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by: Kelli McClure


Kelli McClure
Texas A&M
GPA 3.56

J. Heuman

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J. Heuman
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli McClure on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 345 at Texas A&M University taught by J. Heuman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/226068/comm-345-texas-a-m-university in Communication at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
Comm Final Notes March 24 2009 Fordist provision general principles and the specificity of cultural provision Historical development of Fordist provision Nationalizing radio and television broadcasting Publishing and the law of corporate authorship The cases of Old Sleuth George Monroe unless stories and its in a series and his brother Norman unless copy cats in the same series courts side with George because he has a property interest in his characters and stories he has a trademark in his stories It s the publisher not the writer who has a property right in the stories An unstable balance between copyright and trademark ownership making it hard to resolve the conflict between them The quotwork for hirequot provision in the 1909 Copyright Act Provision that is owned by the employer rather than the employee who is producing the work Ex Bratz vs Mattel guy who developed Bratz he worked at Mattel and quit and new company produce them Establishes new work the employee holds intellectual property rights if you re an employee what you produce becomes property of your employer Paper topic should film costume designers have a say in the workprofit Most work that is separately considered copyrightable is considered work for hire Ex the producers own costume design whatever you produce for the film s popular music work for hire To the record labels The labels want to say so Film demand uncertainty and the irrational idiosyncrasy of creative production Demand uncertainty 1 market research In order to help demand uncertainty you should know your audience better Look at fan mail Stars that might need to be replaced Chart statistics Demand uncertainty 2 branding serialization adaption stars In more commercial systems you re more likely to see more serialization in the US you want shows to run for 57 years because there commercialized More commercializationmore serialization Serialization builds brand recognition Adaptation allows producers to play with familiarity from the original make brand name easier but there is a point were the movie industry starts to give up a lot of power to the publishing industry making the publishers the gate keeper Ex before the Harry Potter movie came out people were already aware of the product All these strategies reduce risk but you re also upping the stakes making the game hard to stay in The dominant strategy is the idea of the star choose the movies for which stars are in it the idea of the star has a center of meaning around the film very strategically developed during the 20 h century advancing star as the selling point of the movie Ex wouldn t of saw Get Smart if Steve Carrel and Anne Hathway weren t the stars Long term solution for branding is promoting the star industries develop huge publicity schemes for the stars some industries sign stars for multiple years because you re making an investment with the stars image Lovehate relationship between the movie industry and the stars Stars are largely produced and movie industries look at the stars as an investment Rationalizing creative production divide labor budgetedscheduled script prod design How do we rationalize films How do we rationalize creative production How do we assert authority over creative work Film industry divides the labor of film production director writer editor actor all roles can be filled by certain positions and dividing labor by specialized fields n commercial systems division of labor doesn t always have to play out this way Managerial authority over the director the director is the one in charge in the field and we want to make sure that this creative person stays within the lines that were drawn one way to do so is to design a budgeted script Budgeted script a certain set of expectations of when it will be done how much it will cost designed to keep director in line n commercial scripts the manager is able to tell the director when it will be filmed how much it will cost etc At the very start of commercial film making the manager is in charge of the creative directors in the field The director doesn t have a whole lot of authority to go off screen during commercial films Production designer once upon a time they were the art director they make storyboards for each shot by shot Ex with Gone With The Wind producer says he doesn t just want an art director he wanted a production designer who would go and design storyboards shot by shot for how this film is going to look Not all movies work this way but is another way managers have been able to increase control over creative control Establish labor make a budgeted script and make a bargain with production designer allows for more managerial control tool towards efficiency and rationalization Media industries tend to adopt these new techniques to integrate into mass production and mass consumption 7 out of 10 of highest grossing movies were either sequels or made out of something already known by audience these techniques don t go away Contemporary legacies ofFordist provision the mass audience hit promo across uncertain bounds production A lot of strategies continue very strongly today Fordist