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by: Efren Price


Efren Price
Texas A&M
GPA 3.63


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Class Notes
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Efren Price on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 201 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/225966/hort-201-texas-a-m-university in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PLANT ORGANS 0 Anatomy of roots stems leaves owers and fruit REFERENCES USED IN ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY SECTION Anzai T 1975 Two phases in adventitious root formation in Phaseolus mungo hypocotyl cuttings J Exp Bot 26580588 Argles GK 1959 Root formation and root development in stem cuttings A reexamination of certain fundamental aspects Ann Appl Bat 47626628 Cameron RJ and GV Thomson 1969 The vegetative propagation of Pinus radiata Root initials in cuttings Bat Gaz 130242251 Clowes EA 1961 Apical Meristems Bat Managr Vol 2 Oxford Blackwell Davies FT JE Lazarte and JN Joiner 1982 Initiation and development of roots in juvenile and mature Ficus leaf bud cuttings Amer J Bot 69804811 Dermen H 1960 Nature of Plant Sports Amer Hart Mag 393123173 Dore J 1965 Physiology of regeneration in cormophytes Encycl Plant Physiol 15191 Esau K 1960 Anatomy of Seed Plants John Wiley amp Sons Inc NY Esau K 1965 Plant Anatomy John Wiley amp Sons Inc NY Ginzburg C 1967 Organization of the adventitious root apex in Tamarbc aphylla Amer J Bot 5448 Girouard R M 1967 Initiation and development of adventitious roots in stem cuttings of Hedera helix Can J Bot 4518771884 Hartman HT DE Kester and FT Davies Jr 1990 Plant Propa ation Principles and Practices Prentice Hall lnc Englewood Cliffs NJ Leopold AC and PE Kriedemann 1964 Plant Growth and Development McGrawHill Inc NY Naylor BE and B Johnson 1937 A histological study of vegetative reproduction in Saintpaulia ianantha Amer J Bot 24673678 Romberger J A 1963 Meristems Growth and T in Woodv Plants USDA Technical Bulletin No 1293 Sachs 1965 Annual Rev Plant Physiol 167396 Siegler EA and J J Bowman 1939 Anatomical studies of root and shoot primordia in 1year apple adventitious roots J Agr Res 58795803 Smith DR and TA Thorpe 1975 Root initiation in cuttings of Pinus radiata seedlings 1 Developmental sequence J Exp Bot 26184192 Stewart RN and H Dermen 1979 Ontogeny in monocotyledons as revealed by studies of the developmental anatomy of periclinal chloroplast chimeras Amer J Bot 6614758 Strangler BB 1955 Origin and development of roots in stem cuttings of chrysanthemum carnation and rose N Y Ag Exp Sta Mem 342 pp324 TilneyBassett RAE 1986 Plant Chimeras Edward Arnold Ltd Baltimore MD Walker Rl 1940 Regeneration in the scale leaf of Lilium candidum and L langiflarum Amer J Bot 27 1 141 17 Wardlow CW 1957 On the organization and reactivity of the shoot apex in vascular plants Amer J Bot 44176 Wareing PF and lDJ Philips 1981 Growth and Differentiation in Plants Pergamon Press NY Wilkenson RE 1966 Adventitious shoots on salt cedar roots Bat Gaz 127103104 Yarborough JA 1936 Regeneration in the foliage leaf of Sedum Amer J Bot 23303307 Reed HORT 604 ORGANS AND TISSUE SYSTEMS Plants are composed of 3 vegetative and 1 reproductive organ Three tissue systems comprise each organ and are contiguous between each of the three organs TISSUE SYSTEMS Ground or Fundamental Reed HORT 604 PLANT ORGANS TISSUE SYSTEMS TISSUES AND CELL TYPES 3 TISSUE SYSTEMS OCCU39RH IPLANTS 1 D a1 T39 sue System Functinn Proteeta on from the euvrrourueut and water loss Tissu s a epidermis 7 