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by: Kaleb Lynch
Kaleb Lynch
Texas A&M
GPA 3.94

Jane Packard

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Jane Packard
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaleb Lynch on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WFSC 422 at Texas A&M University taught by Jane Packard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/225959/wfsc-422-texas-a-m-university in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
WFSC 422 Ethology 10122007 39packardtamuedu WFSC 39 422 PART 3 Mating contents Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Study guides Quiz Q s Exam Q s Unit 7 REARING THE YOUNG Reading Hallday 19942939 Videos A Growing Up Trials of Life LECTURE PRESENTATIONS 71 Families helpers 72 Parental care 73 hich Parent Works SLIDE NOTES 1 71 Families helpers Learning goals Alloparents development Alloparents function Helpers at the nest quotalloparentsquot care for infants not their own developmental stage function Q71 amp Q72 Scrub lavs quothelpers at the nestquot Source A Q71 amp Q72 A0 FL Jays feed nestlings PC older sibs deliver 30 of food to nestlings of parents PD prebreeding stage extended Q71 UE diverged from CA scrubjay no helpers less patchy env t derived helpers in patchy sand hills of UF those pairs without helpers produced fewer fledglings than pairs with helpers Q72 FL jays guard nestlings PC mature nonbreeding males defend territory PD prebreeding stage mature females disperse UE Mexican jay diverged further into groups of 2 mated pairs with helpers more patchy environment UF those that helped defend the territory were more likely to inherit it when the breeders died Q72 Elephants alloparenting Source A Q71 amp Q72 Elephants PC all members of group guard young PD small young are vulnerable maturity delayed until 67 yrs females remain with mothers matrilines Q71 UE diverged from other ungulates withquotcrechesquot no others are so large slow growers invulnerable to predators as adults UF those that protected sibs were a more likely to be protected b likely learning to be more effective mothers c increasing the survival of close relatives with similar genes Q72 SUMMARY developmental stage of alloparenting H1 before breedin H2 inexperienced breeders Q71 Pg1of12 WFSC 422 Ethology 10122007 39packardtamuedu H3 after losing a brood 13 SUMMARY function of alloparenting Q72 H1 delayed dispersal more safety amp food in the family H2 delayed personal gains breed better later H3 increase fitness of relatives 14 ACTION ITEMS Learning goals Do answers for Q71 Q72 Alloparents Search Google Scholar for scrub jay elephant development Search Web of Science Animal Behavior AND helper Alloparents function OR alloparent Post examples and sources on WebCT Discussion Unit 7 1 72 Parental care Learning goals are solicitation Care giving 2 Changes with age of young Q73 amp Q74 Caresoliciting by young predictable behavioral stages maturation of neurons muscles glands Caregiving by parents different behavior as the young mature changes in internal state reproductive hormones estrogen testosterone prolactin C Marsupial opossum Source A C7c 4 Marsupial kangaroo Source A C72 5 Mammal elephant seal Source A C7 4 75 PD Care solicitation by young C7 C opposum instinct at birth crawl to pouch and attach to teat detach from teat ride mother disperse from mother kangaroo delayed implantation blastocyst instinct at birth crawl to pouch and attach to teat detach from teat ride in pouch enter amp exit pouch nurse and graze 7 PC Caregiving by parent Q74 elephant seal rich milkfor 2 weeks postpartum estrous depart to feed return at 510 d int to nurse abandons pup at weaning 612 weeks wolf male feeds female nurses in den 34 weeks both regurgitate to pups during transition to solid food both deliver food chunks after pups are weaned both encourage pups to follow to carcasses amp learn hunt 8 SUMMARY coevolution of traits in each species Learning goals caresolicitation by young maturational stages Care solicitation caregiving by parent hormonal cycles amp experience Care QlVlng 9 Action Items search Google Scholarfor kangaroo development elephant seal Web of Science Animal Behavior for parental care BLOG on Q73 Q74 Pg2of12 WFSC 422 Ethology 10122007 39packardtamuedu 