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by: Mr. Niko Mante


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Animal Science > POSC 333 > INSTINCTS AND BEHAVIOR
Mr. Niko Mante
Texas A&M
GPA 3.8

Morgan Farnell

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Morgan Farnell
Class Notes
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Niko Mante on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POSC 333 at Texas A&M University taught by Morgan Farnell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/225981/posc-333-texas-a-m-university in Animal Science at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
Intermission I Intermission 0 httpdlwwwmyggacexomlpa sux 3122009 Animal Welfare lemma 5 Instincts and Behavior 333 March 12 2oo97 7 7 Morgan Farnell PhD I Ian 20 I Ian 22 Ian 27 James I Feb 3 I Feb 5 I Feb 10 I Feb 12 OSC 333 Calendar 1st Qu a rte r Syllabus Pretest Human Behavior Mating Parental Behavior Finding Partners Video Sadie Demands of the Egg Video 7 Steph Mating Parental Behavior cont Problems of Parenthood r LizSteph Review Exam 1 Sadie Exam 1 POSC 333 2nd Quarter I Feb 17 I Feb 19 I Feb 24 I Feb 26 I Mar 3 I Mar 5 I Mar 10 Exam 1 Review Bird BehaviorsI Bird Behaviors 11 Alternative Rearing I AniInal Welfare 7 Bruce Webster Alternative Rearing II Review Exam 2 Exam 2 POSC 333 3rd Quarter I Mar 12 Animal Welfare Parnell I Mar 24 Molting 7 Sadie I Mar 26 Circadian Talk 7 Allen Byrd I Mar 31 Review Exam 3 I April 2 Exam if 3 3122009 POSC 333 4thEJ rter39 I Apr 7 Signals and Songs Video Sadie I Apr 9 Hormones I Apr 14 Stress Video 7 Sadie I Apr 16 Stress I Apr 21 Feeding I Apr 23 Walk 7 Attend Texas Egg Clinic I Apr 28 Imprinting 7 Kendre I Apr 30 Review Exam 4 I May 8 Exam 4 Animal Welfare Introduction I Chicken domesticated from the Red Jungle Fowl 7 I Turkey domesticated 7 2000 years ago I Others Japanese quail guinea fowl ducks pigeons ostriches emus I Bred for higher meat and egg production with less feed consumption I But they still exhibit similar behavior to their undomesticated counterparts Animal Welfare Definition I Animal welfare is the viewpoint that some or all animals especially those under human care should be treated in such a way that they do not suffer urine ce ssarily 3122009 I Animals abusers Cnclt 39 l 1 inggtdng 1 5gtetlt Extremist Charities No opinion Tun busy urstaxvingtu wmy abuut M d t 3 e 0 Extreme V1ews nnnnnnnn arin 0 No animal use of any kind I Rural ldealisls Animals shuuldbexaised in natural candidans mnauefaimmhinkwmman 39 Ruckwellpaiming support termnSt ETOHPS Herbivores m y u a h 0 Chlld reeducanon fish 0 DImkmg m k Will give you pimples Extremists Animals shnuld nut be expluited m cansumed Veggm Starter kltS Numilknueggsmmxeseaxchnnleathex5hue etc m ANIMALS htt wwwmsnbc msncomid21134 540v910258289 10258289 3122009 Newspaper Clipiping ofthe people Ehat Ed in to what the C lumu W 39 MiLKSumRS livfMEKSUBEK ggu 39 1 39 7 A f 5 quot2717 at mean T6 in yvu human who 7 kill animals for food 9 person Shame 011 3 5 you ought 2 week to go to the store and buy it the The where no animals hrisnans were armed 1 am wllinigVi ga39ra 11939s the Speakout am an avid splanters mule r mm L fr FEDFLE HERE PLEASEU N KNDH aun If uua FF m IvW quot7 Peter Singer InterVIew quot WWW WWWWMM Chl otle Cu ww39mwmmz W ID IO M httpvideogooglecomVIdeoplaydo M mm cid2991327717241575514 wxmwm 3122009 Other Factors Pe rce pt i o n 0 Religion Mad COW Dlsease 0 Intensive animal husbandry maybe perceived by the 0 Health Bird Flu public as less acceptable than the agrarian idealquot but scrapies it has allowed us to have the cheapest most wholesome 0 Adulterated Meat food supply in the world What if enhanced animal welfare cost you 0 Less intensive systems of animal agriculture cost more e O n 5 money to produce the same amount of product 0 Would you be willing to pay 5 10 or 20 for awhole 0 Is Animal Welfare a luxury of rich societies broiler that now sells for 350 0 Do people in third world countries worry about 0 Would you be willing to have less disposable income Whather a ChiCken was raiSEd in a Pasme or a barn 0 Is man or nature more cruel 0 What