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by: Laurence Gleason


Laurence Gleason
Texas A&M
GPA 3.6

Michelle Pine

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Michelle Pine
Class Notes
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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laurence Gleason on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to VIBS 305 at Texas A&M University taught by Michelle Pine in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/225982/vibs-305-texas-a-m-university in Vet Integrative Biosciences at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
Skeletal System Osteologx Study of bones as organs A General 1 Bone as an organ Composed of Connective Tissue nervous tissue and epithelial tissue Bone is a special CT Compact Cancellous Bone is covered and lined by brous CT Periosteum Endosteum 2 Functions of bone a physical b metabolic B Classi cation of bones 1 Location a axial skeleton Page l 1 Skeletal System I b appendicular skeleton c heterotopic 2 Shape a long bones b short bones 0 at bones d irregular bones e sesamoid bones Page l 2 Skeletal System Long Bone Terminology Be able to label on the diagram and de ne these terms Periosteum Endosteum Cortex external layer Medullary cavity Cancellous bone Articular cartilage Diaphysis shaft of long bone Epiphysis end of long bone that is Wider than the shaft Physis Greek to generate the portion of the long bone concerned with growth in length Page l 3 Skeletal System Osteogenesis Bone Development Cells Osteoblasts bone forming Osteocytes mature bone cells Osteoclasts bone destroying Extracellular Material Osteoid de nition is bone like Composition collagen bers exibility crystallized inorganic mineral salts rigidity Osteoblast 39 Osteoid lt CaP Osteocytes Mineralized Osteoid Destroyed Osteoid CaP Osteoclasts Page l 4 Skeletal System Bone is Dynamic 5 of bone mass remodeled at any given time Stress increases the strength of bone Fracture repair Calcium balance in blood Endochondral ossi cation use diagram of notes to draw and label 4 overlapping phases formation of a cartilaginous model formation of the primary center of ossi cation formation of the secondary centers of ossi cation maturation a formation of cartilage model occurs during fetal development solid rod of hyaline cartilage covered by perichondrium except at the ends b formation of the prima center of ossification cartilage model grows due to chondrocyte activity When the rod is no longer able to receive nutrients via diffusion the extracellular material calcifies and the chondrocytes die vascular penetration of cartilage model osteoprogenitor cells I do NOT consider these bone cells amp osteoclasts are brought 1n osteoclasts breakdown calcif1ed cartilage creates a space OPs differentiate into blasts and begin producing osteoid c formation of secondag centers of ossification similar mechanisms to primary ossification center only occurs in the epiphyses any center after the primary is called a secondary only occurs in long bones not short or vertebrae Page l 5 Skeletal System Page 6 Skeletal System Elongation of bone Growth occurring at the physeal cartilage 4 zones from epiphysis to diaphysis 1 resting cartilage 2 proliferating cartilage 3 cell maturation 4 calci cation Ossi cation of the physis closure of growth plate Page l 7 ARTHROLOGY January 27 2011 Joint de nition 2 or more bones meet and are joined by brous elastic or cartilaginous tissue or a combination 0ffec Joint classi cations based on joining tissue 1 Fibrous joints proper connective tissue a suture b gomphosis 2 Cartilaginous joint cartilage a symphysis brocartilage b synchondrosis true hyaline cartilage 3 Synovial joints True Joints Page l l ARTHROLOGY January 27 2011 Components of a Synovial Joint 1 Joint Capsule outer layer inner layer 2 Articular gSynovial Cavity synovial uid 3 Articular Cartilage 4 Accessory Structures of smovial joint may not be present Ligaments i extracapsular collateral ligaments ii intracapsular Bursa synovial uid lled sac located between a tendon and bone tendon and joint capsule or skin and bone associated with bony prominences Articular discs Page 2 ARTHROLOGY January 27 2011 ioints of thoracic limb IA39 A 1 Humeral shoulder jt 2 Cubital elbow jt Be sure to dissect the collateral ligaments in lab a humeroradial jt b humeroulnar jt c proximal radioulnar jt 3 Carpal jts a antebrachiocaggal jt a Q D C O 4csc3c I 4633 b intercaggal jts middle carpal jt mq Ctj c caggometacarpal jts I Q2 3 4 Metaea 39 its know how to name the ioint CTQ 5 inth 39 39 39 1P its know how to name the ioint 40 a proximal IP jts b distal IP jts Page l 3 lntegument skinI HairI GlandsI Fascia Functions a Protection b Sensation c Thermoregulation d Metabolism e Mechanical support f Secretions Structure a Epidermis celltypes vascularity b Dermis Hypodermis subcutis or superficial fascia NOT Part of SKlNll Explanation of Deep Fascia Associated structures Ad nexa a Hair b Arrector Pili muscle 0 Glands i Sebaceous ii Sweat iii Eccrine iv Apocrine Mammary modified apocrine Latin and Greek Root Words Prefixes and Suffixes cumulative and comprehensive for exams Week 1 Root Definition Example a an without not acephalia ab of off away from abduct acro extremity acromegaly ad to toward adduct adeno gland or glandular adenoma adipo fat adipose aer aero related to air or oxygen anaerobic ala alaris wing pertaining to a wing alar notch alba white linea alba algia pain neuralgia ambi both ambidextrous ana again anatomy angi vessel angiogram ankon elbow anconeal ankylo bent ankylosis annular ring annular ante before antemortem anti against antibiotic aqua water aqueous arthro joint arthritis Week 2 Root Definition Example rticularis Md articular auris auriculo ear little ear auricular mm auto self autograft bi two biped bio live biology blast germ bud osteoblast blepharo eyelid blepharospasm brachi arm rachium brachys short brachycephalic brady slow bradycardia brevis short peroneus brevis buccal cheek buccinator bulla blister tympanic bulla bursa wine skin bursitis capit head decapitate cant angle corner canthus cardio pertaining to the heart epicardium cauda tail caudal cec blind cecum cephalic cephalo head hydrocephalicus Week 3 Root Definition Example cervix neck cervical chondros cartilage chondroblast clast to break osteoclast cleido collar bone clavicle coccyg tail coccyx coele hollow blastocoele col colo colon colitis commisure joining together commission con with together concurrent conch shell concha contra against opposed contralateral coracoid crowlike coracoid proc corn horn cornual process cortico bark shell rind cortex corona crown coronary costal rib intercostal coxa hip os coxae cranium head neurocranium cruci crux cross cruciate crus a leglike part crural Week 4 Root Definition Example crypt Mn cryptorchid cubit elbow cubital cutis skin subcutaneous cyan dark blue cyanosis cyst cysto bladder cystitis cyte cell hollow osteocyte delta triangular deltoideus dent tooth dental derma skin hypodermis di double twice diploid Dia through across Diameter didymos testes twin epididymus distans distant distal dolicho long dolichocephalic dorsum back dorsal ducere to draw adduct duo two duodenum dura hard dura mater dys diffucult impaired dysuria ecto outside ectoparasite Week 5 Root Definition Example ectome excision tonsillectomy eidosoid form like sigmoid emia blood mia encephalo brain encephalitis endo within endoparasite entero intestines enteritis epi upon epidermis erythro red erythrocyte ex out extend extra beyond outward extracapsular ferre to carry efferent flav yellow lig flavum foramen foramen ovale ornix arch or vaultlike space vaginal fornix fossa trench or channel fossa ovale fovea pit depression fovea capitis gastro stomach gastric ulcer genesis