strategies are more local lots of things remain the same from early 20 h century to where we are now March 26 2009 Postfordist provision and the fashion model Market fragmentation n film television music the major markets become much more difficult to control n film lose control of theaters European art cinemas coming to US the market fragments become much more difficult for majors to control and increase demand of the market n music Rock amp Roll brings all new independent labels that consumers are interested in market fragmentation disturbs the comfy position that media industries have built in the early 20 h century Vertical dis integration A response to control market fragmentation Media firms were more flexible towards an organization Relatively more open way of disintegrated coordination Idea of fashion Transaction costs flexibility and fast fashion Transaction cost economic explain why companies organize the way that they do why supply chains are organized the ways that they are The cost that is used to execute a transaction Wants to emphasize on the cost that is used to execute a particular transaction Could be regulation costs how you insure your getting what you actually paid for Convenient stores lower the price of transaction costs Ex EBay buys PayPal to lower transaction costs In one extreme you can internalize functions within a firm your transaction costs go down then your efficiency goes up but your flexibility goes down because you don t have options of going to other kind of vendors In another extreme you can externalize functions on a market your transaction costs would go up relatively inefficient transaction but a very flexible transaction with no strings attached Markets networks and firm hierarchies are used to try to balance different advantages and disadvantages Market transactions are flexible but not efficient because they have high transaction costs For a hierarchy you are going to have several different divisions which lower transaction costs and increases efficiency but lowers flexibility Ex Film industry Fast fashion Fast media Thinking Postfordist media industries The quotindependentquot question From quotmassquot to quotnichequot and beyond Alternative and minority media Working flexibilized labor markets Geographies of production April 2 2009 What s quotindependentquot media A textual genre An alternative mode of nonmarket production and consumption A relation between producers and distributors Why independent media Status of indie media in post fordist era How are they independent Textual genre just like a western film or reggae music looking at text for shared conventions and similarities of content and form Conceptualize indie media alternate mode of production and consumption which is not oriented towards a specific market An opposite to the mainstream produced by the majors ndie characteristics Not distributed or financed by majors Does the presale of My Big Fat Greek Wedding to HBO make it not independent HBO is not buying theatrical rights only cable and home video rights does that mean affiliates with a major make it nonIndie We need to be able to say this is indie and this is not but some are more than others Straight acquisition deal produce and finance film on own and take it to Sundance and it gets picked up for distribution by a studio is that an independent film If MTV is associated with Napoleon Dynamite does make it unIndie Pulp Fiction Shakespeare in Love etc products of made by major producers for major studies Studio alternative independent specialty divisions ndies program for underserved audiences Different kind ofalliances between majors and Indies PampD Deal Ex Pulp Fiction worked well owned by Disney but very innovative April 7 2009 PostFordist provision From quotmassquot to quotnichequot and beyond I Parameters of niche programming A Niche economics B Constructing the niche Demographicspsychographics Upmarket downmarket Narrowbroad Simplecombination Corecrossover C Programming the niche D The niche business model Distribution Finance Branding H Case studies in niche programming A Theatrical film genres quadrants and beyond B The demographics of primetime television C Magazine content and advertising Niche 394 equot of niche unserved audiences out there who make profitable for exploitation mass programming leaves these audiences unserved Niche economics advertisers like niche audiences when dealing with selling items niche audiences are more cost efficient making product more attractive for people your targeting allowing advertisers to speak more directly to customers and allowing smaller advertisers a way in f 39 a Line niche 39 g r39 39 r 39 U I 39 39 upmarket downmarket narrow broad simple combination core and crossover Demographic based on who the audience is social glass gender race sexuality ethnicity who are these people Psychographics based on interests attitudes or lifestyles Up market niches advertisers want to sell to rich people Down market niches advertisers reaching towards people with less disposable income strict profit to be made in general black America has less money than white America advertisers underserve black America Narrow niches ex reaching audiences with tattoos Broad niches ex Lifetime targeting women imple vs Combination niche one particular group in my programming or am trying to combine my group into one market looking to combine different niches into one market ex people whom like tattoo and rock music Core vs Crossover niche who the particular niche I m wanting to reach and I want a crossover with a larger audience think about in cable programming ie Crocodile