if you couldn39t buy the latest fashions CD Video game fancy shoes or go to co ege 0 What if it shortened your life or that of a family member 3122009 Qu e st i o n s 0 Is it worth some animal suffering to provide develop 0 food 0 clothing 0 medical research 0 new drugs 0 a cure for HIV cancer 0 to saVe the life of yourself or a family member What is quotUSDA Certified Organicquot 0 Produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water to L 39 quali 39 quot 0 No antibiotics 0 No growth hormones 0 No conventional pesticides 0 No fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage ud ge 0 No bioengjneering 0 No ionizing radiation What is Natural 0 A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color and is only minimally processed a process which does not tundamentally alter the raw product may be labeled natural The label must explain the use of the term natural such as no added colorings or artificial ingredients minimally processed Is it better for me 0 No de nitive proof one way or the other F i n meet minimum 39 0 ie pasture maybe a 6 foot square area for 25000 birds 0 Animals reared outside can have more exposure to diseases 0 ie Worms coccidia AI 3122009 Perception of the Majority 0 Most believe that animals are to be used by man but that they should suffer as little as possible Farm Animal Welfare Council UK 0 The Five Freedoms 0 Freedom from hunger and thirst 0 Freedom from discomfort 0 Freedom from pain injury and disease 0 Freedom to express normal behavior 0 Freed om from fear and distress Other Freedoms 0 What is normal behavior 0 Should birds be allowed 0 Exposure to the sun 0 Fresh air 0 Pasture to roam 0 Dust bathing 0 Freed om to run wild Animal Welfare is of huge economic importance 0 Many companies won39t buy meat without welfare guidelines in place 0 This includes domestic and international clients 0 If an animal is stressed its productivity will decrease 3122009 Ef ects of Stress 0 Inhibited digestion 0 Inhibited grth 0 Inhibited reproduction 0 Altered immune function 0 Disease susceptibility 0 Enhanced cognition Poultry Welfare Issues Where are the sore points in the poultry in dustry 0 Situations that cause pain especially chronic pain 0 Situations of restraint lack of mobility 0 Situations of behavioral inhibition poor environment 0 Situations of chronic hunger broiler breeder production and forced molting DebeaMng 0 Removal ofthe top half of the beak to prevent cannibalism in layer and aggressive male turkeys 0 Performed at day of hatch 0 Previously used a hot knife 0 Newer systems use infrared beam making a small hole in the beak tip which then falls of 3122009 Toe Trimming Induced Molting 0 Molting is used to extend the useful life of a laying 0 Removal of end of toe to prevent bird injury and egg herb b a 39 b d hi 1 d turl re age m ree er C C ens an eys 0 Usually induced by feed withdrawal and photoperiod 0 There are alternative strategies to feed withdrawal such as zinc Feed Restriction Photoperiod 0 Used for several things 0 Breeder management Sexual maturation 0 Molting 0 Rate of lay time of lay etc 0 Pullet Uniformity 0 L1mi39 39t feed consumption 0 Prior to harvest Melting Breeder management 0 Mechanical failures 0 Bro39 er management 0 Cannibalism 3122009 Skeletal Disorders 0 Fast growth rates 0 Susceptibility to nutritional deficiencies 0 Lack of mobility especially in battery cages lack of mobility causes bones to become weak 0 Joint problems 0 Bone deformity 0 Necrosis ofthe femoral head 0 Gait impairment Feet Problems Stocking Density 0 How do you determine stocking density 0 Feed conversion 0 Costs Profits 0 Animal health 0 Incidence of IP 0 Ventilation 0 Feed Water 0 Litter Normal Behavior 0 Wing flapping even flying 0 Preening feather ruffling stretching 0 Dust bathing 3122009 Fine materials for dust bathing g 4 x3 Wimmmmmm mp wnu emhl mm hull ml ml punlln m in pwivlmhn mu muwm m rlusi in 39 39 altml cvcn ci vm mum Ul h u mm wrvr h 0 y t heading m vim vi AI IUD 1i w inuhulm m plyniugmpli Mm m m 3mm Roosting on perches Roosting is a strongly motivated behavior birds are willing to work for it Perches get very crowded at dusk