originating forming osteogenesis genua knee genual jt ginglymus hinge inglymusjoint Week 6 Root Definition Example gloss tongue glossitis gloutos buttock luteal gnatho jaw brachygnathia graph something written biography guttur throat guttural pouch gyn gyne gyno female gynecologist haemo hemo blood hemoglobin hemi half hemiplegia hepatos hepar liver hepatitis hetero different heterosexual histo tissue histology homeo alike unchanging constant homeostasis homo same homozygous hyalo glassy clear hyaline hydro hydrophobia hyper excessive hypertension hypo under hypodermis hystero uterus hysterectomy infra beneath infraorbital inter between intercellular Week 7 Root Definition Example intra Whirl intracellular iso equal isotonic itis inflammation dermatitis kerato cornea or horn keratin kneme leg gastrocnemius kondylos knuckle condyle korone crown coronoid labia lip labia major lacrima tear lacrimal gland lact milk lactation lacun pit lake lacuna lamin layer plate lamina leuco white leucocyte linea line linea alba lingua tongue lingual lipo fat lipoma lith ith stone urolith logy word reason arthrology lysis destroy divided lytic macro large macroscopic Week 8 Root Definition Example macula spot macula densa malleus hammer malleolus mamma breast mammary gland masto breast mastitis mater mother pia mater meatus passage acoustic meatus media middle medial medulla marrow medullary mega megaly large megacolon mentum chin mental foramen mesos middle mesoderm meta change metamorphosis meter measure thermometer metra metro uterus pyometra micro small microscope mono single monorchid morpho form morphology multi many much multifocal myelo marrow or spinal cord myelogram myo muscle myology Week 10 Root Definition Example nasus nose nasal natal nata birth postnatal necro dead necropsy neo new strange neoplasm nephro kidney nephritis neuro nerve neuritis nigra black nigral occiput back part of head occipital oculo eye oculomotor odont tooth orthodontist oid like cushingoid oma tumor neoplasm sarcoma omos shoulder omohyoidius ophthalmos eye ophthalmoscope orchio testis mesorchium origo beginning origin orthos straight orthodontist os mouth ostium os bone os coxae osteo bone osteocyte Week 11 Root Definition Example oto ear otoscope otomy to cut tenotomy ova egg oviduct oxia oxygen hypoxia palma palm palmar pan a panophthalmitis para beside paracondylar paresis paresis incomplete paralysis paraparesis parieto wall parietal path disease pathology pectoralis breast chest pectoral pedo foot biped Peri around perimysium Perone fibula peroneus Iongus phago to eat phagocytic phalanx line or array of soldiers phalanges photo i ht photophobia phrenic pertaining to the diaphragm phrenic nerve pia ender pia mater pirum pear piriformis Week 12 Root Definition Example plantare to plant plantar plasia formation hyperplasia plegia pegia paralysis quadriplegic pleuro side rib pleural pneumo air ung pneumonia pod foot podiatrist pollex thumb pollicus poly many polyarthritis porta gate portal post after postsurgical pre pro before prenatal procto rectum proctologist proximus next proximal pseudo false pseudopregnancy ptergion wing pterygoid pulmo ung pulmonary pyo pus pyometra quadr four quadruped radius spoke radius ram branch ramus Week 13 Root Definition Example rect strTight rectus ren kidney renal retinaculum rope cable retinaculum retro backwards retroarticular rhino rhinitis rostra beak nose rostral rotare to turn rotate sagitta arrow sagittal sarco flesh sarcoid sclera hard sclerosis scope see microscope sect to cut dissect semi half semicircular sept wall septum serra a saw serrated soma body somatic sperm seed spermatid spheno wedge sphenoid splanchno viscera splanchnic squam scale squamous Week 14 Root Definition Example stasis standing still homeostasis stetho chest stethoscope stomy provide opening or mouth tracheostomy strati layered stratified stylos pillar column styloid under subscapular super supra over above suprascapular supinus lying on back face upward supinate sym syn together synthesis systole a drawing together contracting systolic tachy rapid tachycardia temnien to cut anatomy teno tendon tenotomy teres long and round teres minor thermo heat thermometer thrombo clot thrombocyte toxo poison toxic tome tomy a cutting enterotomy transverses placed crosswise transverse tri three triceps troch pulley trochlear trophic trophy nourishing hypertrophic tuber a swelling protuberance tubercle tunic covering or coat vaginal tunic tympano drum tympanic membrane ulna the arm ulna unguis the nail ungual uro urinary urogenital vaginae sheath invaginate vagus wandering vagus n vaso vessel vascular vastus great vast vast ven vein vena cava venter belly ventral villus tuft of hair villi vita vivi XiphOS zoo animal yoke join vital viviparous Xiphoid zoology zygote Muscular System E Myology Study of muscle General Organ structure contains all 4 n39ssue types Myofibers F asicles Muscle Function Motor Unit Allornone principle Regulan on offine motor control Recruitmentklncreasing the of myo bers called to action in order to perform wor Connective Tissue Attachments Function of CT CT within and around the muscle cells and organ Epimysium Perimysium Endomysium Muscular System Attachments of muscle to bone Fleshy Aponeurosis Tendon 1 Location ofat ofindividual muscles origin head vs belly insertion Acn39ons I eXion and extension ofJOINTS I adduction abduction rotan39on pronation supination etc ofBODY REGIONS Know the names and locations of the joints of the Thoracic Limb Page 24 of dissection guide Movement around joints I In domestic animals duringnormal gait the joints ofthe thoracic limb primarily un ergo 2 types ofmovement eXion and extension Flexor angles surfacesl Muscular System Flexion Extension One can only ex or extend IOINTS not body regions Other IgBes of giggegi gts eg adduction supination etc are movements of DY In other words you cannot ex a digit body region but you can ex the interphalangeal jomts ofthe digit You cannot extend the carpus body region but you can extend the carpal joints THE TERMS AGONIST FIXATOR AND ANTAGONIST ARE RELATIVE prime mover agonist muscle that produces desired acn39on when it contracts antagonist muscle that opposes desired motion Must relax when prime mover is contracting Muscular System B fixator stabilizes a joint that is crossed by another muscle Accessory structures Sesamoid bones Bursae Tendon sheath Lecture 1 Explanation of Directional and Descriptive Terms All information presented in the first lecture pertaining to the definitions and explanations for the directional terminology is in the laboratory guide on pages 912 Know and understand amp ofthe terms listed pages 912 These terms are the foundation ofthe course and the student must understand them in order to follow the dissection instructions and nd and identify the anatomical structures Head Teeth and Pharynx Skull Regions 1 Facial Viscerocranium 7face jaw palate houses nasal cavity and upper teeth 2 Neural neurocranium or braincase 7 houses brain 50 bones in skull Fissures foramina holes in your head 1 ssure cleft grove 2 foramen hole Conformation or Size amp shape 1 Size 2 Shape a brachycephalic 7 short ex pugs b mesaticephalic7 intermediate ex labs c dolichocephalic 7 long ex greyhounds Articulations l Fibrous joints a Sutures 7 interlocking more prominent in young animals b Gomphoses 7 where teeth enter jaw 2 cartilaginous joint a mandibular symphysis 3 Synovial joints a temporomandibular7 bt temporal bone and mandible back of j aw hinge meniscus and 2 articular surfaces b atlantooccipital 7 between skull and Cl atlas allows exion extension yes jt c atlantoaxial7 between Cl atlas and C2 axis axis dens no jt III Teeth A Functions 1 mastication 2 weapon 3 grab things prehension 4 estimate age B Structure 1 Crown 7 top