73 Which Parent Works Learning goals Parenting in birds Parenting in mammals UE Evolutionary Divergence BIRDS 90 monogamous both parents care MAMMALS 90 polygamous lt10 monogamous divergence of males amp females females invest more males compete more Q75 Q76 Snow Goose both parents care Source A Q75 Least Tern both parents care SourceA Q75 Saiga Antelope only mother cares Source A Q76 mrnrxr SUMMARY Which parent works Both birds snow goose least tern scrub jay mammals wolf Female birds lekking species prairie grouse mammals antelope seals baboons Male birds phalarope jacana spotted sandpiper mammals 2 Learning goals Parenting in birds Parenting in mammals I ACTION ITEMS Do answers for Search Google Scholarfor parental behavior AND goose tern ungulate BLOG on Q75 Q76 Pg30f12 WFSC 422 Ethology 10122007 39packardtamuedu Unit 8 MATING amp BIRTH Reading Halida y 19942127 Video Source A Trials of Life Courting B Trials of Life Arriving LECTURE PRESENTATIONS 81 Internal fertilization 82 External fertilization 83 AsexualHermaphroditic PC Mechanisms Female pheromone attracts males SLIDE NOTES 1 81 Internal Fertilization Learning goals Internal fertilization cause Internal fertilization function 2 What is internal fertilization Q81 Sperm placed inside the female organ more complex behavior amp learning Diverse mechanisms divergence Penis mammals Pedipalps spider Hemipehes shake Cloacal contact birds 39rure salamandersihsects 3 Hypotheses Function Q82 1 Optimal time for mating is different than birthing 2 Synchronize ovulation amp fertilization 3 Extra care for a few large young better able to survive predictable challenges 4 Paternity assurance for males 4 Optimal timing for mating Topi SourceA Q81 Q82 Defend display territory Center attracts females Test females for estrous Mount amp copulate at standing heat 5 Optimal timing for birth yyildebeestGazelle Source B Q81 Q82 Seasonal birth green grass predator swampingsyhchrony predator escape precocial Postpartum estrus 6 Polygamous Ungulates Q81 Q82 PC Mechanisms Female provides all the care Males compete for copulation with females UF Functions Rainy season good food Large young escape predators Mate guarding 7 Synchronization Siberian Hamster Source A Q81 Q82 Produce multiple litters each summer 3 wk cycle Females advertise scent before birth Give birth in eve go out Male follows pheromone Multiple copulations mate guarding for hrs After 3 hr estrus starts lactation 8 Polygamous Rodents Q81 Q82 Pg4of12 WFSC 422 Ethology 10122007 39packardtamuedu After birth female ovulates 3 hr Multiple copulations male leaves female nurses UF Functions Short interval between births produce more young Male mate guarding Example Blue Footed Boobv courtship Source A Q81 10 Example Blue Footed Booby Copulation Source A Q81 11 Monogamous Birds PC Mechanisms Lift blue feet in nest colony Head tossing at scrape Place sticks on feet Mount brief cloacal contact UF Functions Biparental care more effective Male paternity certainty Q81 Q82 12 Example Handing Flv Source B 13 Polygamous Insects nuptial gift PC Mechanisms Male catches insect prey Female takes amp eats pre Male clasps amp copulates 20 min Struggle for remaining prey UF Functions Female nutrition better eggs Male safety not eaten by female Male mate guardin Q81 Q81 Q82 9 SUMMARY Function example H1 Optimal time for mating is different than birthing eg wildebeestgazelle H2 Synchronize ovulation amp fertilization eg hamster H3 Extra care for a few large young eg booby H4 Paternity assurance for males eg booby hanging fly Learning goals lnternall fertilization cause lnternal fertilization function ACTION ITEMS Do answers for Q81 Q82 Search Web of Science Animal Behaviour for copulation mating internal fertilization Post exam lessources on WebCT Discussion Unit 8 82 External Fertilization Learning Goals External fertilization cause External fertilization function What is external fertilization Egg amp sperm both released outside bodies fertilzation occurs in water more instinctive than learned typical of ancient species also modern adaptations to unpredictable land environments treefrog quot quot predation fish Q83 I Example sea urchin ancestral Source B Q83 A0 Oceanic ancestors PC Mechanisms males release sperm into ocean females release eggs