Agrown hen needs 6quot of perch space quotSmart perches hmquot om one 9 mm m alum 4 iemnmr nuding plallmm m rim mlomam wt mug 0i mm mi N m mun Fig9 E t 1m mum on i u a me my Son 3 mm Hi mm M mm mm on ma ulzm Processing 0 Transport Stress 0 Weather 0 Handling 0 Movement 0 urnane killing 0 Electric shock 0 C02 0 Missed birds 3122009 Contagious Diseases 0 How will you humaner deA oA ulate 6 r 24 broiler houses with 25000 birds each when and if Avian Influenza hits the US Questions 0 Is it better to beak trim or to allow increased incidence of cannibalism 0 Is it better to toe trim or to allow more mortalities from infected scratches due to male broiler breeder aggression 0 Is it better to molt a bird to increase its useful life or to 1 it Questions 0 Is it wrong to decrease lighting if you prevent cannibalism and overeating 0 Can oultrr feel pain suffer or feel pleasure 0 If an animal is in pain should it be euthanized or allowed to live So what is the US Poultry Industry doing 0 First of all receive the best veterinary care best nutrition and best research in the world 0 Experimentation with alternative rearing systems 7 economic incentive 0 National Chicken Council Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Che cklist 3122009 Mission Statement 0 Domestic anjrnals are adaptable to a variety of conditions Today39s chicken has been purposefully selected to thrive under modern management We believe current good management practices that avoid destructive behavior prevent disease and promote good health and production are consistent with the generally accepted criteria of humane treatment Education Training and Planning Part A 1 1 Each company should have a person that enforces these guidelines Each com anl must have a documented training program for employees that handle live birds Each company should have a written disaster response and recovery plan Hatchery Operations Part B 1 N V we 0 Conditions that optimize hatchability and minimize early mortality Processing systems designed to prevent chick injury Employees in charge of recording chick injunes and reporting to manager for corrective action Human killing of culls and pipped eggs Euthanasia by 39 stantaneous mechanical destruction maceration or C02 Beak trimming is not allowed in broilers Proper Nutrition and Feeding Part C N W ow Diets should be formulated and fed to promote good health Diet should be formulated to meet the nutritional needs of the animal Adequate access to feeders and waterers Breeders and broilers should not lose wei t but modifications in the rate of gain acceptab e Adequ ate supply of fresh water Feed mills should meet best management practices 3122009 Appropriate Comfort and Shelter Part D ostwo Housing should protect birds from the elements and predators Premises should be clean and well kept Vermin should be controlled Biosecurity should be practiced Minimum ventilation requirements Moisture in litter should not exceed 35 Must have reliable safeties alarms in place Ability to Display Most Normal Behavior Part F Birds should be allowed to roam freely to Max stocking density gt lt 45 lbs 65 pounds sqft gt 457 5575 poundssqft gt gt 55 lbs 85pounds sqft W Stunted birds and with gait defects should be humanely euthanized F Lighting programs should be used to prevent metabolic diseases On Farm Best Practices Part G gter Flocks should be inspected at least twice a day lighting levels should be adequate for inspection Dead birds should be removed Feeding drinking and Ventilation systems should be checked daily 5quot sz Acceptable forms of onsfarm euthanasia Rapid decapitation Rapid cerVical disarticulation ygen displacemen Any other AV39MA orAHA approved method Catching and Transportation Part H llandling should be done to prevent injuries u handling Will not be tolerate Incentive program to encourage humane handling of birds No more than five birds per hand if more than 4 pounds May not catch by wmg or neck Company should monitor for eld injuries Coops should be in good repair Birds must be able to sit in a single layer in a coop Protection from the elements owxlo viAwN S Minimize holding times Minimize DOA s Make