part 2 Neck 7 constricted 3 Root 7 deep part in gum 4 Alveolus 7 socket where tooth is anchored 5 Pulp cavity C Types arcades amp dental formulae 1 Types a deciduous baby or milk teeth b permanent adult teeth c incisors front d canines fangs cuspids comer e cheek teeth i premolars ii molars 2 Arcades a upper superior 7 in maXilla b lower inferior 7 in mandible 3 Identifying Individual Teeth a Type 7 Incisor PreMolar Molar b Number c Leftright d Superior inferior e Full Complement 7 1113 PMlPM4 MlM3 one set on each side only in pigs and humans f dog 7 largest carnassial superior P4 s inferior Ml s occlude w each other 4 Dental formulas permanent old system in lab guide a dog i Old 7 ICPMICPM X 2 in lab guide ii New 7 number each tooth 100s upper R 200s upper L 300s lower R 400s lower L b human 5 Dental formulas deciduous a dog b human 6 Eruption a puppies are born toothless deciduous erupt 56 wks postpartum NO baby molars or PMl IV Nasal Cavity A Conchae 1 scrolls of bone scrolls on full head shell on halved head covered by epithelium 2 dorsal and ventral B Meatus passageway space 1 dorsal 2 ventral 3 middle 4 common7 all around common to all V Pharynx digestiverespiratory crossover DIAGRAM Air nasal cavities gt nasopharynx gt laryngopharynx gt larynx gt trachea Food oral cavity gt oropharynx gt laryngopharynx gt esophagus Nasal Esophagus cawty O I 3 Trachea cavity A Nasopharynx 1 choanae 2 opening of auditory tube slit not hole or large opening B Oropharynx 1 palatopharyngeal arch 2 palatoglossal arch 3 palatine tonsil 7 deep to semilunar fold C Laryngopharynx 1 Larynx 7 right beneath epiglottis Function 7 regulate What and amount that enters trachea voice box b Structure i cartilages ii opening glottis iii epiglottis 7 cartilage ap thatkeeps food water out of larynx trachea failure choking problematic during anaesthesia trach tube iv voice box 7 laryngeal ventricle diverticulum or sac into larynx vocal fold caudal fold oftissue over opening of ventricle 2 laryngopharynx 7 pharyngoesophageal limen m VI Eye N E 4 500089 Directional a lateral canthus 7 lateral commissure away from nose b medial canthus 7 medial commisure close to nose Palpebrae eyelid a upper lower b fomixes in both Lacriminalpuncta 7 tear duct itty bitty hole that you can t see so nevermind connected to lacriminal gland Cornea 7 clear part of eye no blood supply a if scratched nearby vessels branch to heal b contains many free nerve endings from ophthalmic nerve l of 3 branches of trigeminal nerve Sclera 7 white part of eye Limbus 7 junctions bt cornea and sclera Conjunctiva 7 covers sclera Palpebral Bulbar Nictitating membrane 3rd eyelid membrananictitans plica fold semilunaris has cartilage to stiffen comes from medial canthus humans do NOT have Woo99 Extrinsic Muscles of Thoracic Limbs Attached to Scapula Rhomboideus Muscle O caudal Surface of skull dorsal midline of neck and thorax to mid thoracic region I dorsomedial border ofthe scapula A elevate limb pull dorsal scapula closer to body Omotransversarius Muscle At Wing of atlas distal end of spine of scapula A pull limb cranially pull neck and head to side Superfrcial Cervical meh Node attaches here Trapezius Muscle O dorsal midline ofneck and thorax I spine of scapula A elevate limbs Serratus Ventralis Muscle O lateral aspect of last 5 cervical vertebrae and first 78 ribs 1 serrated face of scapula A support or elevate trunk Attached to Humerus Brachiocgphalicus Muscle At caudoventral surface of skull cranial half of dorsal midline of neck cranial border of distal humerus A move neck to one side if one muscle contract arch neck ofboth contract pull limbs cranially Latisimus Dorsi Muscle spinous process of the thorax and lumbar vertebrae via thoracolumbar fascia I teres major tuberosity of humerus A draw limb caudally and ex shoulderjoint When limb not bearing Weight extend shoulderjoint if limb xed bearing Weight Super cial Pectoral Muscle O cranially sternum I cranial border of proximal humerus A a uct im Deep Pectoral Muscle O rll length of sternum 1 less and greater tubercle of humerus A pull limb caudally extend shoulderjoint When limb bearing Weight pull body cranially when limb is pulled cranially and bearing Weight Intrinsic Muscle of Thoracic Limb Lateral Muscles of Shoulder Supraspinatus Muscle supraspinous fossa of scapula I greater tubercle of humerus A act as collateral ligament extend shoulderjoint Deltoideus Muscle O spine and acromion of scapula I deltoid tuberosity of humerus A oulderjoint Infraspinatus Muscle O infraspinous fossa of scapula I lateral surface of greater tubercle of humerus A abduct limb at shoulderjoint act as collateral ligament ex shoulderjoint Medial Muscles of Shoulder Subscapularis Muscle O su scapular fossa of scapula I lesser tubercle of humerus A adduct limb act as collateral ligament Teres Ma39or Muscle O proximal portion of caudal border of scapula I teres major tuberosity of humerus A ex shoulderjoint Caudal Muscles of the Brachium Tensor Fasciae Antebrachii Muscle O fascia on lateral surface of latisimus dorsi I olecronon A extend elboWjoint Triceps Brachii Muscle 0 Long Hea caudal border of scapula Lateral Head tricipital line of humerus Medial Head medial side of proximal humerus I olecranon A all head extend elboWjoint long head also exes shoulderjoint Cranial Muscles of the Brachium Biceps Brachii Muscle O supraglenoid tubercle of scapula I medial aspect ofproximal radius and ulna A ex elboWjoint extend shoulderjoint Transverse Humeral Retinaculum Brachialis Muscle O brachial groove of humerus I medial aspect ofproximal radius and ulna 39 t A ex elboWjoin Craniolateral Muscles of the Antebrachium Cephalic Vein Extensor carpi Radialis Muscle O lateral epicondyle of humerus I dorsal aspect of proximal extremity of second and third metacarpal bones A extendjoints of carpus ex elboWjoint Common Digital Extensor Muscle O lateral epicondyle of humerus I dorsal aspect of distal phalanx of Weightbearing digits A extendjoints of carpus and metacarpophalangeal and proximal and distal interphalangealjoints ofWeightbearing digits Lateral Digital Extensor Muscle O lateral epicondyle of humerus I common digital extensor tendons going to dorsal aspect of distal phalanx of digits 35 also minor attachment to proximal and or Mi e phalanges of same di its A extend carpal joints extend metacarpophalangeal and proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of digits 35 Ulnaris Lateralis Muscle O lateral epicondyle of humerus I proximal end of 5mmetacarpal bone accessory carpal bone A abduct manus at carpus Supinator muscle 0 lateral epicondyle of humerus I cranial border of proximal radius A supinate antebrachium and manus aid in exion of elboWjoint Abductor Pollicis Longus Muscle 0 middle 3rd of lateral border of ulna and adjacent to interosseous membrane 1 proximal end of rst metacarpal bone A abduct rst metacarpal bone extend carpaljoint Caudomedial Muscles of Forearm Pronator Teres O medial epicondyle ofhumerus I proximal third of medial border of radius A pronate antebrachium andmanus aid in exion of cubital joint Flexor Retinaculum Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle O medial epicondyle ofhumerus I palmar aspect of proximal ends of send and third metacarpal bones A ex carpaljoints Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle O medial epicondyle ofhumerus caudomedial surface of olecranon ofulna I accessory carpal bone x carpaljoints Super cial Digital Flexor Muscle O m ial epicondyle ofhumerus I palmar surface of proximal end of middle phalanx ofWeightbearing digits A ex carpaljoints ex metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangealjoints ofWeightbearing digits 25 Deep Digital Flexor Muscle O medial epicondyle ofhumerus caudal border ofulna medial border ofradius I palmar surface of