaded area repre sents the percent of radiation absorbed The strongest absorbers of infrared radiation are water vapor and carbon dioxide Review of the roles of soils in bioqeochemical cvclinq Reservoir C N P minerals H20 Nutrient supplier moderation by soil texture and SOM uptake as cations in the liquid phase Enzymatic conversion of N09 to NH 4 and masked phosphorous into soluble phosphate eg H2PO439 Metabolic energy needed root respiration uptake of N2nitrogen via fixation Symbiosis with root fungi and bacteria Chemical Reactor for nutrient turnover Balancing Nutrient Limitations 23 Table 3 Nutrienls required by plants and their major functions Nutrient Role in plants ivlacronutrienlsu Required by all plants in large quantities Primary Nitrogen N Phosphorus P Potassium K SCl39INZd KV Calcium Ca Magnesium Mg Sulfur S l Mtcronutrtents oton Chloride Cl 139 Manganese Mn Molybdenum Mo Zinc Zn Benelieial nutrientsquot Aluminum Al Coball C0 iodine l Nickel Ni Selenium Sc Silicon Si Sodium Na Vanadium V Component of proteins enzymes phospholipids and nucleic acids Component of proteins coenzymes nucleic acids oils phospholipids sugars starches Critical in energy transfer ATP Component of proteins Role in disease protection photosynthesis ion Lransport osmotic regulation enzyme catalyst Component ol cell walls Regulates structure and permeability of membranes root growth Enzyme catnl st Component of chlorophyll Activates enz mes Component of proteins and most enymes Role in enzyme activation cold resistance Required by all plants in small quantities Role in sugar translocation and carbohydrate metabolism Role in photosynthetic reactions osmotic regulation Component ol some errymes Role as a catal st Role in chlorophyll synthesis enzymes oxygen transfer Activates enzymes Role in chlorophyll formation Role in N xation NO enzymes Fe adsorption and translocation Activates enzymes regulates sugar consumption Required by certain plant groups or by plants under speci c environmental conditions Macronulri quot Miciouutricim rimary auslmlly most limiting because used in large sLntiul for plant gronth but only needed in small quantities Eenclicml nutrients often nnl plant growth but not c amounts Scctmtlul39y llitlltll39 uulrlenls but less ollcn limiting From Schlesinger Ed Biageachemistry Treatise on Geochemistry N 0 8 2004 Chpt 6 O 000 04 Spongy cells Guard cells S oma 700 600 500 400 300 Net photosynthesis nmol CO2 gquot 5 1 700 x Desert herbs 0 Old eld herbs A Deciduous chapan al shrubs Evergreen shrubs and trees South African shrubs x x x X X x xx x x x x x O x x X o o x O O x 6 8 0 0A A A A A 6D 5 g 0 0A0 A A x A A 0A 0AA A 1 O 7 0 30 4 0 Nitrogen mmol g l Figure 53 Relationship bchccn Ik L plnnnsynthesis and leaf nitrogen Conlenl among 21 species fmm diflbrcxll environments Fran Field and h lumu y 1983 218 Bingeochemixnj39 afTerresIrin Ne Primary Production 3 2 ginyr NPPl i l 20 25 30 l i j i If I 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 5 10 5 0 Precipitation mm yrquot I I F 5 10 IS Tcmpemiurc Ci Figure Correlation of NPP in units of biomass with temperature and precipitation Schuur 2003 reproduced by permission of Springer from Princile of Terrestrial Ecnryxrem Ecology 2002 From Schlesinger E11 Biogeochemiszry Treatise on Geochemistry No 8 2004 Chpt 6 226 Biogeoczemisn If Terranin Net PI39il1ll3939 Praduclinn J 4 Nel ecosystem exchange pmol m s I I I I I I 0 500 LOGO 1500 2000 0 500 1000 I500 2000 Irradiance pmol m 2 s i b a Figure 3 Effect of vegetation and irradiancc on net ecosystem exchange in a forests and b crops reproduced by permission of Academic Press from Adv EL39oI Res 1996 26 1768 From Schlesinger E11 Biogeochemiszry Treatise on Geochemistry No 8 2004 Chpt 6 Review of terrestrial bioqeochemical cvclinq lll NPP fate Litter inputs to soil 60 Pg Cyr SOM average residence time in SOM 3 years large range fast turnover pool slow turnover pools k fT H2O mostly bacterial and fungal decomposition Humus major reservoir of C on Earth 3 times C in standing biomass Fate of major nutrient N natural N exists in 7 oxidation states only 3 used in plants and other organisms amines amides