sure that mechanical catcher is as humane as by hand o 3122009 Proc essi ng Pa rt Feed and water WIthdIaWal necessary for food safety lelt wuhdxawal period 2 Tweak holding areas to keep buds calm 3 Ensuxe propervennlanon 4 Constantly monitor killing equipment Haves baeiup employee All buds should be dead before entenng the scalder No red buds Bmkeu ordislocated wings should be minimized Any culls must be euthanized by prevlous methods Abuse of animals Win not be tolerated ow o w The plantshould prepare foremergencies 1e power shutdown Special Considerations Section 0 Breeder Pullets and Cockerels 0 Limit obesity 0 Prevent over consumption ofwater Separate male housing 0 Appropriate introduction of new males 0 Adequate nest boxes for hens 0 Precision beak trimming 0 Clipping the inside toe of cockerels 0 Dubbing the combs of cockerels Act u a A u d it 0 An audit will be conducted by an impartial trained auditor 0 It consists of a nine page checklist 0 Covers everything from the breeders and hatchery to the processing plant 0 Voluntary program but often necessary for business with or customers 0 Other kinds of audits and programs in addition to this one Final Thoughts 0 Animal Welfare is important to farmers and to consumers 0 Many regulations reduce the competitiveness o agriculture allowing for countries wo regulations to out compete 0 The industry is being proactive and we will see improvements in animal welfare in the future 0 Some seemingly inhumane processes are actually quite humane when the alternative is considered The End 0 Questions 3122009 1222009 Mating Behavior Lecture 2 January 22 2009 Instincts and Behavior POSC 333 Morgan Farnell PhD Asst Prof Ext Specialist POSC 333 Calendar 1St Quarter 0 Jan 20 SyllabusPretestHuman Behavior 0 Jan 22 MatingParental Behavior 0 Jan 27 Finding Partners Video Sadie 0 Jan 29 Demands of the Egg Video Steph 0 Feb 3 Bird Behaviors I 0 Feb 5 Problems of Parenthood LizSteph 0 Feb 10 Review Exam 1 Sadie 0 Feb 12 Exam 1 POSC 333 2nd Quarter 0 Feb 17 Bird Behaviors II 0 Feb 19 Alternative Rearing I 0 Feb 24 Alternative Rearing II 0 Feb 26 Animal Welfare Bruce Webster 0 Mar 3 Animal Welfare Wrap Up 0 Mar 5 Review Exam 2 0 Mar 10 Exam 2 POSC 333 3rd Quarter 0 Mar 12 0 Mar 24 Molting Sadie 0 Mar 26 Circadian Talk Allen Byrd 0 Mar 31 Review Exam 3 0 April 2 Exam 3 1222009 POSC 333 4th Quarter 0 Apr 7 0 Apr 9 0 Apr 14 0 Apr 16 0 Apr 21 0 Apr 23 0 Apr 28 0 Apr 30 0 May 8 Signals and Songs Video Sadie Hormones Stress Video Sadie Stress Feeding Walk Attend Texas Egg Clinic Imprinting Kendre Review Exam 4 Exam 4 Concepts of Animal Behavior What s in a name Instincts and behavior The nature nurture problem 9 The result of nature instinctive behavior 9 The result of nurture39 acquired behavior innate behavior learned behavior inherited behavior genetic basis of behav environmentally induced behavior ior nature 9 European school Konrad Lorenz Austrian Niko Tinbergen Dutch etholog istsquot nurture contd 9 American approach JB Watson Fred Skinner behaviorists 1222009 It s not that simple nature nurture cont d Instincts hardwired psychologists The substance of genetics is DNA not a behavioral o zoologists pattern per se 0 instincts and the evolution the StUdY 0f learning of behavior Genes do affect behavior but all behavior takes place in rats and i eons p 9 an enVIronment even if that enVIronment is the wom 0000 0 birds fish and insects carefully controlled lab Maybe individual members ofa species behave the same f39Eld exifriment and exper39ments because the share the same environment 0 serva Ions un er o theories of how new H Its im oss ble to de rive an indIVIduaI from Its natural cond39t39ons responses are learned p p environment eg an individual can provide its own Sp c39es39spec39f39c F39Xed environment bird calls Action Patterns It s not that simple Newly hatched chicks learn to peck o Learned Behavior 0 Newly hatched chicks have an inherited tendency to peck at objects that contrast against their Learned behavior is built on preexisting background behavior it doesn t develop in a vacuum and the preexisting behavior was per definition not At first their aim is