Hunter always have in mind there target audience but would like to crossover and connect to a larger mass audience Niche business model doing business in a different way then you would you start thinking about distribution Distribution typically programming for small audiences will change the way you distribute big drop offs when you model from analog to digital cable closely tied to finance Finance how are you going to fund the programming you want to develop niche media is very often cheap media Branding drawing audiences in Case studies in niche programming Prime time television appeals to large audiences ex early 1970 s CBS ditches top lineup for rural sitcoms Beverly Hillbillies in favor of more upscale urban sitcoms Mary Tyler Moore they are measuring demographics 1980s still have quality audience idea shift to prime time soap takes on strongly feminine shows in 1980s contemporary audiences made sense of ex Designing women advertisers are more concerned with young rich audiences so television producers respond by focusing television shows on what advertisers want even though getting fewer viewers segmentation based on gender and race Magazine content and advertising still imaging audiences in segmented ways todaypresent pick up magazine content that pays for content advertising whom are they trying to reach articles written in star celebrity gossip exaggerated how much is an issue of Star relatively cheap because stories are not credited suggesting the writing staff is low paid only the pictures are worth something advertisers are beginning to pull out because of the recession advertisers work with magazines April 9 2009 Paper TigerArticle make show habitual meaning same time every week look different handmade look friendly and low budget spontaneous Organization spontaneity distribution time Cost per image has plummeted Organizational work in cable tended to focus on increasing the availability of channels and making access centers responsive to community needs article on the dynamics of niche programming in the quotshelterquot segment httpwwwwwdcommedianewsfashionmemopadmemopadlesssheltersolangeknowlesinopad2096153 Problem 1 explore some parameters and how they work in practice Problem 2 What s the relationship between social segments and market niches larger social question Are Native Americans and minority groups fairly represented in media industries if we are important and of value in the culture that gets reflected on TV screens movie screens radio stations in the US commercial system we don t really see room for that kind of inclusion big idea to be introduced how does the commercial system shape ethnic groups are we getting the types of representations we want when they take place in the commercial systems ex Queer Eye for the Straight Guy Will and Grace meant to appeal to gay audiences are these shows meaningful to the gay audience and represent correctly do they represent a meaningful voice for the gay experience representations don t have to be realistic to be believable but does this representation should be meaningful to the audience it is attempting to reach Problem 3 Where do minorities owned and minority operated media fit in here major media owned groups are more interested in exploiting minority owned groups ex BET and the black audience Problem 4 What kinds of alternatives to the dominant system are there what sort of alternatives do we have to the media systems Homework assignments Women s cable television what different market positions do Lifetime and Oxygen has to grab women s attention address women s programming in very different ways Spike Television over past couple of years have been trying to rebrand themselves when first aired people categorized as a men s channel Perez Hilton Tyler Perry and telling stories from an African American perspective what happens to underground alternative vulture when all of a sudden we have web in your face companies how does the web change the models for independent labels April 14 2009 Parameters of negotiation Negotiated problems x Negotiating tables Informal convention Public law Private contract individual collective bargaining Collective bargaining and fTV guildunion quotM BAsquot w AMPTP and others Working conditions Child stars OT French hours Health care and insecurity unionization Economic Rights A Ownership of copyright 1 Creatorowned comics 2 WGA MBA llseparated rightsquot provision 3 1976 Copyright Act lltermination of transfer provision B Residuals and royalties 1 The worker and the check 2 The worker and the work I Creative rights A Attribution B Integrity Guilds unions basic agreements The Association with Motion Picture Producers represents TV producers in Washington AMPTP represent talent and crew all major production in television is unionized but not allindependent production is unionized doesn t sign agreements to follow the provisions or contracts exceptions to the rules most of what you watch on broadcast television is contracted through major corporations Collective bargaining Where we negotiate problems Creative rights Working conditions Media workers work in working conditions will be very different if working in a unionized field Ex problem with child labor Kid Nation laws regulating how you can use child actors Screen Actors Guild has rules about how child labor can be used child stars don t typically turn out well as adults paper about child labor in the industries Overtime in video gaming field 80 hour weeks and plus with no overtime less than ideal working conditions problems for employees because it affects their health mentality and family Media