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by: Ms. Adrien Kassulke


Ms. Adrien Kassulke
Texas A&M
GPA 3.78

Douglas Starr

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About this Document

Douglas Starr
Class Notes
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This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Adrien Kassulke on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AGCJ 203 at Texas A&M University taught by Douglas Starr in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/225985/agcj-203-texas-a-m-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
N E 4 V39 0 gt1 9 0 O N 4 UI ON 3 Checklist for Writing Print Leads Is your lead specific rather than vague and abstract Have you avoided stating the obvious Have you emphasized your story s most unusual or unexpected developments Have you emphasized your story s most interesting and important developments Have you emphasized your story s magnitudeiand its impact upon its participants and readers Have you used a complete sentence the proper tense and all the necessary articles af an and the Is your lead concise Ifthe sentence exceeds 30 words examine the lead critically to determine whether it is wordy or repetitious or contains some unnecessary details Have you avoided writing a label lead that reports your story s topic but not what was said or done about it Did you begin your lead with the newsi the main point of the story If you began with attribution or the time and place your story occurred rewrite it Have you used a relatively simple sentence structure exercising particular care to avoid beginning the lead with a long phrase or clause Have you used strong active and descriptive verbs rather than passive verbs such gt7 4 as is was and were Is every name that appears in the lead essential Avoid unfamiliar namesiand names that require lengthy identi cation that could be reported in a later paragraph If a lead contains a quotation or a statement of opinion is it properly attributed Has the lead been localized and does it emphasize the latest developments preferably what happened today or yesterday Have you eliminated statements of opinion including oneword labels such as interesting and exciting Ifyou have used two sentences can you justify their use Are they concise and nonrepetitive 17 Have you read the lead aloud to be certain that it is clear concise and easy to understand iAdapted from Reporting for the Print Media by Fred Fedler Opening the Story Leading the Reader to the Story E Leads Most Important Inverted Pyramid Least Important WHO WHEN WHAT WHERE WHY HOW A SUMMARY LEAD uses all or most of these elements Is the person Widely known prominent nationally in a position of authority or importance exceptionally interesting Also applies to groups and organizations If the event idea or situation has greater signi cance or is more important than the people involved Or if too many people are involved Only if the time is of extreme importance WHERE Only when the place the event happened or will happen is out of the ordinary or exceptionally interesting The reason something was done lots of human interest is clear has some special signi cance If something was done in an unusual or interesting manner has never been done before of signi cant human interest Summary Provides information MultipleElement Single theme too restricted Suspense Opposite of summary Character Personality SceneSetting Place Narrative Storytelling Most Common Associated Press Style Requirements Put a space before the open parenthesis and after the close parenthesis The Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD listed housing available in College Station Telephone numbers require parentheses around the area code and a space before the open parenthesis and after the close parenthesis 409 845 4611 Put a coma in numbers of more than three digits 100 1000 10000 100000 Do not use lt2 Some newspapers do not have those symbols in their software Put all periods and commas inside all quotation marks He said Wait Wait he said The title of the book is Help She said He replied Wait Put colons and semicolons outside all quotation marks Put question marks and exclamation points inside or outside quotation marks depending upon the sense of the sentence The colon introduces a list the semicolon separates thought units Put long titles after the name lower cased and with commas before and after Rick Perry governor of Texas said William McClain lieutenant general of infantry said Put short titles before the name uppercased and abbreviated as appropriate Texas Gov Rick Perry Lt Gen William McClain Lt Gov Jane Doe Professor Douglas Starr Mrs Andrew Hampden Abbreviate Street avenue boulevard in addresses 4215 Chestnut St 1066 Napoleon Ave 1215 Marshal Foch Blvd State with city And separate the state with two commas Shreveport La is near Texas Month in date Nov 15 June 12 July 4 Do not abbreviate even in addresses Road drive lane trail alley Spell out when used alone Street avenue boulevard state month Main Street Texas Avenue Grand Boulevard Louisiana November Abbreviate United States as adjective US Coast Guard US Supreme Court Spell out United States as noun The United States comprises 50 states Use standard abbreviations of states Ala Ariz Ark Calif Colo Conn Del Fla Ga Ill Inc Kan Kyj La Md Mass Mich Minn Miss Mo Mont Neb Nev NH N NM NY NC ND Okla Ore Pa RI SC SD Tenn Vt Va Wash WVa Wis Wyo Do not abbreviate Texas Alaska Hawaii Idaho Iowa Maine Ohio Utah The two letter state abbreviations all caps no periods no spaces LA AR TX CA NM NY etc are abbreviations of the US Postal Service only Use them only in full addresses Use two commas with appositives Dr William Gates president of Texas AampM University said today Use the comma before the conjunction and but for in compound sentences The pronoun for people and animals that have names is who for things and ani1nals without names that Those are the shovels that are broken She fed her cat Percy who is ill They are the students who were evicted They fed the ani1nals that were suffering The dash separates thought units and tangential phrases Look up the dash in the AP Stylebook before you use it The dash is made with two hyphens and no space before or after Some word processors provide a real dash an M dash the width of the capital The hyphen joins words It is made with no space on either side 10 year old girl 6 foot tall man The dash is made on the Macintosh by holding down the shift and option keys and touching the hyphen key The hyphen between numerals really an N dash is made on the Macintosh by holding down the option key and touching the hyphen key 1997 98 a 6 5 vote Compound adjectives