SOC AND CULT ANTH
SOC AND CULT ANTH ANTH 210
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Marcel Dickinson on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 210 at Texas A&M University taught by Michael Alvard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/225971/anth-210-texas-a-m-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
ANTHRO 210 Exam 2 2214 621 PM October 3rd 2013 Making a Living How they make a living How they make food Yehudi Cohen s Adaptive Strategies Foraging o AKA huntinggathering 0 Key Feattures mobility use of Nat Resources Horticulture o AKA Slash and burn shifting cultivations swiddening dry farming 0 Key Features Fallow Period Agriculture 0 AKA Intensive Farming 0 Key Features Continuous use of land intensive use of labor Pastoralism o AKA Herding 0 Key Features Nomadism and transhumance Industrialism o AKA Industrial Production 0 Key Features Factory Production capitalism socialist production Mode of Production The total monopoly of the hunting and gathering lifestyle was not broken until about 10000 years ago when some societies began the star farming Why are they important To understand the psychology and behavior of species we need to understand the kinds of problems it s members need to solve in nature Complex adaptations evolve slow Major environment change in last 10000 years We must determine of problems humans needed to solve when the lived in smaller groups as Pleistocene foragers Hunting gathering world wants fat Lactose intolerances more common in regions where milk is uncommon lactose tolerance Characteristics of foragers Nomadic not tied to a field 0 Variations in how often the move Sedentary very rare but they are usually found in rich environments 0 Common in the Northwest US during time of exploration October 8 2013 Making a Living Continued Flux in band composition BAND Hunter Gatherers Foraging groups Between 20 to a few hundred people Flexible Membership Informal leadership No social stratification Imbedded within a larger acephalous tribe of perhaps a few thousand people Marriage and relationships key Fission and Fusion groups 0 People come a go within the groups 0 No stategovernment telling people what to do Band Hunter Gatherers Tribe Used with Agricultural and more domesticated groups Violence between Chimpanzee communities Hierarchical Humans have a social structure that allows for larger groups 2 Characteristics of Foragers Egalitearian political organization 0 Informal consensus based decision making 0 No inherited status 0 Emphasis on sharing Egalitarianism o In Chimps Dominant males dominate by brute force generally do not attack as a group where as hunter gatherers do their hierarchy is likely reversed Egalitarian societies 0 Those in wheich decisionmaking and power are not centralized 0 Decision making is a group activity and depends on consensus o Principle means of orgnanizing society is marriage and kinship People in egalitarian societies are not equal differentiation is based on sex age achievement Egalitarian societies can have important individuals leaders but they do not have and real political power Egalitarian societies CAN have specialists including religious specialists shamans Root Processing Lots of tubers roots collected for Division of Labor by Sex Man labor and womens labor different Hunting and meat eating Very few nonhuman prmate capture or eats meat regularly No primate hunts large game Human foragers are who hunt and eat the largest big game Inuit nearly 100 of their calories from meat during winter no vegetation in the arctic during winter Ache 70 of total calories Features of a meat based diet Pume Foragers Husband and wife to forage together Typical foraging society gender based division of labor has women gathering and men hunting nad fishing with gathering contributing to the group diet October 10 2013 Christopher Columbus 0 Discovered new world 0 Not nice 0 Bad guy Male vs Female Productivity 0 Hadza east Africa Hiwi Pume Venezuela and AcheParaguay o In chimpanzees production and consumption line are equal they are consuming what they are producing 0 Until menopause Hadza Hiwi and Ache women are net consumers Chimps 5 years between births Orangutan s 7 years Other primates 34 years Hunting Tools 0 Spheres bows arrows and clubs Horticulture o Nonintensive plant cultivation based on use of simple tools and cyclical noncontinuous use of crop lands 0 Slash and burn cultivication and shifting cultivation and shifting cultivation o Ehat is hortculture land traditional slash and burning O Horticulture Slash and burn swidden Typical features of horticultural systerm o Clhairwithslash and burn method releases nutrients help in plan tissure Soil prepared with a dibble stick or hoe no Plowwing Human labor fallow Hence most land laying around at any one point Most land lying feello Common slash and burn crops 0 