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by: Eduardo Lowe


Eduardo Lowe
Texas A&M
GPA 3.78


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Class Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eduardo Lowe on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATMO 352 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/225949/atmo-352-texas-a-m-university in Atmospheric Sciences (ATM S) at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
The SkewT LogP diagram is the most commonly used thermodynamic diagram for operational weather forecasting in the United States shows isobars isotherms m v saturation mixing ratio lines 39 a 39 dry adiabats and saturation I adiabats K 7 area on diagram is proportional to energy current archived and modeled soundings are available in SkewT LogP mu format at several web sites 94m and in analysis programs such as GARP SkewT LogP Diagram SkewT LogP Thermodynamic Diagram The vertical coordinate is pressure in millibars mb The vertical scale is logarithmic making it similar to the real atmosphere SkewT LogP Thermodynamic Diagram Temperature lines are skewed from the vertical red lines here Units are in degrees Celsius C SkewT LogP Thermodynamic Diagram Saturation mixing ratio lines blue here are also skewed and have units of gkg SkewT LogP Thermodynamic Diagram Dry adiabats green here are curved Represent air parcel path when ascending or descending dry adiabatically SkewT LogP Thermodynamic Diagram Saturation moist adiabats purple here are also curved but are more vertical than dry adiabats especially at warmer temperatures and higher pressures At lower pressures and colder temperatures moist adiabats tend to be parallel to dry adiabats Represent air parcel path when ascending or descending under saturated conditions Pseudomoist adiabats additional assumption that all condensed moisture immediately falls out Taller skinnierquot CAPE Shorter fatter CAPE CAPE m 2300 J kg391 CAPE m 2300 J kgquot S NCAPE 49 J kgquot mbquot gt NCAPE 30 J kg391 mbquot 5km mwmwmm sohdhnesm e m 3 Am m 7 mm WW u mu menuquot and mum mm am mg u m my m t mum mm mm armpmumm xmdun mm Tampa Bay FL 2 m mmmnzn ual vempnamre ax39 m Dodge City Kansas Adapted from Blanchard 1998 Weather and Forecasting T environment Moist Pseudo adiabat Cap or 20 10 0 10 gt 20 30 TEMPERATURE 0 Bluestein 1993 T inversion Depiction of CAPE Convective Available Potential Energy and CIN Convective Inhibition on a SkewT LogP thermodynamic diagram CAPE area between TequotV and moist pseudoadiabat parcel from LFC to EL CIN area between TenV and the parcel path which is the moist adiabat from LCL to LFC a o o o o o GUI EHnSSEHd 5 and the dry adiabat connecting Tsfc to LCL Figure 17 idealized illustration or canvch avallqblc polcmml energy mm on low v NM intanmml 70 and mnyeulvz mm W 4 d r ordinam m lcmpcmuml39clanc arcssurclmbr mspccuvcly 5w sou Lundenurion WI l l level w n r pcmmm mm mm solid llncl 90c Wmum m l in mm m lm cl cm ploponlonal m m Iooo UAva ml quotwe mum mm My pmpnmunal m th area unlined areal mm by m tzmpe39mulc we and WWW lfly Ilu mum mumwmgnmugmm LK lngllnlm llw lt l my my AdleMGHHEL1lH0 E ICl m in mm Wm hm In 0 examplnthc lapse mm hrlwrcn ma mnam m a little below Inc m u almlmm Dry adiabat Stability Index Summary Tables Ll extracted from AWSTR79OO6 pp 541 to 542 LIFTED INDEX Ll THUNDERSTORM INDICATIONS gt 0 Stable air thunderstorms unlikely 0 TO 2 Weakly unstable Thunderstorms possible good trigger mechanism needed 3 TO 5 Unstable thunderstorms probable lt 5 Very unstable strong thunderstorm potential with possibility of severe storms Stability Index Summary Tables TT East of Rockies extracted from AWSTR79OO6 pp 541 to 542 CROSS VERTICAL TOTAL EXPECT TOTALS TOTALS TOTALS 181 9 26 or more 44 Isolated or few thunderstorms 2021 26 or more 46 Scattered thunderstorms 2223 26 or more 48 Scattered thunderstorms isolated severe thunderstorms 2425 26 or more 50 Scattered thunderstorms few severe thunderstorms isolated tornadoes 2629 26 or more 52 Scattered to numerous thunderstorms few to scattered severe thunderstorms few tornadoes 30 26 or more 56 Numerous thunderstorms scattered severe thunderstorms scattered tornadoes Except along Gulf Coast and over Gulf Stream where CT1619 VTgt23 TT39 Stability Index Summary Tables Kindex East of Rockies extracted from