into ocean millions UF Function recombination of DNA diversity Q83 Q84 Pg50f12 WFSC 422 Ethology 10122007 39packardtamuedu planktivore predator swamping lottery analogy chance amp patchy conditions 5 Example Pacific herring derived SourceB Q83 6 Pacific herring predator swamping Q83 Q84 PC Mechanisms schooling fish move to coast sperm amp eggs released at same time UF Function recombination of DNA lottery analogy widespread dispersal shorebird predator swamping 7 Example Xmas lsland crabs Source B Q83 8 Xmas Island crabs Asian Q83 Q84 PC Mechanisms synchronized by moon and high tide breed one night land crabs move to ocean release eggs amp sperm UF Functions recombination of DNA lottery analogy widespread dispersal 9 Example Trinidad treefrog Source B Q83 10 Trinidad Treefrog Q83 Q84 PC Mechanisms male holds female in amplexus female lays eggs in curled leaf male releases sperm after eggs hatch tadpoles drop in pond UF Functions recombination of DNA mate guarding egg protection from predators in pond optimal conditions seasonal rains l Example Midas cichlid SourceB Q83 12 Midas Cichlid Q83 Q84 PC Mechanisms male nest digging guard female spawn on rock male fertilize transfer hatchlings to nestoxygenate feed swimming fry mucous Functions reduce risk of predation on fry increase optimal conditions for fry nest guarding paternity assurance IICIIIII l39l I SUMMARY Function example x 0 H1 ancestral trait eg sea urchin herring Xmas ls Crab Learning Goals External fertilization cause H2derived trait LII quot 39 39 land eiiviiuniiiei External fertilization function H3 derived trait predictable predation midas cichlid 14 ACTION ITEMS Do answers for Q83 Q84 fertilization Treefrog Post 39 Search Web of Science Animal Behaviour for external Irces on WebCT Discussion Unit 8 1 83 AsexualHermaphroditic Learning goals Asexual strategies function Pg60f12 WFSC 422 Ethology 10122007 39packardtamuedu Asexual strategies evolution What alternatives to bisexual reproduction Asexual No recombination of DNA Clones exact copies Hermaphroditic Each individual produces both sperm and eggs recombinant Both male amp female behavior simultaneous or sequential Q85 Example sea louse Source A Q85 Other species asexua Hydra daphnia Aphids Q85 Source Drickarner etal 2001 Q85 0101 Example giant clam Source A UF Function asexual H1 Rapid reproduction in short term optimal conditions ocean pond plant H2 Reproduction not dependent on presence of Q86 opposite sex patchy habitat small populations UE phylogenetic history asexual Onecelled organisms Ancestral trait evolved in ocean Derived trait adaptation to freshwater ponds Multiplecelled organisms Ancestral bisexual reproduction Derived trait parthenogenesis no sperm SUMMARY alternatives to bisexual Function H1 rapid reproduction in short term optimal conditions eg hydra daphnia aphids H2 reproduction in patchy small populations giant clam Evolution H1 1celled oceanic ancestorgt freshwater ponds H2 multicelled bisexual ancestorgt parthenogenesis Learning goals Asexual strategies function Asexual strategies evolution ACTION ITEMS Do answers for Q85 Q86 Search Web of Science Animal Behaviour for hermaphrodite asexual parthenogenetic Search Google Scholarfor Crews D Post 39 Irces on WebCT Discussion Unit 8 Pg7of12 WFSC 422 Unit 9 Lecture Notes 10122007 jpackardtamuedu Unit 9 COURTING RITUALS Reading Halida y 1994 13 1 9 Video Source A Trials of Life Courting B Sierra Club Parenthood Game LECTURE PRESENTATIONS 91 92 Species quotflagsquot Female Choosiness 93 Male Attractiveness LIDE NOTES 1 91 SpeciesSpecific quotflagsquot Learning Goals Compare flags I Coral Reef Fish Hypotheses divergence of flags Q91 0 Reefishavi Source A Ducks Q91 A Ducksavi Source A Manakins Manakinavi Source A Q91 U l Bowerbird satin Bowsatinavi SourceA Q92 G Bowerbird golden Bowgoldnavi SourceA Q92 Bowerbirds divergence Satin Lane temporary Drier habitat Sticks stuck in ground Blue objects Golden permanent tower Wet habitat fungus glue Whitelight green objects I Grouse Attwater39s Atwateravi Source B Q92 0 Grouse Black blakgrouavi Source B Q92 x O Grouse divergence Attwater s more derived Habitat open prairie Display on lek inflate air sacs Black intermediate Habitat birch forest edge Display on lek no air sacs Capercaillie more ancestral Habitat