before the noun are hyphenated and singular 2 year old girl full tirne job first quarter touchdown 5 foot tall man Compound adjectives after the noun are not hyphenated and plural as appropriate The girl is 2 years old he works full time the touchdown came in the first quarter the man is 5 feet tall The plural of foot is feet Do not write The man is 5 foot tall Try it with inches It would be silly to write The man is 5 foot 6 inch tall No hyphen in ly adverbs easily remembered rule widely known woman highly regarded official Suspensive hyphenation requires two hyphens and a space after each hyphen but the last First second and third grade pupils are released at 2 pm She received a 10 to 20 year prison sentence It is incorrect to write second and third grade pupils 10 to 20 year The reason is that second and third each modifies grade and 10 and 20 each modifies year It is the same as saying second grade and third grade and 10 year and 20 year Besides second andquot and 10 toquot are not words What is Ag News Week 1 What is news Three primary characteristics Relevance Usefulness Interest Contextspecific definitions Audience News values Relevance Importance to audience Usefulness Provides information that can influence audience members lives Interest Can be a combination of relevance and usefulness or it can be simply interesting News values key elements Specific elements Impact How many people How much Conflict Struggles Novelty Man bites dog Prominence Who News values key elements Proximity Close to home Timeliness Before rather than after Changing audiences Online News when and where you want it Print news audiences want News Relevant to them and their community Some world and national news Gimmicks alone won t do it Practical and useful information they can use Changing audiences Journalists no longerjust gatekeepers on information Journalists are navigators Agricultural Audiences Demographics 6 nonowners 44 produce both crops and animals 36 crops only 19 animals only 78 male 22 female Mean average age 51 90 minimum high school education 23 college degrees Mean household income 69810 APA Gallup 2000 Survey 8 Changing audiences Gen X want list Visual snap Densely Layered Interaction Relevance Diversity More hope not just catastrophe and absurdity New Journalism Democracy isn t working as well as it should Journalists should try to do something aboutH Goodwill at the expense of Independence Ag journalists have always tended to be new journalists Accuracy and fairness The best obtainable version of the truth Journalists find and write the facts Hard to get the facts What do they mean Is it really a fact Time limitations andor space limitations Accuracy and fairness Names spelled correctly Facts correct Context questions Both sides of the story All possible viewpoints Frames Viewpoint or perspective on story or topic Audience s point of view Boomtown television show Florida Club Golf Course Neighbor was an existing small farm with pigs Smell noise farmer played music for the pigs Points of view Objectivity Is it possible What does it really mean The Hutchins Commission 1947 truthful comprehensive and intelligent account of the day s event in a context which gives them meaning Leads and Story Basics Week 1 Topics for Today What s news Discuss broadcast news topics Basic story structure Leads Leads More leads Return to story structure The inverted pyramid Reports of its death have been greatly exaggerated Most important to least important Newspaper readers spend 15 to 25 minutes per day reading the paper Online subscribers spend even less The inverted pyramid Readers can find the key information first Editors can trim less important information if necessary Began in the Civil War or before Forces writers to rank the importance of the information Key to good leads too The inverted pyramid Lead comes first Supporting paragraphs in descending order of importance Multiple editions of a newspaper or newscast with story running different lengths Negatives It doesn t encourage people to read the entire story Leads Clear simple statement First paragraph occasionally two paragraphs Key news values So what or Who cares Leads basic questions Who What When Lead basics Ask these questions A few other things as appropriate Word limit 25 is good Depends on the story May be two sentences if necessary Remember what do you want to know 8 Leads Telling someone a story when they re trying to catch a bus Just the facts Avoid editorializing Keep your opinions out Double check spelling address key facts Avoid too many numbers in the lead A fire in Bryan caused 45000 in damages to a twobedroom home in the 2300 block of 28th Street Fire officials said the fire was started by a lighted cigarette on a sofa Firefighters arrived at the house at 330 am to find it on fire They had the blaze under control in five minutes The homeowner Kathy Mahoney was awakened by the smoke and flames She suffered minor burns on her hands and feet Alternate leads Which item is most important What if Mahoney is the mayor of Bryan Mahoney is a convicted arsonist Have there been may fires caused by smoking this year Types of leads You lead Tells readers why they should care Immediateidentification lead Who is one of the most important facts Delayedidentification leads Who is one of the least important facts Types of leads Summary lead Sums up what happened Most common lead type Multipleelement lead Laundry list of topics Use sparingly Novelty Leads Some stories are best written with an unusual lead A Santa Ana woman was charged with attempted murder yesterday She was being held in the Orange County jail after being unable to post 250000 bond Police said the woman June Carter 71 doused her husband who was confined to a wheelchair and had cancer with rubbing alcohol and set him on fire Police said she was angry because he ate her chocolate Easter bunny She called paramedics six hours after the attack on her husband Paul Carter 62 was taken to the University of California Irvine Burn center with thirddegree burns police said Story organization A good lead makes the rest of the story easy to write Following the lead introduce any additional important information Explain the so what if possible Elaborate on the information in the lead Story structure Develop the ideas in the same order they are introduced Generally use one paragraph per idea Yes you can have onesentence paragraphs Multipleelement stories A multielement lead frequently means a multipleelement story Board meetings council meetings Options More than one story A summary box nice graphic element Multielement story same format as regular story


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