AWSTR79OO6 pp 541 to 542 Kindex East of Rockies Airmass thunderstorm probability lt 20 None 20 to 25 Isolated Thunderstorms 26 to 30 Widely scattered thunderstorms 31 to 35 Scattered thunderstorms gt35 Numerous thunderstorms Pressure hPa Temperature O m 1 5m Hugo mgmm dlusnnung me CAPE 1935 1 kgquot camputed mm a parcel n he lam 17km mixed humid all cm and DCAPE 560 J kgquot for the case m 231m The light shaded M a e m rune m mm m 3 CAPE Gilmore and V cker 1998 Monthly Weather Review Depiction of DCAPE Downdraft CAPE on a SkewT LogP diagram PE negative buoyancy available to downdra grey shaded area To estimate downdra parcel path 1 Determine wet bulb temperature 2 Follow moist adiabat to surface D wndra s usually originate near level ofminimum w l potential tem perature ewmm 7 3m war 5 Figure 310 Example of a typical Miller quotType Iquot sounding in the United States Sounding is at Norman Oklahoma at 1200 UTC April 12 1991 0600 LST Skewed abscissa and logarithmic ordinate are temperature C and pressure mb respectively The plot of temperature and dew point are given by the thick solid and dashed lines respectively Winds planed at the right pennant25 msquot whole barb5 m s half barb25 m s39 The moist air in the boundary layer surface to 810 mb comes from the Gulf of Mexico the m 39 surlace to 850 mb is nearly constant The laye moist layer comes from an elevated deep dry boundary layer over Mex which in I IS case is a lornadic thunderstorms occurred in northcentral Oklahoma later on in the day Bluestein 1993 Example of a Miller Type I sounding The loaded gun sounding Figure 311 Illustration of air trajectories that produce Miller Type 1 soundings in the United States Composite chart for May 4 1961 Limiting trajectories for the moist tradewind flow thick line height of top of layer indicated in lens 0 m high troposphere at abo denoted by full Circles from Carlson and Ludlam 1963 Uurtesy Toby Carlson Bluestein 1993 Depiction of air trajectories that produce Miller Type soundings Note pressure level of trajectory labeled in tens of mb Example ofa Miller Type IIquot sounding The tropical sounding Figure 31 Example of at Miller Type ll sounding in the United States skewed abscissa and logarllhmic ordinate are temperature 3 and pressure mb line dew point dashed line moistadiabat along which surface air parcel ascends dotdashed line For Centerville Alabama 0000 UTC August 17 1935 This sounding was associated with a tornado out reak and the remains of Hurricane Danny from McCauI 1987 Courtesy of the American Meteorological Society Bluestein 1993 6 Figure 313 Example of a Miller Type III sounding in the United Sat s bounding ior Oakland California 1200 urc September 10 1985 skewed abscissa and logarithmic ordinate are temperature cl and pressure mb respectively The plot of temperature and dew point are glven by the thick solid and dashed lines respectively Winds plotted at me right whole barb5ms half barb 5 m 7i 0W C temperature at 500mb and the relativey law No tropopause about 325 mb also note the weak vertical wind shear and light land breeze at the surface from the southeast Bluestein 1993 Example of a Miller Type III sounding The cold core low sounding Example of a BeebeMiller Type IV sounding The InvertedV sounding pnzssunz in 39 LA i ia n so 40 l0 0 rmpzaamns T Figure 314 Example of a Beebe Type IV sounding in the united States Desert Rock Airport Mercury Nevada at 0000 UTC August 8 1978 Skewed abscissa and logarithmic ordinate are temperature C and pressure mb Temperature solid line dew point dashed line lines of constant saturation waterevapor mixing ratio dashdotted lines moist adiabat at and above CCL dotted line The author observ a n o in the Sierra Nevada region of California in an environment that was probably similar to Ihis sounding from Bluestein 1979 Courtesy of the American Meteorological Society Bluestein 1993 Lifecycle of an ordinary convective cell HEIGHT EIGHT FEET KILOMETERS 9 l aromr J l I 6Slm 39 a um roweamc CUMULUS STAGE MATURE STAGE DISSIPATING STAGE a b c Figure 3l5 The Byers Braham model of the three stages in the life of a thunderstorm a towering cumulus stage b mature stage and c dissipating stage Arrows indicate the sense of air motion from Boswell 1985 E updraft downdraft Figure 315 Bluestein 1993


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