dense forest Display on territory of 13 females no sacs Q92 SOURCE Johnsgard PA 1983 Grouse of the World Nebraska Press Lincoln x x Bird of Paradise hharadis avi SourceA Q92 x I x 0 Bird of Paradise continued Bparadi2avi SourceA Q92 ACTION ITEMS Do answers for Q91 Q92 Search bowerbird bird of paradise manakin grouse Search Borgia Post to Discussion for Unit 9 Learning Goals Compare flags species specific courtship signals Hypotheses for divergence of flags 92 Female Choosiness Learning goals Pg8of12 WFSC 422 Unit 9 Lecture Notes 10122007 jpackardtamuedu Mate choice hypotheses Testing hypotheses I Hypothesesfemale choice H1 Territory Quality H2 Predictors of Caregiving abilities H3 Endurance of male good genes H4 Stimulation of female sexy son Q93 0 Female Choice choosy female guanaco Guanchooavi Source A H1 Territory Quality redbacked salamander redbackavi Source Q93 Test H1 territory quality Measure resources on different territories Measure amount of time females spend on each territory Correlate female time with territory quality Manipulate resources 01 H2 Caregiving Marsh Harrier harriermavi SourceA Q93 G 1 H2 Caregiving Grebe Giftavi Source B Test H2 caregiving Measure male differences in care giving size frequenc Measure female rejection rate Correlate measures of caregiving and rejection Manipulate quality or frequency of gifts available Q94 I H3 Endurance Crested Crane Cranesavi Source B Q93 H4 Stimulation Riflebird riflbirdavi SourceA O O x x SUMMARY Q93 Test H3I4 Endurancestimulation Measure duration of male display Measure female rejection rate Negative correlation of duration and rejection Q94 H1 Territory Quality H2 Caregiving abilities H3 Endurance good genes H4 Stimulation sexy son x I Learning goals Mate choice hypotheses Testing hypotheses ACTION ITEMS Do answers for Q93 Q94 Search crowned crane Franklin WL mate choice Post on Discussion Topic 9 x 93 Male Attractiveness Learning goals Continuous vs seasonal flags related to testosterone changes Fitness costs of elaborate flags upper limit to ornamentation I Frigatebird Frigatebavi Source B Q95 0 Ostrich Ostrichavi Source B Q95 Lyre bird lyrebirdavi SourceA Q95 U IA Tragopan pheasant tragopanavi SourceA Q95 Pg9of12 WFSC 422 Unit 9 Lecture Notes 10122007 jpackardtamuedu 6 PC Testosterone Q95 yearround secondarysexual traits Puberty eg black color of ostrich males Seasonal breeding plumage eg lyrebird fleshy traits eg neck sack on frigatebird tragopan horns Display behavior eg all above 7 Costs Peacock Q96 peacock avi Source A 8 Costs Topi Q96 tonicost avi Source A 9 Costs of being too attractive Q96 Vulnerable to predators Growth of structures diverts body resources away from maintenance Physical exhaustion from exertion SUMMARY Learning goals Proximate Cause Continuous vs seasonal flags related to Yearround signals caused by testosterone changes testosterone increase at puberty Fitness costs of elaborate flags upper Seasonal signals caused by seasonal limit to ornamentation testosterone Ultimate Function Minimize costs during vulnerable times youth outside breeding season upper limit to ornaments 10 ACTION ITEMS Do answers for Q95 Q96 Search Google Scholarfor sexual selection Search WOS for Animal Behaviour AND testosterone uPost on Discussion Topic 9 Pg lOof l2 WFSC 422 Unit 9 Lecture Notes 10122007 jpackardtamuedu UNIT 7 REARING THE YOUNG Quiz 7 read pp2939 NOONBWNT 49000 xxx COM K xx U IA In general how does parenting in social vertebrates differ from asocial species How does care of eggs in reptiles compare with birds Which parents cares for young in most birds compared to most mammals What is an example of a bird species in which BOTH male and female care for young What is an example of a bird species in which the MALE takes NO part in caring for young What is an example of a bird species in which the FEMALE takes NO part in caring for young What is an example of a bird species in which NEITHER male norfemale cares for their young after hatching Which of the following is an example of ALTRICIAL young Why do Kookaburra helpers forgo reproduction and stay at home to help raise their parents39 young Why do mammary glands make the parental care of mammals distinctively differentfrom other taxonomic groups Which of the following IS NOT true for reproduction