poor but it does improve lea779d o How does the opportunity to practice improve 5 the sc pecking score and oe ore improve over COMPROMISE how do genetic and time even without practice environmental factors interact 1222009 The results Pccking accuracy nl chicls at different ages hcrnrc and after 12 hauls nlpra ice an aclcc 12 hams Practice m 12m 2 Dacia Avmge mm m mg m Age m hours PECKING IMPROVES A s A coNsEauENcE OF so 1H MATURA quotON AND PRAC ncE Because he is happy Anthropomorphic interpretation What part ofthe behavior do we consider relevant Why would you do that if you were an animal The practical pragmatic approach Why does the a male zebra finch sing when he visits his feeder in the morning Four possible good answers o Because of elevated levels of testosterone Underlying physiological mechanisms responsible for a behavior INIVIEDIATE CAUSA110N Because these birds have undergone puberty and learned the songs from their fathers DEVELOPMENT More good answers o Because he is a finch and all finches sing because they have evolved from a common ancestral species that sang EVOLU110N Because singing increasesthe likelihood that he will reproduce by attracting females to his territory and by chasing competing males away from his territory ADAPTIVE FUNC110N 1222009 Causes of behavior control development e age ofme individual hormones The Stimuli that he has received dawn PROXIMATE FACTORS quotCLOSESTquot in he Urigm Question why does the rooster crow Consequences of behavior function evolution Competitive and territorial behavior u SpecleS U LTIMATE FACTORS quotLASTquot m a sequence ufevenls EFFECT MONES PURPOSE FUNCTlON EVOLUTlONARY ADVANTAGE PHYSlOLOGY STlMULl ENVlRONMENT AGE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Reproduction Animal Reproduction oSurvival of a species depends on successful mating but it is a complex process 1222009 0000 0000 Complexities of Reproduction Prediction of breeding season Migration to breeding sights Development and maintenance of gonads Establishment and defense of territory at the correct time Selection and seduction of a mate Coordination of sexual behavior with a mate Conception and Fetal Development When to switch from sexual to parental behavior Cost of Reproduction o Reproduction is a costly endeavor Food Energy Time Defense Caring for young Increased mortality from parturition Increased susceptibility to predators What about humans Reproductive Behavior 0 Studies Makeup Women expose more skin when ovulating Dress T ke b th 3 a a Mating cues visual and Cologne smell Wash car Serenade Menwomen constantly looking for mates Dancing Working out Much of this behavior subconscious Date behavior vs normal behavior What About Humans 0 Parental Behavior Reallocation of resources Pregnancy 0 Nesting behavior o Glowingquot Teaching Altruism 1222009 Animal Behavior oWill see many similarities between animals and humans oMating cues are important Rats depend on smell Songbirds rely on hearing Gainaceous birds rely on sight Mate Selection 0 Courtship o Nest building 0 Visual cues o Auditory cues o Smell o Courtship o Learned dances o Learned songs 0 Plumage Mate Selection oMonogamy Pairing Pigeons oPolygamy Multiple mates Chickens Courtship Rituals oGreat Frigate Bird Display inflated red throat oBuff Breasted Sand i er Dis la white armpits oTemmick s Tragopans Surprises and mesmerizes female with poses 1222009 Courtship Rituals oChicken Tidbitting Courtship display and ground pecking o Bower Birds Build huts that are ornater decorated with shiny objects etc Some varieties prefer specific colors Sometimes the female won t leave and will be kicked out Nesting Behavior oSearching phase oChoice of nest site oCreation of a nest hollow Broodiness oIndustry problem Birds motivated to incubate eggs However shelf life decreased for table eggs Also in a commercial situation the eggs are stored in a cooler prior to set in an incubator oThese preincubated eggs will have poor hatchability Aberrant Sexual Behavior 9 Male broiler breeder aggression Huge problem for the broiler industry Layers are not as aggressive Rare in nature Not associated with feed restriction