Corn 0 Rice 0 Taro o Yams Agriculture 0 Continuous use of crop land more labor intesive due to ancillary needs by farm animals and crop land formation 0 Domestic animals used in Ag ease labor mrovde maneuver o Irrigation frees cultivation from seasons 0 Terracing Terraced rice fields Bali Indonesia Pastoralism o Pastoral economies are based upon domesticated herd animals Trade popular in these communities Animal Husbandry 0 Transition 10000 o Sheept and goats o Cattle pigs camels horses Zagros mountains introduce into the sheep and goats form middle east Africa Patterns of Pastoralism o Pastoral Nomadism All members of the pastoral society follow the herd throughout the year 0 Transhumance or Agropastoralism O O O 5 Part of group follows herd other part October 15 2013 Dominica Lecture Focus on fishing technology influence on social problems and generating solutions Dominica English is the national language Commonwealth on Dominica Volcanic rocky Not touristy yet Small 15 miles wide 30 miles long Island of 365 rivers Many individuals have migrated form there Small populations Reservation for Caroobsp Indian blood Most places close at 6 Taromain food most imported Fishing sector 187 percent of GDP Tuna flying fish Bonito Mackerel Snapper KingMackerel MahiMahi Dolphin Barracuda BlueMarlin Swordfish Fish Aggregating Devices 0 FADs 0 Technology October 17 2013 Sex Sex Vs Gender 0 Sex Biological designation 0 Gender Socially constructed view of sex Not quite so black and white Physique and Physiology 0 Humans are sexually dimorphic males and females are generally of different size and appearance 6 Dimorphism evolved differences 0 Australopithecine males were much larger than among modern day humans Darwin and Sexual Selection 0 Distinguish between 0 Natural selection selection for traits that enhance survival ability 0 Sexual Selection selection for the traits that increase an individuals ability to acquired Why the distinction displays 0 Many characters particularly in males are detrimental to survive Sexual Selection 0 Nonrandom differential reproductive success in the context of mating o Withinsex competition intrasexual selection more often malemale o Mate choice intersexual selection more often important to the females Sexual Selectio depends not on a struggle for existence but on a struggle between the males for possession of the females the result is not death to the unsuccessfully competitors but few or no offspring Bateman s experiment 0 Placed 35 adult fruit fliesof each sex in containers for brededing 0 Each female could choose among a number of males and each males had to ontend w Bateman s Principle 0 Males wil usually vary more in number of surviving offspring produced Almost all females will have a willing partner and will reproduce In contrast some males will fail to persuade any female to mate with them or will be excluded by more powerful rivals Bateman s conclusion 0 Explained his results in terms of the energetic investment of each sex in the gametes Multimale polygyny or promiscuous o More Tension in males 0 Enlarged size of male testes relative to body size Result of sperm competetion October 22 2013 Males more aggressive kill more males than females Females rarely kill males and even less frequently kill females Paternity Certainty o Refers to the probability that the offspring a male is helping to rear are his own Specific adaptations evolve such that Claustration Purdah O O O Kinship o GENETIC Affinity based on shared genetic relationships 0 CULTURAL AFFINITY BASED ON SYMBOLICALLY MEDIATED AND SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED IDENTITY 0 Families Understanding kinship system is essential part of anthropology Nuclear family a Married couple and their children normally living together in the same household Extended family a Consists of 3 generations Patrilocality live with husband s family Matrilocality live with wife s family October 24 201 3 Trust the people you are working with to do the job 0 Know who s on the team trust them to know the rules Hence the importance of ineagescans and residence rules Descent groups allow certainty In most non huntergatherer tribal societies descent group not nuclear family is a fundamental unit In many societies descent groups are corporate sharing resources and property Obataona what 0 As an entity persists today though the group has died Family vs Descent 0 Many societies have both families and descent groups Obligations to one may conflict with obligations to the other but how u Complexities added on n Have a family level lineage level clan level and this results in possibility of conflicts between the levels a Where does loyalty lie in the face of conflict Tradition provides the answer a EX Sacrificing of children n In many societies higher levels trump lower levels 0 Ambilineal Descent People can choose which group Patrilineal