distal phalanx of all 5 digits A ex carpaljoints ex metacarpophalangeal and interphalangealjoints of all 5 digits Muscles of the Pelvic Limb Muscles of the Rump Super cial gluteul muscle 0 sacrum andfirst caudal vertebrae sacrotuberous ligament 1 third trochanter offemur A abduct limb extend hipjoint Middle gluteal muscle 0 Wing of ilium I greater trochanter of femur A extend hipjoint rotate limb medially Deep gluteal muscle 0 body of ilium ischiatic spine 1 greater trochanter A extend hipjoint rotate limb medially Caudal Muscles of the Thigh Biceps femoris muscle 0 sacrotuberous ligament and ischiatic tuberosit I patella patella lg and cranial border of tibia via fascia latae and crural fascia calcaneus via crural fascia A extend hipjoint abduct limb extend sti ejt fixed limb ex sti ejt not fixed extend tarsaljt Semitendinosus muscle 0 ischiatic tuberosity 1 body of tibia calcaneus via crural fascia A extend hip jt ex sti ejt not fixed extend sti e jt xed extend tarsal jt Semimembranosus muscle 0 ischiatic tubersosit I cauda surface of distal femur proximal end oftibia A extend hip jt exextend sti e jt Medial Muscles of Thigh Sartorius muscle 0 ventral border of cranial ilium and adjacent fascia I patella and cranial border of tibia A ex hip jt exextend sti ejt Pectineus muscle 0 iliopubic eminence I caudomedial aspect of distal femur A adduct limb Gracilis muscle 0 Pelvic symphysis I cranial border of tibia and tuber calcanei A adduct limb extend hip jt ex sti ejt extendtarsaljt Adductor muscle 0 pelvic symphysis and adjacent ischial arch ventral pubis and ischium I lateral lip of caudal surface of femur A adduct limb extend hip jt Cranial Muscles of Thigh Tensor fascia latae muscle 0 tu er coxae and adjacent part of ilium I lateral femoral fascia Atense lateral femoral fascia ex hip jt and extend sti e jt Quadriceps femoris muscle 4 head 0 KCLIII 39 Luuero it for rectu Vastus lateralis muscle Vastus medialis muscle39 Vastus intermedius muscle proximal femur I tibial tubersosity via patellar ligament A extend sti e jt rectus femoris muscle also exes hip jt Cranialateral Muscles of the Crus Cranial tibial muscle extensor groove and cranial border of tibia I proximal plantar surface of rst and second metatarsal bone A ex tarsal jt Long digital extensor muscle 0 extensor fossa of femur I dorsal aspect of distal phalanges ofweight bearing digits 25 A ex tarsal jt extend metatarsophalangeal and interphalangealjt ofweight bearing digit 25 Peroneus longus muscle 0 lateral condyle oftibia bularhead lateral collateral lg of sti ejt I 43911 tarsal bone plantar aspect of proximal ends of metatarsal bones A ex tarsal jt Gastrocnemius muscle 0 medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosities offemur I tuber calcanei end tarsal jt Super cial digital exor muscle 0 ateral supracondylar tubersosity of femur I tuber calcanei plantar aspect ofproximal end of middle phalanges of digits 25 A extend tarsaljt ex metatarsophalangeal and proximal interphalangealjt 25 Deep digital exor muscle 0 proximal tibia bula and interosseous membrane 1 plantar surface ofbase of distal phalanges of all 5 digits A extend tarsaljt ex all 5 metatarsophalangeal and interphalangealjt Popliteus muscle ossa for popliteus muscle of femur I caudomedial surface of proximal tibia A ex sti e jt Hypaxial Muscle Sternocephalicus muscles 0 the rst stemebra manubrium I mastoid part oftemporal bone caudoventral surface of skull nuchal crest of occipital bone caudodorsal surface of skull A draw head and neck to side pull head ventrally ifboth contract simultaneously Sternohyoideus and Stemoth oideus muscles 0 rst stemebra and rst costal cartilage I Sternohyoideus basihyoid bone on midline cranial to larynx Stemothyroideus thyroid cartilage lateral wall of larynx A pull tongue and larynx caudally as in swallowing Scalenus muscle 0 last 3 cervical vertebrae I rst few ri s A pull cranial ribs cranially and anchoring them in place during inspiration Serratus dorsalis cranialis muscle 0 dorsal midline I rst 7 or 8 ribs A pulls cranial ribs cranially for inspiration Extemal Internal intercostals muscle 0 a order of ribs 1 cranial border of ribs A pull ribs closer and cranially for inspiration N Thoracic Bones Scapula a Glenoid cavity b Ne k c c Supraglenoid tubercle d Coracoids process e Cranial border of the scapula f Scapular notch g Cranial angle 0 E E g on j Caudal border k Spine ofthe scapula l Acromion m Supraspinous fossa n Infraspinous fossa o Serrated face p Subscapular fossa Humerus a Body of humerus b Head of humerus c Greater tubercle d Lesser tubercle 9 89M VN5 o NHHHHHHHHHH QPWSQMPP Nt Q39 Muscles of the Thorax and Limb Cutaneous trunci m Deep fascia Brachiocephalicus m Trapezius m Latisimus dorsi m Omotransversarius m Rhomboideus m Super cial cervical lymph node Super cial pectoral m Deep pectora m Serratus ventralis m Supraspinatus m Deltoideus m Infraspinatus m ursa Synovial uid Subscapularis m Teres ma39or m Tensor fasciae antebrachii m Triceps brachu m a Long head b Medial head c Lateral head Os coxae a Pelvic symphysis Acetabulum Acetabular fossa Acetabular notch Obturator forarnen ium Wing of the ilium Boyd ofthe ilium Iliac crest Cranial ventral iliac spine Caudal dorsal iliac spine Tuber sacrale Caudal ventral iliac spine Tuber coxae Greater ischiatic notch Ischiatic s ine Tubersosity of rectus POFar T39F qvmopnw H Ischium Body Lesser ischiatic notch Ischiatic tuberosity Table of ischium Obturator foramen Ischiatic narch amus of ischium N ltgtlt ltFquot39quotquot g Deltoid tuberosity 21 Biceps brachu m Pubus h Teres major tubersosity 22 Transverse humeral 33 PUbiC berCIC i Humeral condyle retmaculum bb pecten j Troclea 23 Brachialis muscle FemUF k Capitulum 24 Carpal ad a Femoral head 1 Lateral epicondyle 25 Metacarpal pad b Fovea offernoral head m Medial epicondyle 26 Digital pad eck n Brachial groove 27 Cephalic v d Greater trochanter o Olecranon fossa 28 Extensor carpi radialis m e Trochanteric fossa p Radial fossa 29 Common digital extensor m f Lesser trochanter q Supratrochlear forarnen 30 Lateral digital extensor m g Third trochanter 3 Radius 31 Ulnaris lateralis m h Bod a 32 Supinator m i Medial and lateral lip b Fovea capitis 33 Abductor pollicis longus m j Medial and lateral condyle c Articular circumference 34 Pronator teres m k Intercondylar fossa d Troc ea 35 Flexor carpi radialis m l Medial lateral e Styloid process of the 36 Flexor rectinaculum SupraCOdelar tuberosity ra ius 37 Flexor carpi ulnaris m mPopliteal surface f Ulnar notch 38 Superficial digital flexor m n Mediallateral ridges of Ulna 39 Deep digital exor m trochlea a Olecran 40 Palmar annular ligament o Femoral troclea b Tuber olecrani 41 Proximal digital annular lg p Patella c Trochlear notch 42 Distal digital annular lg q Extensor fossa d Anconeal process 43 Humera jt r Fossa ofpopliteal muscle e Medial and lateral 44 Elbow 39t 3 Tibia coronoid process 45 Humeroradialjt 3 Mediallateral condyles f Styloid process ofulna 46 Lateral collateral lg of b Extensor roove 5 Manus cubitaljt c Intercondylar eminence a Intermedioradial carpal 47 Medial collateral lg of d Cranial intercondylar area bone u ital jt e Caudal intercondylar area b Ulnar carpalbone 48 us f Popliteal notch c Accessory carpal bone 49 Middle carpaljt g Tibial tuberosity d Carpal bones 50 Antebrachiocarpaljt h Cranial border Othe tibia e Metacarpal bones 51 Middle carpaljt i Tibial cochlea f DeWclaW 52 Carpometacarpaljt j Medial mallCOlus Sesarnoid bones 53 Metacarpophalangeal jt 4 Fibula 6 Umbilicus 54 Proximal and distal a Lateral malleolus 7 Mammae interphalangealjt 5 Pes a Cranial and caudal 55 Axial and abaxial collateral a Talus thoracic mammae lg b Troclea b ranial and caudal c Tarsocruraljt abdominal mammae Bones of Pelvic Limb d Calcaneus c Inguinal mammae e Tuber