movement in soil NOS39 enzymatic reduction necessary Ncycling assimilationmineralization NH4 immobilization in microbes nitrification in soil Humus comyo CH1CH27 JamI I CC 0 stream neon c AromaticC l Phennltc c IN RCOOH RCHO AM 4 Rucom W yylttl 200 lUU cttmtcn shill at ppm Figure 3 Solidestate CPMAS 13C NMR spectrum of humic acid extracted from a grassland soil with the chemical shift ranges for select functional groups relative to TMS after Schnitzer 1990 Wilson 1990 ion and formation Plant litter primary resources Microbial resynthcsis Microbial residues secondary J39esoulces Selective Direct trans preservation formation Humic substances Figure 23 Different humi cation processes operating in the transformation of litter mic compounds after KogeliKnabner 1993 ALmnsphere Son or water 1 i DcniLrificalion N0 reduction N0 reduction 3 4 7 E g Ammonium oxidation i it I E nxidalion 39a u a E E NiLri cation quot Export gt port 1 0 l 2 3 4 5 Oxidation state of N Rcdlawn from Karl Figure l The processcs of njirogen xation assimilation nitri cation decomposition quottmmtmi cation and denitri catien after Karl 2002i Mineralizaxiou Bima 4 NH4 Nitri cation Denini calion Imnmbihzalion and Plant Uptake Figure 612 Mitrobial pram5595 that yiPld nitrong gases luring uit t39alinn and lenitri ca lion in lhe soil Modiliud from Firestonv and Davidson 1089 7 4 H T 1 a In J z 2 O 7 2 x O 1 u 1 u o 33 Wch content 0 Figure 614 Flux of NO and N30 from Icuil soil Wat cation in 2 clayloam soil as a funaiun of comtut under unox 39 CUIKI ions Modi cd from Drury 1 al 1902 N l 2 j N2 fixaiion i lt Bacteri degrmiul 11 ion DeLriml organic mauer Bacterial degradation Anaerobic conditions Figure 121 Microbial Iransformaijuns in L115 nitrogen cyclc From Wollnsl 1981 u 00 H2 0 00 I O A I MIXING RATIO pmol mol 1 l 0 100 200 390 20 40 quoto 100 200 300 TIMEmin FIGL RE 115 Temporal development ol CO HIV and N30 mixing ratius in a xed volume of air in contact With natural soils An increase in the mixing ratio indicates that the trace is I Elcasud from the soil whereas a decline indicates that it is absorbed In all cases shown a temperaturedependem steadystate level is reached after a certain time regnt39t ss 0 the initial tnixmg ratio The dashed lines indicate typical mixing ratios in ambicm Conlinental air When it is higher than the steadystate level the soil ass as a sink otherwise it prm39ic lcs a source Data fl Om Seller 1978 and Seller and Conrad 1981 from P Wameck Chemistry of the Natural Atmospheres 100 90 a 80 Iquot39 39quotquotquotquot 39I1 xer tiliazer 0 Crop N xation 7O 0 Fossil fuel N03 M 60 39gt z 50 GD F 40 30 V 20 o a 10 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1980 1980 2000 Year 180 330 b 140 A W 1 Manure 320 120 It N20 mixing ratio 310 quota 100 a T 6 gt 394 z 80 v 300 3 w 50 H I 60 290 a 40 39 39 2 W I Z 1 a 1 8 280 20 g 393 quot 0 l I l I I 39 39I39 I I l 1880 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year Fig I a Changes in fluxes of reactive or biologically available N b The simultaneous increase in atmospheric N20 concentrations and increased manure production as a result of reactive N generation in Figure la The HaberBosch process for the creation of fertilizer from N2 was invented in 1913 For data sources see httpwwweosdisornlgou EOS 8627 July 2005 TABLE 96 Fraction Average Percent of Fertilizer Nitrogen Released from Soils as N10 Amount Of Time interval I N 8131mg of obsewalion Type of enlhzcr Authors kg hm39 2 H NO Urea Breizcnbeck L t al 1980 115 Up 0 96 011 002 008 Bremner a a1 1981 250 139 Conrad and Sailel 19801 100 72 009 001 Cmnrad at al 1983 100 20 014 003 Mosicr and Huichinson 200 86 i i 1981 51er at al 1984 100 30 i 018 u Anhydrousquot ammonia 131 1 Characteristics of N Saturated Ecosystems Characteristic Form of N cycled net as plant uptake Soil DOC concentration High Ratio of gross NO3 immobilization to Near 100 Near 0 gross nitrification Ratio of gross NH4 immobilization to High 90 95 Low 50 gross mineralization Fraction of soil fungi that are mycorrhizal High Low Nitrate loss during snow melt Low High 7 g Nitrate loss at base flow Zero High A Foliar lignin concentration