work turns into concerning work no safety nets if you design video games doesn t mean you will have health insurance recording artists don t always have safety nets in place people are driven out of the game because they don t have health insurance in gaming industry workers still work without a safety net and without a sense of what they will do when them or a partner gets pregnant 1976 Copyright Act quottermination of transfer provision a work for hire the rights already rest with the producer termination of transfer in a commercial system is it common for major producers to own the rights this transfer switches up the norm congress typically doesn t care about being artist friendly in commercial media industries sometimes artists can own all their rights artist ownership of copyright is pretty rare in media industries Residual and royalties the worker and the check once you make it in the work your not completely separated from it have some right to make money from this work an actor when you play my movie I should continue to get a cut when you play the movie when there is money made off the work the creative people should make profit off of it ask the question about how much workers get paid what kind of schedules do workers work very technical questions but if you re a working actorwriter incredibly important to your livelihood when VHS first came out nobody saw it as a way to make a lot of money from home video but as we know home video became an important money maker in the movie and TV industry talent guilds think they got screwed on this deal because they didn t support at first guilds have been very aggressive in getting residuals in new media and actors are threatening to strike over new media profits because they remember back to the 1980s when they didn t get profit from VHS and DVD residuals that are huge profits and they didn t get very much of a cut from and they don t want that to happen to them again Attribution rights of credits getting credit and attribution for your work is incredibly important because it is an index of statusauthority video designers tend to not get credit for their work without recognition you don t get status unrecognizable as an artist in comic books credits for the writer artists colorists if you pick up a comic that is from the 1950s and 1960s the author is typically not recognized largely anonymous in low status markets there is a fight for the recognition of the work you do in film industry film directors get their names credited always last before principle photography according to contractual agreements you can only credit one director per film but you will see 35 screen editors directors are becoming incredibly successful in claiming all the credit for directing the movies writer of film and television doesn t enjoy the same kind of providence that the directors get they have to fight for work and they come after the director they are important but not as important as the director the writer s guild television criticism who goes into television critics and who go into film critics how does television criticism work in comparison to film criticism a lot of television critics come out of school for film criticisms transformation in intermediation fashion design major producers very relied on audiences ex Lord of the Rings industry has to engage people cooperations to make profit revenue April 21 2009 The case of film A Moral Panic and local censorship Mutual vs Ohio 1915 B The production code 1930 C The rating system 1968 Burstyn vs Wilson 1952 US vs Paramount 1948 Framing the case s A Categorical balancing B Levels of regulation 1 Public opinion public advocacy 2 State regulation 3 Industry selfregulations 4 Audience selfregulation C Regimes of regulation Other cases other regimes A Comics B Video games C Music D The Web E Television Broadcast indecency and beyond Patently offensive descriptiondepiction of sexual excretory organs activities Explicitness Graphic Description Versus Indirectness Implication Dwelling Repetition vs Fleeting Reference Presented in a Pandering for Titillating Manner or for Shock Value 1 Violence Basic cable Fleeting profanity Creative justification PP The case of film Moral panic and local censorship a media that provoked a lot of anxiety between commentators associated with a medium class film was seen to corrupt those who watch it we need to struggle against the corruption that is produces campaigning against films for the violence it shows wanted it to follow state regulations through the beliefs and the way they understood film through the government using local censorship boards if you wanted to view a movie you would have to show it to the censorship boards to get a license to exhibit your film local censorship boards licensed films to be aired they could require some scenes to be cut in able to license your film against the law Mutual vs Ohio 1915 a violation of free speech when the censorship boards tell you what you can air and what you can39t air the government sided with the censorship boards because it has the ability to instruct audiences in the way of vice and the particular influence film has over its audiences really bad for business if you do get a license your film may be subject to several cuts causing it to be boring and unrecognizable to what you had visioned you don t know what form your film will be in Supreme Court is saying it is okay to censor films films have very little rights in the 1st amendment Production code 1930 censoring ourselves can39t give any instruction in vice can39t show somebody picking a lock that would teach someone to pick a