Thought to be a genetic predisposition I think that it may be because of lack of parental training courtship rituals are sometimes learned behaviors o Other aberrant behaviors 1222009 Cuckoos o Brood parasites Replace other birds eggs with their own Environmental Stimuli 0 Season oTemperatu re 0 Light intensity 0 Food availability 0 Photoperiod o Other birds 0 Competition Visual Cues 9 Chicken focuses on the whole body 9 Turkeys concentrate on the head 9 Plumage a good indicator of bird health and sex Tail length important in some birds 9 Some colors in UV spectrum that humans can t observe Auditory Cues 0 Singing Songbirds can learn and improve upon songs Studies demonstrate that some birds will learn songs of other species when nests are switc e o Crowing Males and females are both capable but no incentive for the female Manipulation of hormones can cause changes in auditory response 1222009 Olfactory Cues o Probably not very much Poorly developed sense of smell in chickens and turkeys 0 May be important for Petrels and Shearwaters Photoperiod o Photoperiod important for sexual maturation gonadal development and reproduction Testes increase in size 300 Ovaries also increase in size Photoperiod as a Mgmt Tool 9 Sexual maturity o Onset of lay can be advanced or retarded 9 Rate of lay oTiming of lay 9 Shell quality 0 Egg size 9 Feed efficiency 0 Molting Egg Production 0 Determinant layers never lay more than 12 eggs ata tIme Doves and pigeons o Indeterminate layers will lay eggs continuously until a reason not to occurs Chickens and turkeys 0 Egg incubation 9 80 days Most birds build nests for this purpose 10 1222009 Biology of Reproduction Biology of Reproduction 0 Hormones play a significant role 6 Gonadal stimulation Maturation of the re roductive tract 1 Light Intensity Photoperiod p 7 Gamete roduction and sex hormones 2 Activation of light sensitive cells p 8 Sex hormones affect brain 3 Activation of hypothalamus I f 1 Deve opment 0 song regions 4 Secretion of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 2 Specific motor activity Displaying of feathers 5 Anterior pituitary secretes FSH and LH 939 Negatwe feed baCk loop39 1 FSH Follicle stimulating hormone sperm 1 Pltmrary Cheeks for hormon production and follicle development 10 Decrease in light intensity photoperiod will 2 LH Lutenizing hormone testosterone production reSUIt in gonadal FeQFeSSIOH and ovulation Biology of Reproduction oAVT Arginine Vasotocin Influences courtship vocalization and copulation 11 2242009 Alternative Rearing Strategies 1mm and MW Posessa 7mm a o Fehmarvztand Math a mug Muvqan Fame w o POSC 333 Catendar 15 Quarter Jan 2n MabusPretzlHuman Behaer Janzz MatnqParemd nr Jan27 n m ngmerSMdm39 2 Jan 29 Demands mm Egg Man 7 Staph Feb 3 MatnqParemd Behamr mm Feb 5 Pmme at human 7 UISmph Eebm mew Exam 1 rsadte F2b12 Exam 1 POSC 333 2quot Quarter Feh 17 Exam 1 Revtew am Behavmrsl Feh1 am Behawnrs 11 Feb 24 Attematwe Rearmql Feh zs Ammat Wetfare 7 Bruce Webster r gu Marln Exam It 2 POSC 333 3m Quarter Mar12 Ammat Wetfare r Eameu Mar24 Mnttmg V 5a Mar26 Orcama Tatk r AHen awn Mar 31 REWEW Exam 4 3 er 2 Exam It 3 2242009 POSC 333 4th Quarter oApr 7 Signals and Songs Video Sadie oApr 21 Feeding oApr 23 Walk Attend Texas Egg Clinic oApr 28 Imprinting Kendre oApr 30 Review Exam 4 0 May 8 Exam 4 Poultry Meat Industry 0 Primary Breeder o Breeder Flocks o Hatchery o Broiler Turkey Flocks quot 0 Processing Plant 0 Feed Mill 0 Live Production Expertise Facts 0 us Populauon is approxlmately 7 Average family size is 3 14 people 0 Brollers harvested at sea wks 7 us producesW chickens yr 7 30 chickens per each man Woman and child a 94 chickens per family per year 0 Turkeys harvested at 20723 wks r us produces 275 mm mm turkeys yr 7 1 turkey pereach man Woman and child a 3 turkeys per family Facts 0 Average chicken processing plant processes 1 3 million birdsweek 7 Thirty percent of us chicken exported poultry products are the second largest agricultural commodity in Texas a Texas ofh in Broilers a Texas orh in E gs The poultry industry has helped save rural Amerlca from economic collapse 2242009 Breeder House Commercial Broiler