single layer ofcells on primary herbaceous piautparts h periderru or hark e a eorky tassue thatrepiaees epidermis on seeoudary woody piaut p s 2 Vascular Tissue System F ctinn Conduetaor of water nutrients sugars and hormones throughout the plant Tissues a xylem e eouduets water and nutrients up roots stems andleaves u PL 4 but also ear move up at tames 3 Grnnnd or Fundamental Tissue System Functinn Storage support miertassue and site ofpiuotosyutiuesis Tissues a c rtex e outer region ofstems audroots piLh e eeuter of stems c mesuphyu rmiddle ofleaves and owerpetais lsod ameh lc fiber eiereid 7 seed eoat rbamboo eaue s stoue eeii rpearfruit ReeuHoRT 6m MERlsTEMs AND GROWTH Primary 5 me ngLh m length that glves nse m pnmary herbaceuus tlssues called me pnmary plantbudy Z Twas 21ml merian Dr apex rthe gmwmg palms lucated at the ups ufstems and muts interczlaryma islemr me ngLh regun at the base uf gass leaves that causes leavestu alungate Secnndary Gruw39hr gUWLh m mam Dr lameter that glves nse m secundary Wendy Dr curky useues called me secundary plantbudy lateral mains e menstema reguns alung me elaes ufstems andrcmts ZTmes wscularczmhiumurmmhiumr gves nse m secundary xylem wand un the made and phluem un the uutslde cnrk czmhium m pheungm e gves me la the peride hark vasculav h elle 2n camblum E secnndzly nr mnw Flam lnw nmzly nr herhzcenus Flam lnw Reed HORT 5m MORPHOLOGY OF APICES Shoot and Root Apex F E Fig 32 from Esau 1960 v upmal mnmmm um leaf Wlmovdwm Prunumbmm pmoaum mum bud gruund menslem pmquotde pmmmmum gmund mensvcm cam mensmm a tool vooicup u m u leum quotmum md Jmmlnc men cw mm 4 mummm Iimmmul Hunmwlmwm39 1m cu r Fig 220 Dcvelovmcnl or m ower in Rmmnmhu Inlahus I and 2 Two sxagcs in 0 development or the wire 11 n I 39 I 1AA f Pam 39 39 39 39 39n eun Puis 357 I n 39nIM PIanlAnnmmy Plrgamnn Puss 967 Reed HORT 604 ORGANIZATION OF APICAL MERISTEMS Geometrical Organization or Tunica Corpus Concept S oot Esau 1965 Romberger 1963 1 tunica mantle 2 corpus core inner region of apex anticlinal and periclinal divisions Morphological Organization Shoot Wardlaw IE 44 176 1957 1 distal outer covering like tunica 2 subdistal region ofphysiological i tion of growth centers 3 organogenic region of 1st visual appearance of growth centers 4 subapical region ofgrowth oforgans 5 region of maturation Sachs ARPP 1673 1965 1 2 amp 3 apical region Where differentiationorganogenisis occurs 4 amp 5 subapical region Where elongation occurs Cytological and Histological Organization Shoot Buvat see Esau 1965 Romberger 1963 1 distal zone Waiting or promeristem 2 peripheral zone initiating ring or eurneristern 3 inner zone medullary or rib meristem Quiescent Center Concept Root Clowes BotMono vol 2 1961 1 initials for root cap 2 initials for epidermis 3 initials for cortex 4 quiescent center no cell division 5 initials for vascular cylinder Reed HORT 604 1 cotyledon endosperm ReedHORT 5m STEM ANATOMY WXCJ CLL rm WW3 1311 m JENNWMM WM Fig 16 1 rmmamw n Rzed HORT 5m mm ANATOMY mm mm mm M u 3 mm um Mum m m n WWW p 1 A vmwmm r Tu W m m4 m4 N mm mm mwm m mama ms Rud uk39nm STEM ANAT OMY mm M m 71 km W mulIN Mum lm mulmdlnu ly Mum lumenquot m m m m m HIthqu mmxw u L MM 1 Mann m m m Lu 4 no r 4 A LIIm puma rm mums Fxg 17 2 mm EsauW EI ReedHORT 5m ROOT ANATOMY Dicnt Gymnnsperm nr Mnnncnt 7 Primary Gruwth suhmlmi nnmmermls undodermis asparlan stnp band around endodermis m m m yum u A m a n M m m m Mmmmnmw k mum mm m Lilquot mm h w when r mm m r L um A pm 24amp 25 mm mm ReedHORT 5m ROOT ANATOMY DICOTGYMNOSPERM SECONDARY GROWTH A woody dicot or gymnosperm root in