lock can39t bring somebody sympathy with evilimmoral characters take Hollywood movies to a rating down to a G or PG anything we distribute follows the precepts of these codes and in doing so is trying to get you out of the censorship boards make movies in a way that already censors them for you don t shoot the scenes that might get turned away from censorship boards follow the company s own production codes goodf0r business films are recut or modified by the censorship boards because they are internalizing the regulation in the form of the production code badf0r artisticfreedom a lot of stories you may want to tell that don t fit with in the production code The ratings system 1968 Burstyn vs Wilson 1952 sues a censorship board because it is against his freedom of speech rights and the courts side with him film deserves 1St amendment coverage just like other media US vs Paramount 1948 studios sell off their theaters as new film product comes into the market Production codes start to feel restricted forces Hollywood producers that are suitable for all audiences need stories that are okay for adult audiences The ratings system allows for several classifications age based classifications G PG R X audiences control what they see and they decided if they are allowed to view the movies Movie producers say NCl7 is the kiss of death to a movie because a lot of theaters wont show NC17 puts pressure to get an R rating Framing the cases Categorical balancing different media has different properties based on those particular properties we can categorize media on terms of regulatory more or regulatory less free speech regulated different media according to categories we categorize media on their attributes and we decide which rights they get based on their categorizations film doesn t receive full coverage but film receives 1st amendment protection as any other media Levels of regulation film producers are concerned with public opinion and public advocacy society as a whole was nervous about film in the early 19 h century state regulation advocacy boards actual content regulation by the government in order to get out of this regulation industries turned to industry regulation they were going to regulate themselves so they didn t have to have uncertainable regulation by others industry self regulation restricts creative freedom of the directors but better for business because the industry is internalizing regulations where they control what they produce and which scenes they cut so they know how the movie will turn out it is not in the hands of someone else audience self regulation delegate authorities more freedom for film producers it is your decision on what you are watching quotviewer discretion is advised is considered audience selfregulation allows industry to have more freedom because it is your responsibility to police the acceptable programming different levels of regulation working together but in general the film industry model from a shift of public concern to audience selfregulation is a really strong model of striking the balance between creative freedom and the responsibility of the harmful effects of the media Regimes of regulation film industry is successful in striking a balance regulation of content control is all on audiences and parents Other cases other regimes how regulation plays out in other media Comics vertically integrated industry that strongly controlled new entrants doesn t work as well for comics as it does for film people don t view comics as a serious art form child can go in to store and see comics that are only acceptable for adults which scares some parents Video Games has audience selfregulation they have content description they tell very specifically what is going on in this program and tell you what is going to happen but people are really worried about video games they know very well that there is public concern with games like Grand Theft Auto they know that public opinion is going to weigh heavily on their expansion develop a parent friendly selfregulation if parents want to know what is going on in the game you would have more success with knowing in Video Games than the film industry gets hit hard with government regulations and laws in different states but laws continually get shot down by the courts because the industry claims it is unconstitutional their legal standing doesn t counterbalance the larger anxiety of parents and criticisms industry doesn t want to see industry regulation being mandated by the state they don t want video game buyers to be penalized they want it to be up to the audience wants to buy very unstable regime of regulation a strong legal position but parents are always freaking out about games Music previously music industry was as big of a threat to parents as video games are now Parental advisory explicit content sticker goes into action in 1984 because of the complaints of parents how stable is this Is this balance going to hold strong legal standing but the music industry is one that is often seen as pandering explicit contents violent contents discriminating contents does the parental advisory sticker make parents happy in the regulation of music doesn t always keep parents happy because children are still going to listen to it and the sticker doesn t tell what exactly the contents are unlike the video games The Web is unregulatable in the same way as free print and very scary to parents no legal basis to regulate what is on the web it is selfregulation where parents can install programs protect their children from going to bad websites Television Broadcast indecency regulation and beyond