House Broiler House Broiler House 2242009 Turkey House Turkey Brood Rings Turkey Hen House Tom House 2242009 Load Out Crew Production Housing oAdvantages o Disadvantages e Biosecurity 7 Little environmental 7 Cost effective enric ment 7 Environmental Leg problems control 7 Inflammatory 7 Free 39orn predation Ocess Free to express 7 Disease control normal behaviors The Layer Industry Commercial Layer House 0 Primary Breeder aeg 7 Arr 4 o Pullet House 0 Laying House 0 Egg Packing Plant 0 Feed Mill 0 Live Production Personnel 2242009 Commercial Layer House Commercial Layer House Layer Cages Manure Collection 2242009 Commercial Layer House 9 Dwsadvantages estnned mummy e55 feather petmg eat Dvob em e ustsawngs e teammates e xvemse e Lrt e eedumto e nzveasedheakhafthe exvvessnatuva behawuv e unvo a meme uwut Environmental Enrichment A management too that prowdes menta and or phva ca Stwmwatwon ota amma to promote natura behawors and amma Wefare Questions m7 wmch kde cOnthcte thh productwon ef uench Satetv ofthe amma 7 Btoeecuntw How much 5 a readv there Enrichment Objects I39nr Labunmry Animals 2242009 Types Of EnVIronmental Environmental Enrichent Enr chment 0 Social Enrichment 9 MUSiC in or between species 0 Perches 0 Dietary Enrichment 0 Toys 7 Co or and form 0 Shoe strings I o Sensory Enrichment C can 7 Visual Auditory Sensual Wm gram o o Pisychological Enrichment Dyed Routines A f 0 Physical Enrichment P39ece 0 paper Equ pment TOW etc o Cigarette wrapper Encourage Normal Behavior Strategies 0 Nesting Provide hay oAllow birds to forage for their food oAllow egglayin birds the opportunit to Dust Bath39ng sand box perform nesting behavior by the provision o Pecking Shoe strings of suitable nestboxes and bui di g erial Foragan Wh0e gram oAllow sufficient space for running or flying oWing Flapping Space activity 0 Roosting Perches o Perches or roosting shelves 0 House birds in suitable stable social 2242009 Alternative Poultry Rearing 0 Small Scale 7 cnicken Tractor 7 Themed Houslrig o Perchery o Avia ry 0 Free Range oVery little research to confirm the effectiveness of alternative rearing oThese are my observations 1 Chlcken Tractor Small Scale Farm Speclallzed Housan Small Scale Farm Small Scale Farm Advantages 7 Low stress7 rnaybe N0 DOUWY vet 7 Ablllty to practice 7 ck orexperuSe natural benayior 7 rxposure to disease 7 Personal el UOymel lt 7 rxposure t predauori 7 Maybe a nicne market 7 ostlyPoor 7 Sustall39lable agriculture rodUC Nltv o anirnal Welfare versignt Col llTO l lvll ol lmel lt 7 0 control over notoperiod o Disadyantages 2242009 Aviary o Advamtages e Dwsadvantages 7 Can dust bame 7 L 5 es feed converswon m 7 Can run around 7 More can 5 7 c n ap ngs oref mer peckmg 7 Less we romems ebeam be 7 chhe market necessary 7 Dangerofsmomermg 7 thhtmjury 7 No amma wew re overswght 7 Decreased capacth Perchery Perchery 2242009 Perchery Free Range oAdvantages o Disadvantages 7 Less eg prob ems 7 thht mury 7 Enwronmenta 7 Hard to dean nrrchrnent In as canmbahsm 7 Coproph 7 Not cost effectwe 7 Decreased capacth Free Range oAdvantages o Disadvantages 7 Sunshrne 7 Brosecurrtv 7 Fresh arr 7 predatron 7 Expressron of 7 Not cost effectwe norma behawor Somemmes urree 7 Nrche market range rs not free range 7 Worms 7 Brrd H U 7 Does the chrcken prefer thrsv 2242009 Chicken Catcher Chicken Catcher oAdvantages Camer for the birds Less injuries Cheaper o Disadvantages Can cause more harm than good if not done properly Biosecurity Egg Packer ces mortalmes Increases hatchablllty and saves money by decreaslng labor and Increaslng productlvlty 2242009 Problems with Animal Welfare Not much research tohohg o Blg olecohhect between Al39llmal Welfare groups and the Poultry Industry 0 Poorly oetlneo terms le natural cage tree pastured etc 0 Need cost errectlve Strategles Must hold hterhatlohal eooollere to the Same coholtlohe Are the ahlrhale happy Imprinting oThe phenomenon of newly hatched baby birds to become socially bonded to the first moving object that they see oAlternative parents a Humans other bll dS a ball a balloon a cardboard box 0 Nonreversible


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