Descent Follow fathers descent group 0 Matrilineal Descent Follow Mothers descent group 0 Lineage Systems Provide unambiguous group identity Conflicts of interest reduced Half of one s kin excluded 0 9 D But collective benefits realized 0 Segmentary Lineage Organization SLO Based upon descent group structure typically patrilineal Segmentary lineages composed hierarchically with smaller units 0 Nuer expanding at expense of Dinka o Kinship is beyond genetic it has a strong cultural component that identifies individuals that allow people to function in large groups 0 Kinship calculations System by which people in a society reckon kin relationships Kin terms labels Big fuss between biological anthropologists and cultural anthropologist over thisA Native Taxonomy n Developed over generations by the people who live in particular society a Our own system of kinship classification called lineal kinship terminology Lineal relative o Ancestor or descent Collaterals O Affinals O n Lineal Kinship Terminology Inuit Mother Father Aunt Uncle Different terms same ideas Four Systems of Kinship Terminology w Social and Economic Correlates Lineal 0 Nuclear Family 10 o Neolocal o Industrialism Foraging Bifurcate Merging Terminology OmahaIroquois o Splits mothers and father 0 Unilineal descent group patrilinea matrilineal O 0 Father s brother still called father but fathers sister called aunt o Mothers sister called mother mother s brother called uncle Generational Kinship Terminology Hawaiian 0 Mother and Father s brothers and sisters called father and mother Bifurcate Collateral Kinship Terminology Sudanese 0 Everyone called something different 0 Biological focuses on genetic relationships Objectiver measured for the most part Nepotism Favoring of Kin Darwin s Dilemma What about the sterile workers among the eusocial insects o Eusocial Insects Honey bees termites a Large socially complex societies Kin selection Hamilton stated that Eusocial Sterility was a form of altruism o Hamilton s Equation rB C gt 0 n r Coefficient of relatedness between the actor and the recipient a B the fitness benefit to the recipient a C fitness cost to the actor o Altruism will be selected if The recipient is sufficiently related Benefit sufficiently great 11 Cost sufficiently low 0 Predict Individuals will be more likely to favor kin than non kin than more distant kin O Coefficient of relatedness The probability that a gene in one individual is an identical copy to a gene in another individual because of common descent o The key concept each generational link there is a meiosis and so a 05 probability that a Common r values Parent offspring r 05 Sibling sibling r 05 Genetically identical twins r1 Grandparent grandchild r25 UncleAunt nephewniece r 25 Cousincousin r 25 Ground Squirrels Sherman 1977 Diurnal social rodent Female establishes territory after mating and produce 36 offspring in a year Caller pays cost because she attracts attention of predator Others benefit because they can escape Results 0 Females more likely to give alarm calls than males More likely to have close relatives nearby n W close relatives nearby even more likely October 31 13 Haploidiploidy Most common in Eusocial insects o Males are haploid Developed from unfertilized eggs they have the full complement of genes from the mother they have no fathers 0 Females are diploid 12 They get their genes from thei father and the mother the queen 0 Sisters are related by a coefficient of 075 Sisters more related than motheroffspring 0 Brothers are related by a coefficient 0 For a female Half of the genes come from your mother you have a probability of sharing half of these maternal genes with your sister Half of your genes come from your father and you share all of these with your sister all his sperm are identical because males are haploid no meiosis Incest 0 THE SEGWAY TO MARRIAGE 0 A classic human universal Incest avoidance avoiding sexual activities with close relatives 0 Incest taboos Humans rarely mate with close relatives Incest avoidance is universal There is no society where in which brothers and sisters marry of where parents regularly marry of where parents regularly mate with children 0 Inbreeding avoidance Incest taboos Freud n we have a deep desire to mate with our relatives n Argued that incest taboos are a result of difficulties organizing societies Inbreeding theory genetic degeneration n Offspring of two genetically related people have lower fitness than those of unrelated people a Offspring of inbred matings are more likely to be homozygous for deleterious recessive alleles than are offspring of outbred matings People carry between 1 to 5 heterozygous lethal recessive alleles 13 Relatives are more likely to also carry the allele in heterozygous condition Mating with a relative increases likelihood Habsburg married nieces resulted in serious deformation 0 