High Low Foliar N concentration Low High Foliar free amino acid eg arginine Zero High concentration Soil CN ratio High Low N20 production Zero High CH4 production High Low zero Humans have doubled the xed N inputs to earth A I Total anthropogenic T m 150 N fixation I at 5 Range of estimates of t5 natural N fixation g 100 E N fertilizer 9 775 03 g 50 Foss fuel 39 39 Legume crops 1 l l 1 1960 1970 1980 1990 FIG 1 Anthropogenic xation of N in terrestrial ecosys tems over time in comparison with the range of estimates of natural biological N xation on land Modi ed from Galloway et a1 1995 Fig 5 5039 3 g mrhi xf NM wvfkhz l l l l l ISOquot V IZOC W 0 W 0 l 10 E 120quot lquot 180 E Figure 4 Global atmospheric dcposllinn 0139 Nr 0 the oceans uml cunlinems of he E11111 in 1993 mg I39 In 3 yr 39 Hource Fl 1 Dcnlcnmz personal L ummunlculinn Lclicveld and Dcnlcncr 2000 from GN Galloway Chpt 12 in Biogeochemiszry 2004 The Solar System formed by gravitational collapse of 0 W 135 752 a large rotating cloud of matter The central reglo grew denser and became the Sun The remainder 5w became a disk of gas and dust the solar nebula mm m We can see clrcumstellar discs that support this theory Beta Pictoris 554 light years away is surrounded by a debris diskquot of dust 1730 micron size Transient spectral features may be due to infalling comets There is little dust Within 20 AU of the star probably because it has coalesced into planetesimals grains A solar system in the making LnHmlHinzi 391 r can i uppar maulmntla UTEH with E x 51mm HHE c M Hm TABLE 21 Comparison of the chemical composition of Earth with that of he sun and me teerites weight percent of elemen Earth s Imerior Eath Whole Cominental Oceanic rust ta Average Avelage Ir urites Average carbonaceous Elemem Sun Earth c Crust Mamle on summeb chondrireh chundrite Fe 000032 7 0 s s 5 90 11 9 s 2 24 13 o 0071 3110 430 437 2324 4193 S1 00027 150 240 220 225 1710 10511 Mg 00021 130 45 227 1811 1420 950 N1 000007 2 4 0 015 1159 104 102 5 10017 0025 193 609 11 000012 5 72 20 107 127 111 Al 000014 876 2 2 100 122 087 N11 0 00017 194 04 0114 0011 056 0 0 000014 002 01 0311 029 024 Cu 0000004 00043 007 009 004 P 0000019 014 011 011 018 K 0000004 083 02 01 1 008 005 11 0000004 1 090 01 000 006 001 M11 0000007 022 015 033 025 016 H 39 02 021 112 130 397 C 0045 553 A cr Cameron 1966 Ringwaod 19661Mason 1966Taylur 1964111111 Andaman 198 b Sluny mclcm39i cs her lt1 100 Aluminum 11 somum 21 calcmm 1 1 Potassium 23 Nickel 2 4 Calcium 2 4 90 Magnesium 4 Magnesium 13 Iron 6 80 Aluminum 8 Silicon 15 7039 i 60 Silicon 28 50 7 Oxygen 30 40 7 30 7 Oxygen 46 20 Iron 35 10 A 0 Relative abundance of Relative abundance of elements in whole Earth elements in Earth39s crust Figure 23 RCi39ALiVC abundance of elements by weight in the whole Earth and UK Ezu39Lli s crust From Earth 4 E By Frank Press and Raymond Sicvcr CopyrighL 1986 by W H Freeman and Company Reprinted by ClllllSSiOlL Origin of Earth s atmosphere amp ocean The early atmosphere came from ontgassing release of gases from the solid Earth and impact degassing release of gases when icerich asteroids hit Volcanoes give out mostly water and C 03 with relatively small quantities of H1 CO and CH4 and no 02 Before the Earth s iron core formed during 4544 Ga Earth s atmosphere may have contained a considerable proportion of H and other reducing gases those that would tend to react with oxygen were it present The reduced to oxidized gas ratio HzH20 CH4COQ etc in volcanic gases in particular depends on the degree of oxidation in the upper mantle the source region for such es gas a before b after core formation Table 21 Cumpmition oI39Yolcnnic Guses ercased from Llle Kurhy aw and Other L vlcanncs bimnn 11 its HJO Hi CO 501 LS HCI HF NJ NH 01 Ar CH Referrncc Kudn m39y Rmsia male quot3 9500 056 200 132 011 03700 0030 021 005 000 0002 Tara El 21 15195 Nuvado dcl Ruiz ng W 9490 291 274 080 00052 Williams 61 al 1986 alombnl KumrhatkuRussia m 7861 301 487 0115 L16 0 00513 1187 01 L0 0060 0140 Dobruvolsky QQU Planetary Conditions for Life Fundamental Properties basic properties of the primitive planet itself Positional Properties relative