secondary growth looks very similar to a stem in secondary growth secondary xylem Iafe wood periderm sclerenchymu in phloem secondary phloem vascular cambium Fig 154 Cross sections of roots of woody species in secondary slate of growth Abim r X24 B Tilia X33 After Esau Flam Anatomy John Wiley and Sons 3 Fig154 from Esau 1960 Reed HORT 604 LEAF ANATOMY 39239 PLATE 73 transaction of leaf of Nicotmna Iabacum Details c epidemis pal pallsadc purencliyma spa spongy pareuchynm 51 s cl vascula B cleared Boronia leaf Sclereids m at bundle ends be 1 Plate 73 from Esau 1965 MONOCOT Similar to dicot except Iiorpalisade mesophyll is all spongy parenchyma l ig I IJI luncml39wwnmmmmum l murgmul llmmm hlulv II mimen HI I M him bliidc M Mmlmmm Mugquot vamp It nudvmn M at lmrm lull r I I mumn Aw u l xl n lt l4 L no Ir 4w H dulcsuuuncu 0 J L 51 0 I V39mmJ L rem ummml Inmlrrlimum in ad Im Imu Smlc L ullugc I uw lquot5 gt Fig 196 from Esau 1960 Reed HORT 604 GYMNOSPERM LEAF 22mm vascular bundle m mum mm m pmumm nmnm 4139uk xlkn dlquot m x us Mr mm M WWW w nuddb mu Lndudmvlu v x1 5 X490 Pm 72 M as was an End HORT m4 LEAF PARTS FUNCTION STOMATE An open aperture surrounded by 2 guard cells a open when guard cells are turgi b closedwhen guard cells are accid Diurnal Cycle a open in day b closed at night c except CAM plants just opposite open night closed day Designed for gas exchange a C02 in and 02 out for photosynthesis b C02 out and 02 in for respiration c H20 out during transpiration Usually more frequent on epidermis of lower leaf surface MESOPHYLL Palisade parenchyma contains 7080 of the chloroplasts in the leaf specialized for photosynthesis because it contains a large number of chloroplasts and it occurs towards the adaxial side of leaf thinner on a sun grown leaf Spongy mesophyll contains large air spaces specialized for gas exchange because of the large air space and more stomata occur on the epidermis of abaxial leaf sur ace thicker on a shade grown leaf ABSCISSION ZONE Leaves of deciduous plants form an abscission zone in a discrete region at the base of the petiole The surface is sealed and subeIized over before the leaf falls off Mm mm r Wimp m n u m Ab39nw ln mm m mm 41va m m um am I man an m m m mm wunm mmquot mnmo an mum m cumin m we gunman lavnm mm m In Wm H am 1 y m uu ufylm mu 5 up w 7 xx m r xn I39KuLnu Wqu lmnWLJDM m m m m Fig 1810 from Esau 1960 Reed HORT 604 SUMMARY OF ANATOMY MONOCOT STEM herb aceuus GROWTH SE CONDARY vmudy GROWTH RO OT SE CONDARY vmudy GROWTH LEAF s CONDARY Windy GROWTH nuns Reed HORT 6m FLOWER n owuz r A deumxmte shawl wah leaves way mama mm xepxaducuve pms mm 9 FLOWER TYPESEASED owrmrsrusem cumplztz r camms a nal pans 1 e sspus psms stamens and plsmls innumplztz Jacks am a maze fth uulpms was issmmsssmpssns ms smmsmsy smsymsms sepst as Ms imperfecl Jacks sum pssxs as smmsmsy smsy mums sepst as Ms pisn39lhtzr ssmms Dawn s my as mm have sspsss was swam ssmms may smsnsonsysmsy mums sspsss as pans mus ism sums mamas m sssrs as m mnfunchaml um rmsmsan or n owammsmasam mumsms bmh smmmte missus nswus sssu mm sms pm Examp e cum member dinecinus smmmte missus nswus sssu m sspm was Exmpxs bully pusmmsn ma HORT mo FRUIT Va npmed m matured mmy and us mutants plus any accessury ussues perich 7 me 39ullwall whmh develuped mm me awry Wall Cumgused an layers mummy uula39layeruflhepmmrp Amway rmddlelayeruflhepmmrp Dummy mnerlaya39uf39hepmmrp FRUIT STRUCTURE Example nfz dryrnm Examplz nfz eshyfmil dry mm fleshy mm com peach End HORT 5m SEED seat a npmed urrralured uvule cunslsung Bran anbryu wnh assunaled stared fundand cuvered by a 12m