Patently offensive description and depiction of sexual and excretory organs and activities plus explicitness and graphic description versus Indirectness and Implication definition of indecency waited more towards sexual activities and now people are wanting violence to be regulated when does material become harmful enough to make it patently offensive Dwelling and repetition vs fleeting reference if you can39t let it go and you keep coming back to it much like the morning shock jocks you will find it patently offensive Presented in a pandering or titillating manner or for shock value ex Oprah can talk about sex whenever she wants her discussion wont be seen as indecent but the Morning Shock Jock would because it is intended for a shock value Violence Basic cable Fleeting profanity Creative justification April 23 2009 Structural regulation A Between freemarket and publicinterest frameworks of regulation B Regulation in transformation C Case studies 1 Fairness doctrine I I multiple 39r and I broadcast crossownership rules 3 Public broadcasting Global trade regulation A Freemarket B Cultural Protection 1 Economic promotion Tax incents service industries for production post SAG Recoupment oriented funding Exportoriented production I Audience research as technical representation and institutional relations not objective truth Soundscan 1991 B Measuring fragmentation the People meter 1 The NTI and the NSI Audimeters quotset meters diaries and People meters 2 NTI 1987 and NSI 2004 People meters 3 Metered and unmetered people C Measuring audience timeshifting and adskipping liveplus ratings 2005 L quotL0quot L1 L2 L3 L7 and commercial ratings NTI 2007 C quotC0quot C1 C2 C3 C7 Vgt Digital futures Market System Structural regulation get what we want or take what were given supply is determining demand what was given isn t exactly what we want ex Jeopardy and Wheel of Fortune we don t always know what we want when were presented with limited options of programming are there needs that are stronger than what we want as a nation do we news that tells us how the world really is or different conversations and opinions of how the world is ex news channels market failure consumers aren t always best served when the market tries to match up audience demand with what the industry is offering Freemarket system media industries need to do more than just pursue profit along with pursuit of profit they need to fulfill responsibilities of public interest isn t going to deliver all of the audiences needs what is the public interest Who gets to define the public interest Who has the authority to tell us what is best for us Public Broadcasting have some public interest responsibility but a very open question to how that responsibility extends and the industries freedom of speech and what they want to produce general shift away from public interest regulation and a shift to freemarket regulation ex radio industry a general shift changes from political reasons and over the course of the century early 20 h century someone born in the 1920 s would think the radio industry isn t competitive enough but someone from the 1980 s would think it is competitive new technologies like the Internet and television and radio change the regulatory landscapes especially in the way they lower market failure we have dozens of networks now a day in the 1980s the public broadcast system gets continually defunded by conservative congress members the system isn t working and we don t need to build more public into this system a lot of resentment towards public broadcasting in the idea that tax dollars are supporting there programming that they might not be concerned with several issues in public oriented media we don t need people to tell us what we should be watching or taking our tax dollars and spending it on something we could careless about documentaries need a strong public broadcast system funding has decreased extremely but there is still a need for public broadcasting because cable and Internet don t answer these types of questions for us like PBS does if funding is not there for public broadcasting the channel is just blank harms kids that like to watch it commercial television wants us happy Fairness doctrine can39t charge one candidate more than another candidate just because you want too if I say something bad about somebody or controversial on the air you have to allow the personact your attacking to have time for a rebuttal nfringement of broadcasters free speech rights April 28 2009 Economic promotion Almost always break even in the domestic market Shows that we know people don t really watch we just drop the price so we can make some money off of it Persuasiveness in the cultural interest and how to protect the culture from other television shows Who gets to say what is the best for the public interest Audience Research Audience research is not about finding any hidden truth about the audience it is about making a technical representation of the audience Has to do with the technological research we find out about the audience Educational evaluation we need to test in order to audit departments as a whole testing is much important in maintaining these institutional relations not just the objective truth of the audience Examples Soundscan 1991 audiences in the music industry billboard would take its charts and send them out to music companies and they would choose which albums they think were the best nstead Soundscan wanted to select who was the best for their charts by scanning the barcode on the album and find out who is the best by using electronics Country music spikes and record