Incest and Exogamy Diiferent sides of the same coin n Exogamy is the practice of seeking a spouse outside one s own group Cooperation theory a Marry out of die out theory a Taboo originated to ensure exogamy More social wider gene pool Taboo is a cultural construct o This is questioned by the avoidance by animals Argument focuses on the adaptive social results of exogamy such as alliance formation not simply on the idea of genetic degeneration o Westermarck effect Edward Westermarck 18621939 Westermarck Knot 78 Adults are not sexually attracted to the people they grow up with Evidence to support a Taiwanese minor marriages Children are betrothed and prospective bride was adopted into the family Couples grew up like brother and sister At maturity couples found each other sexually unexciting Father s often have had to beat the couples to get them to consummate marriage Produced 30 fewer children More likely to divorce n Lebanese parallelcousin marriages n Kibbutz Lavi 14 Marriage Communal farms Israeli utopian community Children raised in communal nurseries as if the were brother and sisters Community does not discourage sexual experimentation but it never occurs Of 2769 marriages studied by Joseph Sheper on 14 were between same peer group and in each case one partnerjoined after age six a Royal Incest More common because brothers and sisters were not raised together Sir James Frazer a British Anthropologist a universal prohibition of sex between brother and sister vitiated the Westermarck hypothesis H the law only forbids men to do what their instincts tell them to do what nature itself prohibits and punishes it would be superfluous for the law to prohibit and punish Incest avoidance legacy No single definition of marriage incredibly diverse worldwide Legally sanctioned relationship Child bearing Sexual reproductive relationship Economical Expected enduring Endogamy O Exogamy 0 Marriage partners 0 Monogamy one spouse 15 0 Serial monogamy marrying one individual leaving them marrying another leaving them marrying another multiple spouses one are a time 0 O O O Polygamy 3 person marriage Polgyny marrying more than one female Polyandry marrying more than one male Polyamory group marriage no number limit Marriage and rights 0 Several different kinds of rights allocated by marriage Establish legal paternitymaternity Monopoly on sexuality of spouse Rights of labor of spouse Rights over spouses property Establish joint fund of property partnership for the benefit of the children Establish a socially significant relationship of affinity between spouses and relatives Same Sex Marriage 0 Nuer an only daughter can be considered a social male this daughter will then take a wife and any children born to this wife will be socially recognized as belonging to the patrilineage of the sonless grandfather Azande boy wives o Azande are a tribe of North Central Africa 0 Warriors would go select a boy between ages 1220 request boys hand in marriage Pay bride price for the boy in the form of spears and other goods Socially sanctioned Once the boy was trained to be a warrior he takes on aboy wife of his own NOT ENDURING Same sex union 0 Hellenic Greece Age of youth similar to the age that women married Ended when boy turned 17 16 NOT ENDURING Sexual division of labor economic Prolonged infant dependency maternal burden Sexual competition minimizes conflict between males Postpartum requirements How does one marry Trobian Islanders 0 Sleep together on a regular basis 0 Public appearances 0 Girls parents approve when she accepts a gift 0 Moves in eats meals 0 Theyre married Wana 0 Formal exchange of gifts Bride capture 0 Capturing woman against her will w intent of forcing her into marriage Common in Central asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Peer pressure Possibly involving raped Once kidnapped women resign because others will assume she is tainted that she has been raped Honeymoon O O O O O 17 EXAM 3 Anthro 210 2214 621 PM EXAM 3 Band Small and kin based political unit Size varies o By season and climate 0 Usually about 100 people 0 Do not hold property Debate about Band 0 Some anthropologists argue that this is the most popular political unit before agriculture because of most hunting gathering societies use this king 0 political system 0 But band society is a result of the interactions between different group in modern world Band Society different today bc they are living in more remote areas like dessert etc where the majority of society does not wish to dwell Tribal Organization Def 0 Kinship groups of associations that can potentially integrate several local groups into a larger unit which is tribal organization 0 Social organization based on kinship framework such as descent groups or lineage Egalitarian society with a more complex organization such as gender stratification or age group Ex Amis More