to star or other things in space Resultant Properties due to combined factors time V39enm Mars runaway Earth Virtually no quotJun ghtquot greenhouse greenhouse Oceans bOKIEll away has oceans 7 anther mm Sun 00 Nu mme ez1Lle1ug h lological cycle cold 01 hqlud met mhuu pnmuom w weathering lenum no nlel apur greenhouse nunmp ele CO to hthmpllexe 100 mm 01 plate rectomcs OJ l 245000 nmes plate tectonics Volcanoes no cmbou cycle 11ml nu Earle revum carbon to JIlllQ C0 I 716 limes Em Tx 160 C negnnve feedback 39 IA Periodic Table of the Elements 1 Name 2 Number H 7 He 10079 A F3 III A IV A V A VIA Vll A 411026 3 4 Symb illI 5 s 7 a 9 10 Li Be 6 B N O F Ne 6941 90122 320505119 J um 1 12011 14007 15999 119911 21mm 11 12 1a 14 15 1s 17 18 Na M vm B Al SI P S Cl Ar 22990 24305 III B IV B V B VI B VII B 39 B H B 26912 280 30974 31066 35453 19 9411 15 20 21 22 23 24 25 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti Cr n Fe 0 Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 29mg mum 44055 47m 50942 519911 549311 55105 511913 521693 63546 6539 9721 72m 74920 71191 7990 sun 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 M 45 46 17 40 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb M0 Tc FIh Pd Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 5168 8762 83906 91224 92906 9594 9X IIILII7 01906 Uh12 II7X7 I12 I IIJ Z I I 7I lquot7 I27Z 2690 BL 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 7e 79 so 91 82 ea 04 05 as Cs Ba 7 La HI Ta W Re Ir Pt TI Pb Bi P0 At Rn I323 I373 HEW I7R49 IIIIIHS XIII III flI I JILZJ I92 21 195le 19697 20059 2III39II39I ZII72 20398 20quot 2H 2221 37 as 09 104 105 Fr Ra iAc Rf Ha 221 225 227 am 262 50 59 so 61 62 53 64 65 66 67 60 59 70 71 mmhanides Ce Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb D Ho Er Tm Yb Lu HILIZ NI H424 H5 ISIU I595 15725 I521 I525 I64 Iv72 IGIUJII I731 H4317 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 95 99 100 101 102 103 Actinides Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm d Lw 23204 I I M 23303 217 2 231 247 147 25 252 I257 25 IE 12112 D F 39 76Ih Edilion CRC Press Boca Halon Florida delermmauun M a slandavd alornic mass SPAHH m 31115555 4 H 39 i F g j f g 2 3 HIJ EDHDEHSEFI SAMPLES quotH wnT DREF39LE I E WATER 39 Building Blocks of Life Four classes of organic molecules are most important to life Carbohydrates eg sugars starch cellulose Lipids eg fats oils Proteins eg meat tofu Nucleic acids eg RNA DNA Step 1 Rapid chemical synthesis of raw materials in the atmosphere produces amino acids NH3 ZCH 2Hl energy CH0N 5H2 5HCO Ribosefood 5HCNUVNH3 Adamneanotherammoacid R I C C I H Phospholipids make a bi layer membrane Hydmphilic waterrloving Tip Hydrophobic Waterrhavjng Tail W M H10 This membrane can form 3 H10 phospholipid bag or micelle H10 W W H20 Net force Net force Water excluded Review of terrestrial bioqeochemical cvclinq l Photosynthesis source of all matter multistep plantinternal process needs visible light water nutrients N P Lightdependence asymptotic saturation Efficiency 3 1 Tdependence from enzymeactivity Rubisco Ndependence linear high amount of N in Rubisco Net assimilated matter from photosynthesis NPP Net Primary Production GPP Ra NEP Net Ecosystem Production NPP Rh Today Distribution and Fate of NPP Table 1 Major components nl39 NPP re alive nmgniludes 39mnmnvnm If NPF New plum bin1mm Leuvcs and reproductive parts line lillerf39 Apical stem growth Sccondm39y stem growth New mots Ron Aw39l39z39n39am Root cxudutcs Rom ll39ansfcrs lo mycon39hiznc chs m herbivnrcs and mentality Volatile emissions and typical SCMUHL 1 CVCL have all of Him wmpunenls been Incamncd in 2 u mull lml ACh11I1Iu1u IUU FromSchlesinger 5A Biageachem39uw Treatise on Geochemistry No 8 2004 ChpL 6 2 2 so 5 35 4239 5 S E E cc er g5 g3 40 In lt51 Re ectance u o 1 1 l l 1 04 0 10 12 14 16 18 2 24 pm 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 nm Visibleak NearInfrared W W Wavelength Figure 56 ponion of the solar spectrum showing the lypiml re ecmncc From soil 7 u 1 1121139 surfzucs and mo pm39lions ofllu39 spu39lnlln lhul un mmmmd by lu39 LAle
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