labels find out that country music is bankable and backcatalog records spike Indie rock was a loser on billboard s charts More accurate in some ways but less accurate in some ways because smaller stores are being excluded Really good at measuring the big chain stores Recording industry shifts to established sellers and away from independent sellers who might know more what of the people like April 30 2009 Audimeters measure what is actually playing on the set diaries don t work people meter is like an audimeter on steroids it tells you what is being watched and who is doing the watching Peoplemeters why do we want peoplemeters around the 1980s cable gets under recorded in diaries cable networks want to be able to show advertising industries what audiences they are capable of reaching allow new relationships to be formed between cable producers and advertising industries of course some will be bought on gut allow to be backed up on media developing issue in television industry is the drift to local cable systems SuddenLink is making more and more money from subscription deals than from local money once we start measuring audiences in local markets we get higher measures of cable viewing and cable becomes a viable advertising platform a movement towards more accuracy accurate numbers on what viewers are actually watching compared to diaries more objective and accurate way of measuring audiences but you need to generate a balanced sample to get meaningful numbers Metered and unmetered people need to balance your sample if you want to know exactly what typekind of people are watching your shows caring about demographics means you need to do the appropriate work to maintain a balance hard to bring minority audiences into the type of panels that Nielsen runs because minority households cost 5 times as much as white households to bring into the Nielsen sample this is because white people are much more interested in jumping through these hoops of the system were minority households aren t as trusting once you bring minority households in they typically have unusable data and less likely to be represented by using usable numbers Timeshifting problems first developed with the VCR in the early 1980 s with rising popularity of DVR there is concern with get advertisers Nielsen says we can measure timeshifting and were going to do so using liveplus measuring if people are watching it live all the way up to 7 days after show viewing Adskipping how many people are particularly watching commercials during a television show Commercial ratings are like Live ratings except dealing with commercials and when people are viewing them or skipping through them up to 7 days after shown Liveplus ratings Nielsen is going to tell you how many viewers are watching a particular show live they can tell you how many viewers are watching a show live or on the same day Liveplus 1 how many people are watching the show live or up to 24 hours of the same day viewing Nielsen does this all the way up to Liveplus 7 which Liveplus 7 doesn t always do you a whole bunch of help Measuring audiences dealing with advertising 12 measures in play that advertising agencies can use they want to use commercial because that s were their products will be shown don t really care about C7 because you lose the ability to advertise on a short term and inflate the amount of the audience viewing the advertising struggle between advertising agencies and rates and broadcast networks Loca ratings are based on L3 viewers that are viewing the show live and up to 3 days after show is aired C3 for national sample of national advertising rates is the number of viewers who are actually watching samples within 3 days of it actually being aired in their dream world the advertising agencies would be shooting for straight C ratings no relation to the objective truth of the audience no proof that C3 is anymore truthful than C1 or C2 institutional relationships between networks and advertisers were we struggle whose interests are going to be more central when setting advertising rates little objective dealing with audience concern and what audience is actually viewing it Media advocacy projects audiences enter advertising industry on industries own terms this knowledge is for industry decisionmaking classic example a group concerned your programming and advocacy projects are going to boycott their sponsors deaing with classical network systems in the 1960 s and 1970 s only big advertisers can get in the game and they do not want to get boycotted by culturally conservative groups just because of the television show they are supporting ex Bounty doesn t want to support Charlie s Angels if he is going to get boycotted ex Married with Children groups tried to boycott advertiser supporters but brought more attention to the show because those people over there don t want me to watch it so I m going to watch it boycotting doesn t work so well anymore because people want to watch what they aren t quotsupposedquot to watch parent s television council gives pa rents the tools to filter out the bad shows culturally conservative advocacy groups broad shift in how content regulation is regulated in the US by parents parents should have control of what commercials there children are viewing and the viewer should have more rights to screen what you and your children are viewing more of an emphasis of viewers as consumers and parents which goes back to shift of industry regulation to self regulation we should have the responsibility to decide what we watch and what we don t watch


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