STRUCTURE mm mm man TESTA smuch AND FUNCTION Fig 22 z rm Esan196DFlg mm rm Leapuld andandzmann 1954 wasmmmr55me Rzed HORT m4 HORMONES ELICIT OR MOLECULES AND GROWTH SUBSTANCES Reed HORT 604 De nitions References Moore TC 1979 Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Hormones SpringerVerlag NY Biochemistry amp Molecular Biology of Plants 2000 Buchanan Gruissem amp Jones Eds Hormone Elicitor Molecule Growth Substance an endogenous or naturallyoccurring compound that is produced or synthesized in one part of the plant and causes a change in physiology growth or development in another part of the plant usually present in very small quantities a compound which when introduced in small concentrations to a living cell system initiates or improves the biosynthesis of speci c compounds a compound with hormonelike activity all naturallyoccurring or synthetically produced compounds that affect the physiology growth and development of plants Plant Hormones and Elicitor Molecules Classically plants have been known to contain ve hormones which are auxin cytokinin gibberellic acid ethylene and abscisic acid Recently other endogenous compounds have been shown to elicit hormonelike reactions which are brassinosteroids jasmonic acid salicylic acid and polyamines Some do not elevate these to the status of one of the five classical hormones so often they are called elicitor molecules 1 2 Auxin Cytokinin Gibberellic Acid Ethylene Abscisic Acid Brassinosteroid J asmonic Acid Salicylic Acid Polyamines Reed HORT 604 AUXIN Naturally Synthetic Structure Site nf Occurrin Prnductinn mdolebutyn and IBA diam d naphmaleneaeeue and shootups 1A AA embryos 24764chlorophenoxyraceu quot Ian and 2471 SYNTIEE SIS txyptophan gt mdoleaceu and TRANSPORT 3 1 basxpetal trans on P pnmanly m phloem parenchyma EFFECTS 1 Cell elnngztinn 7 causes acxdmduced eeu wall growth 2 Cell divisinn e stimulates 3 Trnpism response of plants to environmental orphysxcal sumulx t a phnmr ge igmnernprsm 7 response to touch 4 Apical dnminancer determmedby cnrrelz veinhihitinn of apxcal bud partly due to auxrr 5 Sprain Inhibitan e retard basal branehmg 6 Branch angle 7 causes wrde branch angles 7 Fruit set 7 low eoneemrauorrs stimulate 8 Fruit nr newer thinning rhxgh eoneemrauorrs cause 9 Herbicides 7 2471 at mgr eoneernrauorrs 10 Advenminus rnnt fnrmztinn e a stem andleaf eumrrgs b ussue culture Reed HORT 5m cv T 01am Nanrally Synthetic Structure Site nf Occurrin Prndllctinn Sifa nyy i ii fdii l r quotT krrlearl not rrl pl ants 139 embryos PEA L J an SYNTIEE SIS ademrle gtzeanrl TRANSPORT xylem trans onedfoundlnrootexudates pnmarlly acropetal but notnecessanly polar EFFECTS 1 Cell divisinn e stimulates eell dlylslorl named after cytnkinesis 4 Chlnrnphyll hreakdnwn e oleereases chlorophyll breakdown 5 LeaI39Agjng nr zhscissinn rmay olelay 6 Seed germinau39nn rmay oyereome dormaney or stlmulate gerrmrraaor 7 Adventitinus shunt fnrmztinn e a leaf androot eumrrgs b tlssue culture 8 Rant grmh rmay be lnhlbltory to rootgrowth Reeel HORT 6m GIBEERELLIC ACID GA Naturally Synthetic Structure 0 ccnrrin Site at Pruducu nn shootups over so root trps named by rtorte embryos eortseeuuye bers on hackhnne SYNTHESIS see rtextpage meyalortate afarrtesyl pyropltospltate gt geranylgeranyl pyropltospltate gt eopalyl pyropltospltate kaurene gt GA between geranylgeranyl pryopltospltate gt eopalyl pyropltospltate gt kaurene TRANSPORT no polanty m phloem or xylem EFFE CT S Protein synthesis 7 mggers 4212 new syrttltesrs ofsome protems ex aramylase Cell eluugau39uu rpnmary sumulus for eell elongauort r 7 1 u r 4 