population More Sedentary that hunter gatherer bands Economically tribal organization Age Set Amis a Group of indigenous people in the eastsouth part of Taiwan n Matrilineal society 18 Political power controlled by men n Amis is an egalitarian society a Age group distinct people to different group by age Different age groups in charge of different social responsibility n Usually the younger age group respects the older age group D IN the past organized as a defensive group Political and Social control organization a Age set is a window for Amis to connect with external society in the symbolic sense a They name each age set group by outside events Political organization in a band society tends to be informal Leadership can be a village head or a big man Power and authority 0 Power Chiefdom Formal political structure and organization More population and more intensive economic productivity Relatively permanent residence Tend to have social stratification rank system Rank in Rukai Clothes for normal people are not as flashy as those of nobles Only chief and nobles are allowed certain privileges Example use Deinagkistrodon acutus to decorate their household Patrilineal comes the chief 0 Their authority is usually hereditary and generally permenant O O O O O O 0 Here Ability to exercise ones will over others Authority is the socially approved use of power Big man is the planner speaker mediator and regulator If people don t agree with the big man they can leave and join another village or tribe 19 0 They can access to greater prestige 0 They can redistribute wealth among their people 0 Power is inherited through lineage 0 Chief can stop individuals from leaving the tribe From band to chiefdom One reason that people tend to have meore and more complex social organization is due to population growth When economic system shifts from hunting gathering to horticulture pastoralism people start to accumulate wealth that can pass to offspring o Chiefdom can be related to wealth Permenantly wealthy lineages can convince other groups that they have been touched by god and that their lineage must be in chiefdom Case Taiwanese Indigenous People There are 13 ethnicity groups in official record Political system they adapt to cooperate with others The origin of states Agriculture and states 0 Intensive agriculture irrigation system Competition and welfare Defensive needs All related to some sorts of collective activity 0 O 0 State Autonomous political unit 0 Encompasses many communities within its territory and having a centralized government Characteristics of states 0 Class States and chiefdom share common features such as social stratification different accessibility of resources wealth and prestige States tend to have a more cleas boundary between classes 0 Power in a State society Due to a complex social organization states tend to have judiciary or other social institution to enforce power Conflict Two types 0 Individual conflict one person v one person disagreement Easier to solve Individual violence 0 Collective conflict group Solution Individual violence Feuding 0 When individual violence can t solve then it turns into feuding o Feuding usually based on kin group Raiding 0 Large scale confrontations such as warfare November 14 2013 SKIPPING CHAPTER 14 Dead Birds Associations and Interest Groups and Politics DEAD BIRDS 0 Robert Gardner filmed o Dani People of New Guinea 0 The intention was to study the highlands of New Guinea at that time it was one of the few remaining areas in the world uncolonized by Europeans o Focuses on the role of intergroup conflict among the Dani Dani o Dani fields Highly manipulated environment intensive agriculture of yams this results in Men only do heavy labor women do the rest of the farming 0 Men spend most of their time concerned with intergroup conflict 21 Stand guard in watchtowers along frontiers with enemies Weave 0 Women Performed majoring of ag labor harvesting and cultivating crops 0 Pigs Pigs a source of wealth children and women responsible for care of pigs Slaughtered for celebration or communal feast or in the event of a death 0 Warfare the Selective Force A human universal n Apes chimpanzees a Small scale societies n States Why War a Ultimate Causation Pacifist groups are typically eliminated n SOMEONE has a lt1 n Violence due to warfare has dropped dramatically over the past years Association and Interest groups Not based on Kinship o Nonvoluntary and Voluntary Associations 0 Groups are formed through inherited structures 0 Pantribal SodalitiesAge Sets Nonkin organization Tap into larger tribal population AgeGender Some confined to single village others larger Art November 19 2013 What is art O O O O Difficult to define type of human activity that is related to creativity and elicits an emotional response Several forms Music dance pottery sewing painting In most cultures no