COMM AGRI INFO TO PUBLIC
COMM AGRI INFO TO PUBLIC AGCJ 404
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AGCJ 404 Communicating Agricultural Information to the Public Research Brief Assignment Fall Semester 2007 Autism Introduction environment premature birth complications during pregnancy and the child s antibiotics Autism a common form of the as shown by Figure l autistic spectrum disorders ASD is a behavioral disorder diagnosed in early 39 childhood in which the child has dif culty 3 communicating with others understanding surroundings emotions and word I Genes meanings and o en has anintense focused 25 1 interest in one speci c thing Despite much research the causes of autism are not known leaving parents in a predicament 20 D Env39mnmem because they do not fully understand the disorder and how to help their autistic children El Early Injury or 15 quot illnessto the child Purpose I Pregnancy The purpose ofthis research briefis 1 mmplwa on to help the parents understand autism and possible treatments for the disorder mowers 5 antlblotlc Parents Beliefs about Causes of Autism I Other Because autism is such a confusin o a Sigma and misunderstood disorder parental beliefs A of the 75 questioned y C I o en differ and parents tend to lose Parents D Premature birth con dence in their autistic child s physician according to a study done in 2006 by J W Harrington P A Patrick SK Edwards amp D A Brand in which 75 parents ofautistic children answered questionnaires ost Figure 1 Parents believe that meir Child s autism is Parental beliefs about the etiology of autism the effeCt Of a SPeCi C cause They mOSt Note Adapted from Parental beliefs about commonly believe that autism is caused by autism by J w Hanjngtom p A pamck 39rnmunizations or genetics Other believed s K Edwards and D A Brand 2006 1 causes include exposure to a harm ul Tanya Daner 1 October 30 2007 Autism the International Journal of Research and Practice 10 p 456 Things Parents have Tried to Help their Autistic Children I Special diets I Calcium and folic acid supplements I Special medications I Complementary and alternative medicine Harrington Patrick Edwards amp Brand 2006 Methods that Actually Show Improvement in Autistic Children s Abilities Autistic children are different from normally developing children in that they do not seek to understand or make sense of things on their own Instead they have to be patiently taught different concepts Researcher I A Van BerckelaerOnnes found in 2003 that autistic children do not even seem to understand the functions of toys unless they are taught She performed a study in which trainers sat oneonone with 24 autistic children in 30minute sessions twice a week for 11 weeks Each trainer observed the child in each session while he or she played with different toys using the child s own imagination and the trainer showed the child new ways to manipulate different toys The children were evaluated before and after the 11week study to determine if playing with toys and learning new ways to play with toys are beneficial to autistic children Van BerckelaerOnnes found that teaching children to play with toys and make sense of them at an early age is a successful way to improve autistic children s abilities to understand their surroundings Intervention designed to facilitate toy play will help to overcome the problems of weak central coherence and thus to establish more normal perceptual and representational development as well as the development of symbolic play Van BerckelaerOnnes 2003 p 418 Another early intervention method is to allow autistic children to attend preschool and kindergarten with normally developing children rather than restricting them to more solitary environments Being a part of the same classrooms as normally developing children of about the same age seems to help their social interaction skills Jahr Eikeseth Eldevik amp Aase 2007 The Stronger Families Project a parent workshop that was followed by ten homebased intervention sessions showed significant differences in autistic children s communication social and symbolic abilities Keen Rodger Doussin amp Braithwaite 2007 Sixteen two to four yearold autistic children all in different homes were evaluated by their own parents before and after the Stronger Families Project was conducted After the program parents noticed much improvement in their autistic children Bene cial Things Parents can do for an Autistic Child I Tell your child s physician about any symptoms of autism immediately to expedite diagnosis and treatment Even ask to be referred to a specialist If your physician is not willing to listen to your concerns and beliefs find another physician who will work with you and your child I Set time aside each week to sit one onone with your child exploring different toys to help the child s ability to perceive new concepts This should facilitate the child s cognitive development Tanya Daiter October 30 2007 I Allow your child to attend preschool to interact with other children This should help with social skills Attend parent workshops and have a specialist come to your home to help you learn how to work with your child Overall Recommendation Early intervention seems to be the key to improvements in autistic children so start working to help your child as soon as possible A New Way to Check for Autism so that Parents are able to begin Early Intervention Programs To determine the behavioral differences in children without autism autistic children and mentally retarded children researchers performed a 15minute study on elementary school children playing during recess just by observing them The researchers watched each of the children from a distance and scored different behaviors of the children on a checklist as either present or absent Ingram Mayes Troxell amp Calhoun 2007 The researchers found that the behaviors of children with autism differed greatly from those of the mentally retarded and the normally developing children although the two latter groups did not differ much from each other in social behaviors The checklist test was 94 accurate in diagnosing the children with autism Therefore using the checklist designed by Ingram et al 2007 can help diagnose children with autism at an early age by merely observing them play on a playground with other children Audience This research brief is intended to be supplemental reading material for parents of autistic children References Harrington J W Patrick F A Edwards S K amp Brand D A 2006 Parental beliefs about autism Autism the International Journal of Research and Practice I 05 452 Ingram D H Mayes S D Troxell L B amp Calhoun S L 2007 Assessing children with autism mental retardation and typical development using the playground observation checklist Autism the