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by: Miss Marcel Dickinson


Miss Marcel Dickinson
Texas A&M
GPA 3.52

Alston Thoms

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Alston Thoms
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Marcel Dickinson on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 202 at Texas A&M University taught by Alston Thoms in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/225970/anth-202-texas-a-m-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
ANTHROPOLOGY 202 500 INTRODUCTION TO ARCHAEOLOGY Lecture 3 090611 Time and Space Archaeological Dating and Spatial Association Finding Sites and Knowing Where You Are Reading the Landscape A Archaeological Survey Design 1 2 Purpose of surveying is to map the physical remains of human activity Surveys must be designed with project goals in mind Geological factors that affect preservation and visibility of sites must be considered especially important is knowledge of sedimentdeposition environments Various Archaeological Survey Recovery Methods including 1 Walkover surface inspection Sometimes you can just walk around and find stuff Ifthere is no vegetation it39s easier to find artifacts because there is nothing to disturbed it Shovelauger testing Remote Sensing 7 aerial photo Looking for road etc Magnetometer and ground penetrating radar Find iron Find magnetic stuff When heats all of iron particles move together and you can find stuff GPS Receivers help archaeologists determine the precise locations of archaeological sites Geographical Information Systems G18 1 Software applications that enable archaeologists to bring together different types of spatial data and examine them together Software layers information allowing users to look at as few or as many types of information as needed at one time Works by creating a series of georeferenced UTM or latitude and longitude overlay Its all mapped in by people Gives topographic maps 3D space on paper 1 o Ifland is at the lines are far apart 0 If land is slopped like the lines are closer together Soil tells you what grows in a certain place D UTM Universal Transverse Mercator A grid system whereby and east coordinates provide a location anywhere in the world precise to l m 11 Archaeological Excavation A Horizontal Excavation used to expose remains of a single point in time for example the oor of a longhouse or site of Pompeii B Vertical Excavation used to expose a sequence of occupation for example any site that has been occupied repeatedly over time while sediment deposition continued resulting in a deeply buried site 0 Controlling the space a datum point provides a point of reference for measuring depth while a grid provides a means of controlling horizontal something C Stratigraphy 1 Law of Superposition in an undisturbed depositional sequence each layer is younger than the layer beneath Depositional Unit 2 Stratigraphy on archaeological sites a Refers to the accumulation of strata from geological and anthropogenic deposits 0 anthropogenic deposits human made I ex Layer of ash trash b Archaeological layers or strata only emerge through stratigraphic analysis D Excavation l Controlling horizontal and vertical space a Essential to modern archaeological excavation b Horizontal control achieved by using a grid system c Vertical control achieved through use of the datum point 2 Recovery Methods a Screening of soil detects smaller artifacts b Wet screening detects even finer pieces c Flotation used to recover botanical material 3 Recording Methods a Allow archaeologists to reconstruct the context of archaeological 2 objects after excavation b Essential because archaeology is destructive III Archaeological Things Artifacts and Ecofacts Raw Materials for Generating Data A Artifacts in the broadest sense objects modi ed or made by humans eg tools and byproducts pottery firecracked rocks or as Chazan de nes the term I Objects recovered from archaeological contexts that show traces of human manufacture Ecofacts nonartifactual objects of cultural significance e g seeds bones pollen or as Chazan defines the term I Objects recovered from archaeological contexts that are remains of biological organisms or geological processes Features nonportable evidence of technology functionally related conjoined artifacts e g hearths architectural elements artifact clusters pits burials sediment stains I Eolith an item that resembles an artifact that resembles an artifact but its naturally made 0 Ex Gravel Sites places where artifacts ecofacts features and other evidence of humans are found Noncultural offsite things as evidence 1 Offsite faunal remains animals 2 Offsite oral remains plants 3 Offsite geological things minerals and sediments 4 Others eg quot 39 39 data gcuiuuil 39 39 data regional hydrology etc IV Differences in preservation create a bias in what is found on archaeological sites biases in preservation A B Postdepositional processes take place after a site was occupied 1 Can be caused by climate and biological agents 2 Can move material around the site and distort stratigraphy Taphonomy is the study of the processes that affect organic remains after death 3 VI VII Quanti cation and Sampling Counting Bones A NISP Number of Identi able SPecimens Determined by making a chart illustrating the relative frequency of different animal bones found on a site MNI Minimum number of individuals Calculated by taking the number of examples of a given bone and dividing by the number of bones of that type which occur in an individual skeleton Quantification and Sampling Counting Artifacts A Types are major categories of objects Archaeologists often sort artifacts on the basis of their material of manufacture Typologies are lists of detailed artifact types for a particular archaeological context typologies are used to draw up inventories of artifacts found at a site Attributes are particular characteristics of artifacts statistical analyses of attributes can be used to learn more about a site Creating a Chronology A Relative Chronologies are based on artifact typologies 1 These chronologies place assemblages in a temporal sequence not directly linked to calendar dates 2 Seriation ordering is the method of comparing the relative frequency of artifact types between contextsiused to create regional relative chronologies Absolute Chronologies are stated in terms of calendar years scientific methods used to determine absolute dates of archaeological materials include 1 Argon dating aka PotassiumArgon 100000 to 5 billion years based on the rate at which potassium decays into argon 2 Paleomagnetic aka archeomagnetic dating hundreds to millions of years 3 Luminescence aka Thermoluminescence or OSL dating good for thousands of years 4 Radiocarbon dating 5 Dendrochronology 7 treering dating 4 4 6 Obsidian Hydration dating thousands of years developmental C Radiocarbon Dating Based on the participation of all living things in the Carbon Exchange Reservoir l Cosmic Radiation creates 14C in the upper atmosphere 2 The ratio of 14C and other carbon isotopes is constant in the Carbon Exchange Reservoir 3 All living things are part of the Carbon Exchange Reservoir 4 From the moment an organism dies the 14C in it decays at a rate of 50 every 5730 years VIII Comparisons A Intrasite comparisons examine differences between contexts within a single site could be used to determine the social structure of a society B Intersite comparisons examine differences between two or more sites could be used to carry out regional analyses of past societies C Synchronic studies make comparisons within a single period of time the goal of synchronic studies is to understand the workings of a society at a given point in time D Diachronic studies make comparisons between different time periods the goal of diachronic studies is to understand processes that change through time IX Conservation and Display A Conservation of archaeological sites is essential the most basic level involves filling excavated areas back in after excavation B Displays of archaeological sites and materials engage the public learning about the past X Next Lecture 7 Thursday September 8 2011 7 Detecting the past Discoveringassessing sitesisurvey amp testing work Assignment Archaeology pp 4872 QUIZ QUESTIONS l MNI is shorthand for blank MINIMUN NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS 2 The law of blank stipulates that in any undisturbed depositional sequence each layer of sediments is younger than the layer beneath it SUPERPOSITION 3 What is an example ofan eolith PESTLESHAPED NATURAL ROCK 4 Where is the Richard Beene site located SOUTH OF SAN ANTONIO


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