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by: Kaleb Lynch


Kaleb Lynch
Texas A&M
GPA 3.94

Jane Packard

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About this Document

Jane Packard
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaleb Lynch on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WFSC 620 at Texas A&M University taught by Jane Packard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/225960/wfsc-620-texas-a-m-university in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
WFSC 620 Vertebrate Ethology Chapter 10 SELECTED EXAMPLES OF DATA COLLECTION AND DESCRIPTION Contents 101 Individual behavior 102 Social behavior Notes for Discussion Q1 Why focus on individual behavior rather than interactions 101 Individual behavior p319320 1 J TIP This is a strange section since it is only two pages long I am surprised that the editor approved one subsection and one sub subsection CRITIQUE In my opinion Lehner really misses the boa in this section Since genes are carried in the bodies of individuals it is through individual behavior that we test hypotheses about CAUSE and DEVELOPMENT It is through the aggregate of individuals in populations that we test hypotheses about FUNCTION and EVOLUTION of behavioral adaptations within species This section makes me wonder how committed Lehner was to illustrating the four questions he outlined so well in Chapter 1 He seems to have abandoned what to me is the true value of the ethological approach the 4 Q s Description is valuable in so much as it clari es answers to the basic questions He seems to imply that description is the end game for ethologists which is an unfair misrepresentation largely perpetrated in the American literature by comparative psychologists Am I wrong here 1021 Displays p 321325 1 J This section describes ways to measure how xed and exible are the attributes of display behaviors This has been used to look at developmental questions and tease out how much is due to genotype and to environment as Lehner so nicely speci es on page 20 CRITIQUE Displays are individual behaviors The modern literature in communication distinguishes between the genetic control of sender signals and of the receiver s sensory system and recognition neurons The concept is of coevolution of these traits in individuals and the switch points during development related to hormones e g gender There are lots of detailed ways to describe behavior but ultimately the researcher has to decide what level of detail is appropriate to answer research questions Fig 104 and 105 illustrate how angles may be used to de ne behavior categories 4 U 1023 Soc 1 J U Fig 106 amp 107 illustrate how body angles may be used to de ne behavior of individuals relative to a stimulus the social companion CRITIQUE The problem with highly detailed quantitative analysis is that it takes so long just to describe one generalization to a wider r r 39 sequence of interactions that the validity of f J 39 is r J ial organization pg 338340 The diagram in Fig 1013 by Hinde was a breakthrough for me as a graduate student because it made me realize that what we generalize as a social organization is really an abstraction of behavioral decisions made on the individual level So the genotypes control the probability of individual decisions NOT social organization We can measure those individual decisions in terms of interactions response by individuals to stimulus that happen to be provided by group members CRITIQUE The diagram needs to illustration that individuals vary in the types of interactions or individual behavior pro les Also what is missing here is some way of illustrating that interactions change with stages of development This diagram applies only to adults in a stable society It refers to the dynamics that result from psychological and physical variables which could be interpreted as development However it is more about aligning a model of primate social behavior with human social behavior than it is about answering the 4 Q s of ethology Note that Hinde was at Cambridge within a distinctly different school of thought than emerged at Oxford The Oxford school provided the intellectual roots of behavioral ecology The Cambridge school went more into developmental questions of what aspects are inherited and what aspects are learned as was the prevailing set of questions in comparative psychology In my opinion these branches focused on one set of Q s rather than the logic of natural selection which depends on the integration of all four Q s perspectives If interactions are not heritable then relationships are not heritable so neither will social organization be heritable So what IS heritable Fig 1014 is great This is the modern way of illustrating the behavioral profiles of individuals and their responses to the stimuli presented by other members of the group There is a clear way of analyzing these data based on categorical data analysis But it all comes down to individual behaviors Q2 Why are dominance hierarchies over rated in the older literature and have been repla ced by association indices 102 Social behavior 326338 1 N Fig 1012 illustration of 3 levels of complexity of social structure Note that the one on the right the linear hierarchy is very rare under freeliving conditions largely an artifact of controlled conditions e g chickens Table 101 illustrates a dyadic matrix which should illustrate how interactions are much more complex than a linear hierarchy U CRITIQUE In line with game theory analyses of interactions it is more appropriate to record and analyze behaviors in the categories of escalate deescalate and assess These categories map more readily onto the conceptual map that is developing with modern understanding of how genes and environment interact in shaping individual behaviors EDITOR S NOTE These notes are abstracted from the textbook Lehner P 1996 Handbook of Ethological Methods 2nd Edition Cam bridge University Press Cambridge by course participants They are meant to be a guide to reading not a source and should not be copied or quoted without reference to the original updated 20408 by Jane M Packard


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