calcanei f Sustentaculum tali g Central tarsal bone h Tarsal bones Muscles of Pelvic Limb 1 Super cial and deal gluteal fascia 2 Fascia latae 3 Thoracolumbar fascia 4 Super cial gluteal muscle 5 Middle gluteal muscle 6 7 8 17 Tensor fascia latae muscle 18 Quadriceps femoris muscle 19 Rectus fernoris muscle 20 Patella 21 Vastus lateralis m 22 Vastus medialis m 23 Vastus interrnedius m Deep crural fascia 26 Crural extensor retinaculum 27 Cranial tibial m 28 Long digital extensor m 29 Peroneus longus m 30 Gastrocnemius m 31 Super cial digital exor m Deep digital exor m 35 Transverse acetabular lg 36 Lg offemoral head 37 Genualjt sti e jt 38 Medial lateral menisci 39 Medial lateral collateral lg 40 Transverse g 41 Meniscoferrnoral l 42 Cranialcaudal cruciate lg 43 Tarsocrural jt 44 Tarsometatarsal jt 45 Talocalcaneocentraljt 46 Calcaneoqu aljt 47 Centrodistaljt 48 Medial collateral lg oftarsus 49 Later collateral lg oftarsus Vertebral Column and Ribs inae Caudal and cranial vertebral ch es no 8 Intervertebral foramina 9 Spinous process 10 Transverse processes 11 Cranial and caudal articular processes 12 Articular surface 13 Cervical vertebrae 14 Atlas 15 Ventral arch 16 Dorsal arch 17 Wings of atlas 18 Atlantooccipitaljt 19 Caudal articular foveae 20 Atlantoaxialjt 21 Transverse forarnrna 22 Later vertebral foramina 23 Alar notch 24 Axis 25 Spinous process 26 Dens 27 Transverse foramina 28 Thoracic vertebrae 29 Cranial and caudal costal foveae 30 Accessory processes 31 Lumbar vertebrae 32 Sacrum 33 Median sacral crest 34 Dorsal sacral foramina 3 5 Prom ontory 36 Pelvic sacral foramina 37 Sacroiliac jt 38 Caudal vertebrae 39 Intervertebral discs 40 Supraspinous ligament 41 Interspinous g 42 43 Yellow lg 44 Dorsal longitudinal lg 45 Ventral longitudinal lg 46 Intercapital lg 47 Atlantooccipitaljt 48 Atlantoaxialjt 49 Dens 50 Transverse lg of atlas 51 Dorsal atlantoaxial lg 52 Ribs a b Tubercle c Neck d Costal cartilage e Costochondral junction f Costal arch g Floating rib Muscles of the Trunk 1 Epaxial muscle a Splenius m b Iliocostalis group c Longissiums system d Transversospinalis system Sernispinalis capitism f Nuchal lg 2 Hypaxial muscle Stemocephalicus m Stemohyoideus m Stemothyroideus m Thyroid gland hop057 m Serratus dorsalis cranialis m NHHHHHHHHHH 99w99w0 NN NN as NH NNNN 004mm wwN 050 wSQMewv r n xo He39 mysz g External intercostals m h Internal intercostals m i Ext mal abdominal oblique m j Super cial inguinal ring k Vaginal process 1 Inguinal lg m Internal abdominal obli ue m n Transverses abdominis m o Rectus abdominis m p Linea alba Neck and Thorax External jugular vein Linguofacial v axillary v Cephalic v Accessor n Superficial cervical lymph node Carotid sheath Common carotid a Vagosympathetic nerve truck Axilla Axillary vein Axillary lymph node Pleura Diaphragmatic pleura Mediastinum Mediastinal pleura Hilus of lungs Cranial and caudal lobes Cranial and caudal parts of cranial lobe Internal thoracic a Pulmonary lg Aorta Caudal vena cava Esopha us Right lung cranial middle caudal accessory lobe Cardiac notch Phrenic nerves Vagus nerves Thoracic Cavity Trach eobronchial lymph no e Le subclavian vein Le extemaljugular vein Le brachiocephalic vein Cranial vena cava Azygos vein Caudal vena cava o a rtic arch Brachiocephalic trunk le carotid arteries Sympathetic trunk 17 Rarnus communicans 1 inguinal lymph node 25 ascending duodenum 18 Vagosypathetic trunk 2 vaginal tunic 26 duodenuoj ejunal junction 3 parietal vaginal tunic 27 mesoduodenu Heart 4 visceral vaginal tunic 28 meso39e39unum 5 mesorc ium 29 hepatoduodenal ligament 1 Pericardium 6 mesoductus deferens 30 bile duct 2 visceral pericardium 7 ligament ofthe tail of the 31 pancreas 3 Parietal pericardium epididymis 32 major duodenal papilla 4 Pericardial cavity 8 ductus deferens 33 bile duct 5 Fibrous pericardmm 9 parnpiniform plexus 34 pancreatic duct 6 Pericardial Sac 10 epididymis 35 minor duodenal papilla 7 Base 11 head ofthe epididymis 36 accessory pancreatic duct 8 Apex 12 body of the epididymis 37 jejunum 9 Auricles 13 tail of the epididymis 38 jejuna lymph nodes 10 Coronary groove 14 proper ligament of the testis 39 ileum 11 Intervenmcular grooves 15 scrotum 40 large intestine 12 Coronary arteries 16 ingUinal canal 41 ascending colon 13 31 as v n m cavamm 17 cremaster muscle 42 right colic exure 14 Pectinate muscles 18 diap ra 43 transverse colon 15 Interatrial septum 19 aortic hiatus 44 le colic flexure 15 Intervenous bercle 20 caval n 45 descending colon 17 Atrioventricular ori ce 21 esophageal hiatus 46 mesocolon 18 Fossa ovalis 22 peritoneum 47 cecum 19 Coronary sin s 23 parietal peritoneum 48 ileocecal fold 20 Great com vein 24 visceral peritoneum 49 RampL kidney 21 Subsinuaosal intervenmcular 25 connecting peritoneum 50 Hilus groove 26 falciform igarnent 51 Renal capsule 22 Pulmonary mmk 27 round ligament of the liver 52 Renal cortex 23 Right atrioventricular valve 28 median ligament ofthe 53 Renal medulla 24 Chordae tendineae bladder 54 Renal pelvis 25 Papillary muscles 29 lateral ligament of the 55 Renal sinus 26 Trabeculae carneae adder 56 Renal crest 27 Conus arteriosus 30 ductus deferens 57 Renal pyramids 28 Paraconal intervenmcular 31 mesoductus deferens 58 Ureters groove 32 greater omentum 59 Renal arterires 29 Pulmonary valve a super cial and 60 Renal veins 30 Pulmonar trunk deep leaf 61 RampL adrenal glands 31 Pulmonary arteries LampR 33 omental bursa 62 Cortex and medulla of 32 Pulmon veins 34 lesser omentum adrenal gland 33 Left atrium 63 Ovaries 34 Pectinate muscles Viscera 64 Ovarian bursa 35 Left atrioventricular valve 65 Uterine tube 36 Aortic valve 1 spleen 65 Fimbriae 37 Right coronary artery 2 gastrosplenic ligarnent 57 Proper ligament 0f me ovary 38 Left coronary artery 3 liver 68 Uterus 39 Ligarnentum arteriosum a parietal and 69 Uterine horns visceral smface 70 Body ofthe uterus Vessels and Nerves of Thoracic Limb 4 caudate process of the 71 Br 021d ligament caudate lobe 72 Mesovarium 1 internal thoracic artery 5 right lateral lobe 73 Suspensory ligarnent ofthe 2 subscapular artery 6 right medial lobe ovary 3 thoracodorsal arte 7 gall bladder 74 Mesosalpinx 4 caudal circum ex humeral 8 quadrate lobe 75 MCSOmCLrillm cry 9 le lateral lobe 76 Round ligarnent ofthe uterus 5 brachial artery 10 le medial lobe 6 deep brachial artery 11 apillary process of the Arteries Veins and Nerves of 7 collateral ulna artery caudate o e Abdominal Cavity 8 common interosseous artery 12 lOf aCh 9 median aner 13 lesser curvature 1 Lumbar arteries 10 suprascapular nerve 14 greater curvature 2 Celiac art 11 subscapular nerve 15 I 3 Cranial mesenteric artery 12 musculocutaneous nerve 16 Jndus 4 Root of the mesentery 13 axillar nerve 17 body ofthe stomach 5 Celiacomesenteric ganglion 14 thoracodorsal nerve 18 pylorus 15 19 pyloric sphincter 6 Splenic artery 15 median ene 20 small intestine 7 Le gastric artery 17 radial nerve 21 odenum 8 Hepatic artery 22 cranial duodenal flexure 9 Cranial mesenteric art Abdomen 23 descending duodenum 10 Phrenicoabdominal arteries 24 caudal duodenal exure 11 Renal arteries 12 Renal veins 13 Caudal vena cava 1 varian arteries 15 Uterine branch ofthe ovarian art 3 16 Testicular arteries 17 Ovarian vein 18 Left testicular vein 19 Caudal mesenteric arte 20 Caudal mesenteric ganglion and lexus 21 Right and le hypogastric rves 22 Deep circum ex iliac arteries 23 Portal vein Pelvic Cavity 1 Rectum 2 Anus 3 External anal sphincter 4 Anal sacs 5 Urinary bladder 6 re ra 7 Urethralis muscle 8 Prostate gland 9 Ureters 10 Trigon ofthe umary bladder 11 Ductus deferens 12 Cervix 14 Ve l 15 Urethral tubercle 16 Vulva 17 Labia 18 Dorsal ventral commissures 19 Clitoral fossa 20 Clitoris 21 Bulb ofthe penis 22 Bulbospongiosus muscle 23 Crura of the penis 24 Ischiocavemosus muscle 25 Root of the penis 26 27 