specific word for art More common in westernmodern cultures to have separate word Art attached to daily lives of other cultures Anthropologists hypothesize that art performance and social complexity is highly correlated Forms of Art Body Decoration full body tattoos sign of strength not fearing pain courage toughness possible gang Possibly one of oldest the artforms Can be permanent or temporary a Temporary Henna n Permanent In simpler big man society body decoration typically tend to be temporary Conversely in chiefdom society body decoration typically permanent Can be related to rite of passage or specific ritual in religion n Seediq Both women and men will have their face tattooed when they become adults For a sediq man he must complete one head hunting before his tattoo on his face For a seediq woman must complete a piece of textile then she can have a tattoo Both men and women are allowed to marry after they have a face tattoo a Only after getting a tattoo can they call themselves seediqbale which is a real person 23 0 Music Only a seediqbale can be accepted by ancestors after death Wushe Event During Japanese ruling time a Japanese ruler prohibited seediq people to have face tattoos bc they saw it as a symbol of remoteness and primitiveness also prohibited head hunting Bc the prohibiton of head hunting the men have no way to get a face tattoo which in turn means they cannot become seediqbale and they cannot be accepted by their ancestors October 27th 1930 After years of serious exploitation seediq discontinues holding back gt time to revolt 0 Killed most of the Japanese in their territory 0 Young men join the fight in order to have their face tattooed Mona Rudo Now arrow and musket cannot compete with machine guns so many seediq men in the battle died Buuuuut they died with their face tattooand were able to join their ancestors Music is universal with different areas having different styles and sounds Some anthropologists subscribe to the idea that the complexity of the song might be related to the social structure The more a society relies on verbally communicated info the moreclearly the enunciation will be Music Cohesiveness Sign for coworking and social harmony of a kin group or community 24 Pasibutbut Some anthro argue that the type of musical rhythym the society produces is highly correlated to the society s way of carrying infants Culture ethos is correlated to musical performance Some anthro believ that musical performance will vary by a cultures emhphases on obedience or independence in children 0 Folklore Not always distinguishable from the other arts particularly music and dance Way for any social group to share common experiences Sometimes folklore also revelas some specifict topns that concern people or their discontent Storytelling can be a performance art in modern society a 18th century france very popular story around working people story is about how an apprentice killed all his mistress cats in one night 0 The Great Cat Massacre Story became a popular folklore story at the time Reflects circumstance of working class people and the resistant to their master 0 Folklore can convey discontent anger or grievance o By hiding the real meanings behinds lines folklore I not only a form of art but also a vehicle of resistance from people without power Does primitive art change 0 When western museums display art pieces from primitive cultures where will have more description and usually remain namesless 0 Furthermore art pieces from the nonWestern world tends to be assumed timeless as well that means art works represent 0 However style change over time No specific type of at can represent culture in art Case Endek in Bali 0 Special method to produce textile o In past only noble women know and make this fabric 0 Now worn for special events and in daily life but a simple endek During WWII when the Japanese occupied Bali they intofuced a new loom machine to Bali balinese used Indonesia abandoned stratification system and become deocraitc society Also Due to it s high at values world commodity easily traded exported to western cultures The pattern on the endek can be very creative therefore this characteristics allows fro a fasjhion statement One of ost important fashion good in Bali Govern promoting fashion market 0 Point is there is no clear curte between fashion and tradition Tradition changes with between time and it is a part of fashion at all times November 21 13 The corporation 0 Corporations legally a person RELIGION Emic perspective insidernative s interpretation ofor reasons for hisher customsbeliefs o What It means to the members of a society Etic Persopectice 0 External researchers analysis of the same Analytical scientific perspective Objective Trying to find the variances relationships with politics economics Revealed Knowledge 0 Revelation Act of revealing or disclosing or making