in marsupials such as kangaroos How do young hunters like peregrines learn effective hunting techniques Comparing 3 great ape species chimps gorillas orangutans what are the differences in dispersal of offspring from the mother39s group ln black bears do young learn survival skills only from the mother How do quotallomothersquot care for infants that are not their own in an elephant herd UNIT 8 MATING amp BIRTH Quiz 8 read pp2127 N W WN9 xxxxxx U ILCOM O What are the benefits of internal fertilization Why is external fertilization considered a more primitive form of reproduction How does timing of external sperm release influence male competition Which of the following is NOT true about reproductive organs What are the functions of prolonged mating duration What are the risks of mating Forfemales what are the benefits of multiple matings For males what are the benefits of multiple matings Which of the following is an example of alternative mating strategies How does transfer of eggs complicate mating rituals Which of the following is an example of a hermaphrodite Why do females of many species synchronize giving birth at the same time Which of the following illustrates instinctive choice of a suitable site for egg laying Which of the following is NOT an example of asexual reproduction Which of the following is an example of a species that times reproduction to coincide with a seasonal pulse of available food UNIT 9 COURTING RITUALS Quiz 9 pp1319 N W WN9 xxxxxx U ILCOM O Which of the following is NOT a courtship ritual How does the great argus pheasant attract a female from a distance What is flehman behavior in ungulates How do North American redspotted newt males increase sexual receptivity of females Why do polygynous birds have more dramatic courting rituals than monogamous How do male tragopan pheasants attract females How do bowerbirds attract females Why do females tend to be the choosy sex in polygynous species In polygynous species how does the strategy of males tend to differ from females What are alternative hypotheses about why females choose more elaborate males What is an example of how the diet of a male might influence his attractiveness Which of the following is an example of a courtship gift of food Which of the following is NOT an example of an acoustic courtship display In the lyrebird what is the function of imitating the calls of other species What is the sequence of behaviors in the courtship of danceflies Pg l l of12 WFSC 422 Unit 9 Lecture Notes 10122007 jpackardtamuedu QUESTIONS FROM THE PUBLIC BLOG to prepare for Final Exam Pres Question 71 Q71 For a species with alloparents how does the development of parental behavior change with age TIP describe the progression from alloparenting to parenting Q72 What is the function of alloparents in a species of your choice 72 Q73 In a species of your choice how does caresolicitation change with age Q74 In a species of your choice how does parental care change with the age of the infant 73 Q75 In a bird species of your choice how do the father and mother care for the young Q76 In a mammal species of your choice how do the father and mother care for the young 81 Q81 In a species of your choice how is internal fertilization accomplished Q82 What are alternative hypotheses about the function of internal fertilization 82 Q83 For external fertilization how does it occur in a species of your choice Q84 What isthe function of external fertilization TIP refer to the size number and synchrony of gamete production related to risk of mortality 83 Q85 For an asexual species of your choice how does reproduction occur Q86 What is the phylogenetic history of asexual reproduction 91 Q91 Within a taxonomic group of your choice how have speciesspecific signals diverged Q92 For two closely related species what is an hypothesis about why species specific signals diverged 92 Q93 What are 3 alternative hypotheses about the stimuli influencing female choice of mates Q94 For a species of your choice how would you test an hypothesis about mate choice 93 Q95 What effect does testosterone have on secondary sexual traits in males What would be the costs of elaborate displays in males TIP UF answer in terms like those that Pg l2of12


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