Prepucial orifice 28 Fornix of prepuce 29 Retractor penis muscle 30 Penile urethra 35 Pars longa glandis 36 39 Vessels and Nerves of Pelvic Cavity 1 Right and le extemal iliac s 2 Right and le intemal iliac arteries Median sacral artery Umbilica artery Caudal gluteal artery Vaginal artery 9 Uterine artery 10 P l ic ne 11 Internal iliac arteries Vessels and Nerves of Pelvic Limb Shi P F t 9 89 SKULL 9 89M VNE NNN WNH wNNNNNN QPSX F Wquot HHHHHHHHHH PW QM eP F t Q39 HHHHH eP F t HO39 NHHHHH 9559 gt399 5quot Extemal iliac a Deep femoral a Caudal epigastic a Medial circum ex Lateral circum ex moral a Saphenous a Saphenous n Medial saphenous v Distal caudal femoral a Cranial gluteal n Caudal gluteal n Sciatic n Common peroneal n Tibial n Neurocran ium Viscerocranium Nasal aperture Orbit Zygomatic arch Occipital bone agnum Occipital condyles Paracondylar processes Nuchal crest Frontal bones Zygomatic processes of the frontal one Temporal lines Temporal bones Tympanic bullae External acoustic meatus Tympanooccipital ssure Mastoid process Zygomatic process of the tempora Mandibular fossa Retroarticular forarnen complex Presphenoid bone Oval forarnen Caudal alar forarnen Alar canal Rostral alar forarnen Pterygoid bones Ethmoid bone Cribriform plate of ethmoid one Turbinates of the ethmoid ones Nasal bones Nasal aperture femoral a 42 Incisive bones 43 Canine teeth 44 Palatine ssure 45 illae 46 Infraorbital forarnen 47 Nasal passage 48 Lacrimal bone 49 Zygomatic bone 50 Frontal process of the zygomatic bone 51 Orbital ligament 52 Palatine bones 53 Choanae 54 Mandibles 55 Mandibular symphysis 56 Body of mandible 57 Rarnus of the mandible 58 Masseteric fass 59 Coronoid process ofthe mandible 60 Condylar process of the mandible 61 Mandibular notch 62 Angular process 63 Mandibular forarnen 64 Mandibular canal 65 Mental forarnina 66 Frontal sinus 67 axillary recess 68 Incisors 69 Canine teeth 70 Cheek teeth 71 Premolars 72 Molars 73 Carnassials tooth Soft Tissue of Skull 1 Philtrum 2 Tactile hairs 3 Palpebrae 4 5 Palpebral ssure 6 Nictitating membrane 7 Cornea 8 Sclera 9 NN NN as NH NNNNN xoooumu mm 0 NHHHHHHHHHH 9P9 95n gtVN 039 Limbus Bulbar conjunctiva Palpebral conjunctiva Fomix Lacrimal puncta External ear canal Maxillary vein Linguofacial vein Mandibular salivary gland Sublingual salivary gland Mandibular lymph nodes Parotid salivary gland Parotid duct Dorsal and ventral buccal Digastricus muscle Tongue Apex of tongue Body of tongue Root of tongue Frenu lum L N bbbbbbbbbb DOONQKIIbWNb O mu 0 mmmmm ewo mmmm waQM wwwwwww gt59 89PM4gtV mmmmmmmm 509 89 Eni3P Fquot Ducts of mandibular and sublingual salivary glands Dorsal c Common meatus arynx Epiglottis Laryngeal ventricle Vocal fold Nasopharyn Palatopharyngeal arch Auditory tube opharynx Palateglossal arches Palatine tonsils Laryngoph x Pharyngoesophagel limen Hyoid apparatus Basihyoid bone Zygomatic salivary gland Orbital ligarnent Lacrimal g External carotid artery Medial retropharyngeal h n ode Cerebellum Brain stern Spinal cord Muscles of the Thoracic Limb forelimb January 27 2011 Use the Lab Guide for study Extrinsic Muscles EX means out of or away from These 8 muscles attach to the forelimb and the trunk 4 Attach to Scapula ROTS 4 Attach to Humerus B LP P Intrinsic Muscles 6 groups according to action amp Location 1 Lateral muscles of the shoulder 2 Medial muscles ofthe shoulder Page i 1 Muscles 0f the Thoracic Limb forelimb January 27 2011 3 Caudal muscles of the brachium 4 Cranial muscles of the brachium 5 Craniolateral muscles of the antebrachium 6 Caudomedial muscles ofthe antebrachium Page 2 Urinary System Adrenal Gland a Not part of urinary system but sits on cranial pole of kidney in humans and near in dogs closer to aorta Fquot 1 ii Functions Cortex 7 secretes mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids Medulla 7 neuronlike secretes epinephrine and adrenaline General Functions of Urinary System 1 99 Regulate uid volume in body Regulate uid composition electrolytes and pH waste Secrete hormones which regulate blood pressure and RBC formation Kidneys Location outside peritoneum so retroperitoneal left kidney always gets left behind kidneys in ruminants and some marines look like a cluster of grapes cranial pole of R kidney is nestled within the caudal surface of caudate processes of caudate lobe of liver Structures i Hilus 7 depression or pit at part where vessels nerves enter on concave surface of kidney ii Cortex iii Medulla 7 inner tissue iv Renal Crest 7 part of the medulla that sits directly over pelvis v Renal Sinus 7 cavityspace filled with fat vi Renal Pyramid 7 part of the medulla coneshaped points to cortex vii Renal Pelvis 7funnelshaped proximal end of ureter collects urine in renal sinus viii Capsule 7 fibrous outer casing prevents expansion can put pressure on kidney ix Cortex 7 outer tissue production of urine ie eliminate waste products electrolytepH uid balance production of hormones that regulate blood pressure RBC production Ureters paired a transport of urine to urinary bladder from kidney b smooth muscle c do not stretch leads to kidney stones Urinary bladder a storage of urine b smooth muscle c transitional epithelium stretch w out leaking d Trigone i triangular area formed between entrance points of ureters and exit point of urethra ii ureters enter at cranial end of the neck enter at angle to prevent back ow iii urethra exits at caudal end of neck Pquotm 09w Urethra transport of urine to outside of body Urethralis muscle 7 acts as a sphincter skeletal m Sexual Dimorphism differences in location of urethra based on gender important when inserting catheters females have higher instance of infection bc rectum is closer to urethra Instructor Office Phone Email Office hours Class Time Lecture Laboratory Laboratory Instructors Undergraduate TAs COURSE DESCRIPTION Biomedical Anatomy VIBS 305 Spring 2011 Michelle Pine DVM PhD 68 bldg 508 979 4580594 mpinecvmtamuedu best way to reach me Tuesdays 1200100 pm and Wednesdays 1000pm1100am By appointment TuesThurs 800 am850 am Rm 101 VMS by Critical Care Cafe TuesThurs 900 am1100 am Building 507 VMS Room 157 W Les Dees PhD faculty Pei San Huang DVM Ted Wing DVM Francisco Gomez graduate student Kyle Butler 2 01 semester teaching Chelsea Hill 15t semester teaching Trey Durdin 1011am only 1s an 1n ro uc or course 1n mamma 1an ross ana om u 1 12m e o as e VIBSBOS39 39t d t y 39 l39 g t y t39lquotgthdg th pattern animal References to human anatomy are included to explain nomenclature and for your own interest The emphasis of this course is recognition of structures however general basic physiology will be presented to relate structure to function PREREQUI SITES U3 U4 U5 classification COURSE OBJECTIVES Upon course completion you should be able to P FPJN relationships 6 Dissect Define anatomical nomenclature State the basic function of normal gross anatomic structures Locate and name normal gross anatomic structures Relate normal anatomic structures to clinical usage and conditions Read an anatomical description and Visualize the described structural TEXTBOOKS and EQUIPMENT Required Texts 1 Lab Guide to be sold in Media Resources 2 Lecture Outline available on ELearning Required Equipment 1 3 or 4 scalpel and replacement blades surgical scissors 6 inch rattoothed thumb forceps heavy metal probe not a teasing needle disposable gloves one standard bath towel cheap and white Lab Coat 8 CPS clicker register through course link on Elearning These items except the towel are available at local book stores 519918593 Supplemental Material and Resources suggested only not required Texts 1 Color Atlas of Clinical Anatomy of the Dog and Cat by I S Boyd Published by MosbyWolfe 1996 2 Miller39s Guide to the Dissection of the Dog by H E Evans and A deLahunta 3 Miller39s Anatomy of the Dog 3rd