Height euutrul GA used to merease herght growth retardants used to deerease herght 5 Fluweringr may eause boltmg m blenmals 6 Fruit sitar mereases slze of seedless grapes Bud dnrmancyr may oyereome and substrtute for eoldtreatmertt 8 Seed germluau39uu 7 may merease or speed up 9 Sex expressluu e favors stammate ower formauor on monoeclous plartts Reed HORT 6m Biosynthe c Pathway of Gibber ellic Acid from Moore 1979 calannnidl7 Prcplastid 1 quot E m m mevalanzle gt gt W gm mam mm mm garanylgu nyl copllyl quot3quot dlphnphlh dlphuphak l V I u a g I an Q q9 W W W m mum mmfmmm I Cytoplasm V X 3 m 9 n Vgt nw W cm GA 393 6 Mode of Action of Grawth Ramdams block ring closure between copalyl pyrophosphate and kaurene Reed HORT 6m ETHYLEN39E Naturally Synthetic Structure Site at Occurrin Prnductinn ethylene ethephon or HzcCH2 npemng frults e re aglng owers release ethylene elmlane gennrnatang lnslde plant seeds woundedtrssue SYNTIEE ms t 1 1 t a t t SAM AC0 ETHYLENE INHIBITORS ethylene inhibitan e ehernreals thatrnhrbrtthe synthesrs or aetron ofethylene Synthesis Inhibitan black synthesis at SAM Ac C AVG e arnrnoethoxyvrnyl glyclne MVG rmeLhoxyvlnyl glyclne A0A e arnrnoaeetre aerd Actinn Blacker ethylene hlnck zcdnn srs e sllverthlosulfate Ni rmckel ch 7 eobalt MCP e lrmehtylcyclopropane o rt ls agas that ean saturate the reeeptor srtes and block aetron for several days 0 ELhlelo e commerclal compound TRANSPORT dlffuslon as a gas throughout plant 1 and out Reeel HORT 5m EFFECTS l Auxin transport alters basipetal transport 2 Membrane permeability increases 3 Respiration increases 4 Cell elongation 7 decreases 5 Aerenchyma formation 7 induces aerenchyma formation under anaerobic or hypoxic conditions ie under low oxygen or ooded conditions 6 Fruit ripening stimulates in many fruits eX banana 7 Flowering triggers owering in some bromeliads eX pineapple 8 Flower fading increases 9 Flower longevity causes senescence death of cut owers 10 Fruit color decreases green increases other colors 11 Seed germination increases in some seeds 12 Leaf abscission leaf drop causes in some plants 13 Leaf epinasty curling and contortion or leaves causes in some plants 14 Sex expression favors pistillate ower formation on monoecious plants Reed HORT 604 ABSCISIC ACID ABA Naturally Synthetic Structure Site or Occurrin Prnductinn absclsl and none CW plasudsv H especlally A chloroplast Histnrically alsn called zhscisin e beeause early lnvestlgators found causedleaf absclsslon dnrmin rbecause early lnvesugators found eauseol dormaney SYNTIEE SIS mevalonate gt famesyl pyrophosphate gt ABA EFFECTS 1 Dnrmancyr eauses bud or seeol dormaney 2 Lear zhscissinn leafdmp rmay eause m some plants 3 Stnmzter eauses stomatato elose aresponse to drought stress Reeul HORT 6m Brassinosteroid Effects pollen tube growth stem elongation unrollingbending grass leaves orientation of cellulose microfibrils enhanced ethylene production Jasmonic Acid Effects defense mechanisms promotes antifungal proteins 0 growth inhibitor 0 inhibit seed and pollen germination o promotes curling of tendrils o induces fruit ripening Salicylic Acid Effects 0 blocks ethylene synthesis 0 induces owering in some long day plants 0 induces thermogenesis in voodoo lily 0 defense mechanisms promotes antifungal proteins Polyamines Effects elicit cell division tuber formation root initiation embryogenesis ower development and fruit ripening may not have a truly hormonal role rather participate in key metabolic pathways essential for cellular functioning Reed HORT 604


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