International Journal of Research and Practice 114 311319 Jahr E Eikeseth S Eldevik S amp Aase H 2007 Frequency and latency of social interaction in an inclusive kindergarten setting Autism the International Journal of Research analPractice 114 349363 Keen D Dodger S Doussin K amp Braithwaite M 2007 A pilot study of the effects of a social pragmatic intervention on the communication and symbolic play of children with autism Autism the International Journal of Research analPractice 111 6371 Van BerckelaerOnnes LA 2003 Promoting early play Autism the International Journal of Research analPractice 74 415423 Tanya Darter October 30 2007 AGCJ 404 Communicating Agricultural Information to the Public Fact Sheet Assignment Fall Semester 2007 Autism What is autism child s ability to Autism is the most common form of perceive the autistic spectrum disorders ASD It is a new behavioral disorder that is diagnosed in early Concepts childhood in which the child has dif culty This should communicating with others understanding facilitate surroundings emotions and word meanings the Chlld s and o en has an intense focused interest in one speci c thing It is most common in boys What causes autism Despite much research the causes of autism are not known leaving parents in a predicament because they do not fully understand the disorder and how to help their autistic children Is there anything parents can do to help their child if diagnosed with autism I Tell your child s physician about any symptoms of autism immediately to expedite diagnosis and treatment Even ask to be referred to a specialist If your physician is not willing to listen to your concerns and beliefs nd another physician who will work with you and your child Set time aside each week to sit one onone with your child reading and exploring different toys to help the cognitive development Allow your child to attend preschool to interact with other children This should help with social skills Attend parent workshops and have a specialist come to your home to help you learn how to work with your child in an environment where you and your child are most comfortable Learn how to work with your autistic child at home Continued on back Additional information about this Fact Sheet may be obtained from anya Darter someone neotamuedu or xvi mmx Are there any signs of autism that can help parents detect the disorder early in order to begin an early intervention program Watch your child play with other children on the playground at recess or at the park Observe your child s interaction with other children as social skills are developing even at play If your child seems to differ greatly from the other children it might be a good idea to visit a physician The child could be diagnosed immediately giving you the opportunity to begin early intervention or even better you may learn that your child is perfectly normal putting your mind at ease h A physician checks autism in a young girl What is the overall recommendation of health care professionals who specialize in treating autism Early intervention seems to be the key to improvements in autistic children so start working to help your child as soon as possible Yuang children playing at the park are being observed closely Additional information about this Fact Sheet may be obtained from Tanya Darter someone neo amuedu or xxx xxxxxx AGCJ 404 Communicating Agicultural Information to the Public Fact Sheet Assiglment all Semester 2007 Public Awareness and Genetically Modi ed Foods 9 at is their relations What are genetically modi ed foods Genetically modi ed foods or GMs are living organisms such as animals plants or bacteria that have their genetic m eup altered in some way to make products for nutritional value What are genetically modi ed l oods used forquot Genetically modified foods are used to make products such as beer wine cheese and yogurt as well as medicines vaccines foods 39 39 39 feed and El Biotechnology is a more general term refemng to a living organism s components that are usedto make a product Gene 39cally 1995 and were generally used by crop producers 014752 39 wwwplarltsclmmacukm125ag2071ypg 014752 39 httprgchszMmages rldzlecypg What are the advantages of genetically modi ed foods and biotechnology lEnhanced taste and quality lReduced malnutrition time for plants lNew products and growing techniques lIncreased resistance for disease Better yields ofmeats eggs and milks 1mproved animal health 13 etter conservation practices for the environmen Combat obesity Dian B a urhules amu edu or 979 25577176 dianaburbulesneo t What are the disadvantages of genetically modified foods and biotechnolo Ilncrease of allergens for humans IBiopiracy IEthical problems such as tampering with nature by altering genes and stress for the 39 al amrn ILabeling problems IOther unknown risks How does public awareness of biotechnology affect how the public views it Studies conducted over the last ve years have shown no conclusive evidence that the public awareness of biotechnology plays any sort of role in their willingness to buy genetically modi ed products However the public does seem to have strong opinions about the subject but these opinions are not related to the level of awareness the public has for biotechnology and genetically modi ed products People in Europe Asia and the United States generally have positive views of biotechnology associating it with healthy and nutritious products K 5 0 Q 39 quotquot o 9 a n mm L i A amp Source www beaconcareers com b iotechnologyi Nbjpg Conclusion Public awareness and biotechnology do not go hand in hand39 however the public s view of biotechnology and genetically modi ed foods and products is a positive one Although the public s opinion is positive it is not because people know a great deal about genetically modi ed products but instead is because the bene ts seem to outweigh the known risks associated with biotechnology References Anderson J C Wachenheim C J amp Lesch W C 2006 Perceptions of genetically modi ed and organic foods and processes AgBioForum 93 1807194 Bruhn C M 2003 Consumer attitudes toward biotechnology lessons for animalrelated applications American Society ofAnimal Science 812 E1967E200 Curtis K R McCluskey J J amp Wahl T T 2004 Consumer acceptance of genetically modi ed food products in the developing world AgBioForum 7lamp2 70775 Hebden C W Shin H K amp Hallman W K 2005 Consumer responses to GM foods why are Americans so different Choices The Magazine ofFood Farm and Resource Issues 204 2437246 Li Q Curtis K R McCluskey J J Wahl T T 2002 Consumer attitudes toward genetically modi ed food in Beijing AgBioForum 54 1457152 Additional information about this Fact Sheet may be obtained from Diana Burbules dianaburbules neotarnuedu or 979 2557176