edition by H E Evans 4 Dorlands Illustrated Medical Dictionary 5 CD of bones to be sold in Media Resources this isn t required but is available as a study aid Computer Lab Programs on canine and human anatomy Room 28A Bldg 1026 VMA Mon Thurs 800 am 945 pm Fri 800 am 500 pm Saturday 900 am 1245 pm Sunday 300 pm 945 pm Websites httpvanatcvmumneducarnlabs httpzrovervetmedlsuedustudentz2010filesPelvicLimbpdf GROSS ANATOMY LABORATORY STUDY HOURS Mon Thurs 800 am to 945 pm Friday 100 pm to 500 pm Saturday 900 am to 1245 pm Sunday 300 pm to 945 pm The veterinary students have class in the gross labs most afternoons However if you check with the instructor in charge you can usually study in the small outer lab The lab will close at 500 pm the night before all vet student exams and will remain closed the next day It will close at 500 pm the day before the 305 lab exams and it will remain closed until after the lab exams are finished 1100 am These dates will be posted in the gross lab EVALUATIONS 3 lab exams 125 points Exam I 25 points Exams II amp III 50 points each 3 written exams 25 points each 75points CPS in class quizzes comprehensive 15 points 1 final lab exam comprehensive 100 points 1 written final comprehensive 75 points Lab Attendance including clean up 10 points TOTAL 400 points There is no distinction between material presented in lecture and in lab Any material covered may be evaluated either in lecture or laboratory format Part of examinations includes interpretation of questions Therefore no questions are permitted during lab orlecture exams Exception the only permissible question during a lab exam is regarding the correct placement of the pin or string Dates for the exams are included in the attached schedules In the event of a question concerning the accuracy of an answer it is your responsibility to provide an acceptable reference to support your answer Any discussion concerning a question on the written examinations must occur within one week of when the exams are returned Any discussion concerning a question on the laboratory exams must occur while the question is still tagged Dates for the lecture and laboratory exams are included in the attached schedules The CPS quizzes are unannounced and can be given at any time during scheduled lecture periods Since the instructor will ask more than 25 quiz questions during the semester the CPS quizzes do not qualify for makeup quiz status and it is possible to earn um 10 bonus CPS points It is your responsibility to make sure you have your CPS clicker at every lecture and that it is in good working order Paper quizzes will not be accepted Finally observance of the Aggie Code of Honor see below applies to these quizzes as it would with any other type of examination Violation of the Aggie Code of Honor will occur if a student utilizes any reference materials or gains assistance from a fellow classmate in answering the CPS quiz questions Additionally the Honor Code will also be violated if a student uses another student s CPS unit to record an answer to a CPS quiz In the case of the latter violation both the student who answered the CPS quiz as well as the student to whom the unit belongs will both face disciplinary action GRADES Grades will be determined on the following point basis There is no quotcurvequot in this class Other than the CPS bonuses and the occasional bonus that may be included on exams there is no opportunity to earn quotextra credit A 400360 points B 359320 points C 319 280 points D 279232 points F 5 231 points 3 Grades will be determined on a point basis There are no extra credit assignments The grade you earn comes from the 400 points only Makeup exams will be given for university excused absences only and excuses must be verified by the director of the Biomedical Sciences Program Documentation of medical excuses must be signed by a physician and indicate the date and time you were seen In order for a makeup exam to be given documentation of the absence must be provided by the end of the next working day after the absence University regulations 71 to 75 The time and place for make up exams and their format will be determined by the instructor ATTENDANCE Attendance at all lectures is expected University regulations allow students with an excessive number of absences excused or unexcused to be removed from the class University regulation 78 Because there is no required textbook for this class the information presented in lecture is essential if you are to understand the material This class is primarily a laboratory class so you are expected to arrive fully prepared to participate This includes wearing a lab coat and closed toed shoes to each lab Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each lab period beginning on the second class period Each unexcused absence from lab will result in the loss of 2 points up to a total of 10 points Please note After 15 minutes have elapsed the student will automatically receive an unexcused absence for the lab period Students who do not wear a lab coat and closedtoed shoes will be asked to leave lab and will receive an unexcused absence Additionally students who fail to remain in lab and help with clean up during their scheduled weeks will also receive an unexcused absence with subsequent loss of attendance points Please turn OFF your cell phone ringers before coming to lecture and lab Cell phones going off in class are distracting and discourteous to the instructor and your classmates an offending student may be asked to leave class if this disruption occurs A student with repeated cell phone disturbances displays disruptive behavior and is subject to dismissal from the course LABORATORY PROCEDURES Personal Belongings All personal items must be stored in the lockers provided Lockers are located on the second floor of the VMS building above the gross lab Students may bring a lock to use however it must be removed along with all personal items after each lab period Backpacks and other personal items may not be stored in the gross lab or in the hallway outside the gross lab Items brought to lab or left in the hallway are subject to removal Table Assignment You will choose a group of four students per cadaver Each group should establish a system for rotating 1 dissecting 2 assisting with dissecting and 3 reading This ensures that all members of the group have an opportunity to participate In order to make the most efficient use of the scheduled class time all members of the group should read the material to be covered in lab before coming to class Each week39s dissection should be finished before proceeding with the next week39s dissection Sufficient lab time is provided each week to finish the assigned dissection If you finish early the time should be used reviewing quizzing one another and looking at other cadavers while instructors are present to answer questions I do not recommend leaving early or moving on to the next week s dissection material Cadavers The cadavers represent a considerable investment and should be cared for properly They will also be used for the examinations so the quality of examination specimens depends on the quality of dissection you do and the care you take of your cadaver CleanUp Each group is responsible for cleaning its own table and tissue and trash bucket and the area surrounding its table at the end of each laboratory period In addition a schedule will be posted indicating when each group will be responsible for general cleanup This will include sweeping andor hosing down the floor and cleaning the sinks Bone Box Each laboratory group will be issued a box containing a complete dog skeleton This box should be brought to class every laboratory session At the end of the semester the members of each group will be financially responsible for any missing