something obvious and clearly understood through active or passive communication with the spirit world Neanderthal mortuary 0 Provide the earliest evidence of what was probably a religious activity 0 Grave goods incase they need the objects in afterlife Animism o Retained tribal ethnic religion of people around the world 0 Adherent number of at least 100 million 0 Belief that certain inanimate and some animate possesses spirits of souls 0 Example Mountain 0 Each tribe different 0 Shaman intermediate between physical and spiritual world Wana o Animism Animatism o Belief in supernatural power not of supernatural beings Power usually impersonal unseen potentially everywhere Powerful dangerous is misused neither good or evil Something along the lines of the force in the Star Wars movies Animatism is a widespread belief especially in small scale society You can believe in Animism and Animatism at the same time not mutually exclusive Animatism 0 Common in Polynesia 0 Mana is power 0 Inherent in all things If you have too much you are different Ancestor worship veneration of dead death cults o Spirits help you 0 Family members passed will help you 0 Alters to make offerings to ancestors Practicioners o Shaman Not parts of organized religion In direct contact w spirit world Usually through a trance Curing diving Anyone can be a Shaman Essentially religious entrepeeneur n Intervenes on behalf of human client to influence supernatural beings to perform some act such as curing an illness or discovering the cause of an unexpected death Trance is achieved by n Fasting n Torture n Sensory deprivation n Breathingmeditation n Prolonged repetitive ritual dancingdrumming n Hallucenogenic drugs Healer fails to heal a Offending spirit healer with solid reputation will not lose it n Healer may not be sufficiently well developed a Initial diagnosis faulty another diagnosis tried a Healer deemed incompetent Witchcraft n Ham inflicted by a person who possesses internal powers to inflict such harm sometimes involuntarily a Witch differs from a sorcerer in that they do not use physical tools or actions to curse 28 n Maleficium perceived as extending from intangible inner quality person may be unaware they are a withc of may be convicted of evil nature by others Azande D Evans Pritchard studied a witches unaware of powers unless they are accused If something happened one time out of a thousand that one time is witchcraft n Divination n Oracles Final scantron pencil Lamalera Whale hunting in Indonesia Case Study 0 Settled in their location due to the beach access 0 Interesting because they are complex hunter gatherers Don t have any agriculture for the most part No domestic animals for the ost part Live in a settled village Their resources come to them They are marine foragers Organized in patrilineal clans B These clans own the whaling boats Whaling boats are main tool to hunt whales Whaling boats about 11m long a Clan based corporations n Focused aroung vessels called te 39na n Mutualismcoordination to whale Verging on aristocratic lineages Asymetric marriage alliances Moiety split society Lamalera A Lamalera B Whaling is seasonal O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O MaySeptember a dry season a Callered Leda periond n Precipitation bad Off season Balea Eat dogs Two elementary schools one middle schools had to go across island for high school Claim intelligence linked to whale oil consumption One health clinic Injection of antibiotics is treatment of choice Health issues malaria childbirth rabies foraging related injuries tobacco Drinking tuak Tuak is a fermented palm sap Integration into Indonesian bureaucracy Village government exists People voted in the last election Animist until turn of the century missionized by catholic priests Strong catholic tradition Nearly all adults go to mass on Sunday in a large church Prey Sperm whales toothed large mammals Large Manta ray Women barter for carbs corn and manioc 30 DEAD BIRDS 2214 621 PM All men weave They use the yellow clay when a relative dies an enemy dies or for no reason at all The yellow colored patches around their eyes make them look like birds Uncultivated lands between them and enemy 3 miles in length Watchtowers in the land 2 weeks since killing of enemy on high alert because the death must be avenged Raid must be staged when least expected and at a place that for some reason is left unguarded Ghosts steal bananas spoil crops and haunt in the night so no one goes out at night unless there is a full moon Causing a death of an enemy is a tonic to the soul Each soul is a seed a living spirit Don t fight in the rain Slick rocks leaves warning Some arrows banned Many injured They begin to insult each other Death 0 Kill pigs 0 Shell bands given 0 Chair Shell bands 0 Given at birth marriage and death 31
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