or broken bones from the box even if they are no longer enrolled in the class The bones must be paid for before grades will be issued for the members of the group Students who do not return the bone box can be blocked from registration If a person does not wish to assume this responsibility he or she does not have to use the bones issued to the group there are some bones available in the lab If you are going to be absent from lab for an extended period of time please be sure to give the bone box to one of your lab partners The cadavers bones and models other than those issued to individual groups are intended for use in the laboratory only and are not to be removed from the lab To take them out of the laboratory not only deprives your classmates of the opportunity to use them but may also create an unfavorable impression among one39s colleagues outside of the class Removal of items from the gross lab or plastinated model room will be considered as academic dishonesty and dealt with accordingly No cameras are to be used in the gross lab We are extremely fortunate to have access to these donated cadavers and the dissemination of pictures of the dissected cadavers is not showing them the degree of respect that they deserve PERSONAL APPEARANCE This class is part of a curriculum preparing students for careers in medical or related professional fields Students are expected to be attired accordingly It is however a laboratory class that can become rather messy and smelly The use of protective clothing such as smocks or lab coats is required Open toe shoes are not to be worn in the lab Written guidelines for student safety will be provided and a Student Safety Contract must be signed before you will be 5 allowed to participate in the laboratory ACADEMIC INTEGRETY STATEMENT An Aggie does not lie cheat or steal or tolerate those who do Academic dishonesty in any form will not be tolerated and will be dealt with in accordance with university regulations According to the Aggie Honor Code academic dishonesty includes but is not limited to observing the work of another student during an exam knowingly allowing another student to observe your work during an exam consulting references during an examination or informing another person of the content of an exam prior to its being given It also includes removing teaching materials from the laboratory except for bone boxes checked out to individual groups falsification of documents concerning absences removing test materials from an exam unless authorized by the instructor or any other action that gives one person an advantage not available to everyone in the class Students are encouraged to review the Aggie Honor Code which can be found at wwwtamueduaggiehonor Not only does this document give specific definitions of what constitutes academic dishonesty it explains the process for dealing with alleged violations of the code More importantly it explains the process whereby students can assume the responsibility for enforcing the code for all students AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT STATEMENT The American with Disabilities Act ADA is a federal antidiscrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil right protection for persons with disabilities Among other things this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation please contact the Department of Student Life Services for Students with Disabilities in room B118 Cain Hall or call 845 1637 HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS STATEMENT for STUDENT in VIBS COURSES at TAMU Exnosure to hazardous L Please be warned that our embalming fluids contain phenol and formaldehyde 0 Phenol Caustic and toxic readily absorbed through skin contact if contacted wash thoroughly 0 Formaldehyde An quotexperimental carcinogen tumorigen and teratogen by ingestion skin contact and inhalation Additionally it can cause severe skin irritation upon contact if contacted wash thoroughly PregnantWomen By definition all chemicals are toxic We have strived to make the laboratory as safe as possible As long as proper precautions are taken ex Washing hands you exposure levels to these chemicals should not cause a problem Pregnancy introduces an entirely new set of variables Currently exposure levels which may cause harm to your unborn child are unknown We assume that these chemicals can pose a real threat to your unborn child We also consider that exposure of an unborn fetus to an avoidable hazard is unacceptable As stated above formaldehyde is an experimental carcinogen tumorigen and teratogen by ingestion skin contact and inhalation This presents a significant hazard for pregnant women If you are 6 pregnant or become pregnant while enrolled in this class please notify the instructor as soon as possible We will strongly encourage you to seek professional advice from your physician We will do our best to help you make arrangements to take this course at a later date if you decide to withdraw from the class We cannot prohibit you from continuing with the course as the law states that the decision is totally yours to make However should you decide to continue in the course while pregnant Texas AampM University cannot accept responsibility for any harm that befalls you or your child Should you choose to continue in the course you do so at your own risk and against the advice of TAMU Other hazards I Soft contact lenses Soft contact lenses are gas permeable which allows formalin fumes to enter the lenses and to expose your corneas causing severe irritation We recommend that you do NOT wear soft contact lenses in the lab However if you do wear them please be very cautious about any eye irritation 0 Sandals Please do NOT wear sandals in the anatomy laboratory 0 Food and drink Please do NOT bring any food or drink into the laboratory 0 Minors No one under the age of 18 years ie siblings or friends is allowed in the laboratory without prior permission and arrangements with the instructor TIPS FOR EXAMINATIONS 1 Read the entire question first 2 Look carefully at what is tagged 3 Note if it is mediallateral or proximaldistal That will rule out some answers immediately Ex the medial head of triceps can NOT be on the lateral side of the dog s leg 4 If you don t know the answer immediately make a note in the margin of your answer sheet of your thoughts and impressions then make an educated guess 5 Ligaments MUST have the jt in the name ie lateral collateral ligament of the cubital elbow jt ust putting lateral collateral ligament is only half right 6 Actions of muscles are on joints Therefore the answer to a question about the function of a muscle must include the jt Ex flexes the carpal joint not flexes the carpus 7 If the structure is located on both sides you don t have to put left or right 8 If the question says quotBe Specific then list all pertinent information 9 Answers in parentheses will NOT be graded 10 You may NOT go back to a question at anytime during or after the lab practical 11 Don t second guess yourself most of the time your first answer is the correct one 12 Answer the question asked If you are to list one function of a muscle then list only one Writing a novel will NOT improve your score If you give a correct answer and then continue with a wrong answer then your answer is incorrect Lecture 1 Explanation of Directional and Descriptive Terms All information presented in the first lecture pertaining to the definitions and explanations for the directional terminology is in the laboratory guide on pages 912 Know and understand amp ofthe terms listed pages 912 These terms are the foundation ofthe course and the student must understand them in order to follow the dissection instructions and nd and identify the anatomical structures


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