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by: Megane Howe


Megane Howe
Texas A&M
GPA 3.58

Joshua Barbour

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Joshua Barbour
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megane Howe on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 305 at Texas A&M University taught by Joshua Barbour in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/226070/comm-305-texas-a-m-university in Communication at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
COMM 305 Exam 2 Theories of Media Processing and Effects Strong and Limited Effects Social Cognitive Theory 1 Explain the distinction between strong and limited media effects Strong media e ects these models don39t work Suggests that the mass audience is isolated your not talking about the media to friends suggests that were psychologically vulnerable were like sponges and suggest were free from obligations to society Limited media e ects 2 Explain the hypodermic needle effect and magic bullet effects How do these effects illustrate a philosophy of strong media effects It is like a hypodermic needle because media is injected into all of us Magic Bullet E ect early assumptions say mass media had strong or powerful effects interview of mass media came after WWII also propaganda Ex War of the Worlds broadcast famous broadcaster who broke out the news during W11 3 What theory of the audience is suggested by these models and strong effects generally 4 Explain the historical backdrop of strong effects models leg propaganda and the War of the Worlds broadcast Media theories started being created at the end of WWII the media in uenced citizens and that was scary to them Radio was one of the big effects War of the Worldsquot on the radio a play within a play We are vulnerable to media effects 5 Why did researchers shift from strong to limited effects models 1 Researcher had strong philosophical reasons objections to the View of humanity suggested by strong effect this suggests that media is scarily powerful 2 Empirical research could not replicate strong effects more important 6 According to social cognitive theory how does media in uence us Tries to explain how media in uences us by recognizing we can imagine Early versions of this theory were called Social Learning Theory the media in uences us by teaching us 7 What is observational learning 8 Explain inhibitory effects v effects outcome 39 and outcome Inhibitory e ects occurs when an individual sees a model engaging in a behavior that leads to a negative outcome ex being embarrassed Disinhibitory e ects occurs when an individual sees a model engaging in a behavior that leads to a positive outcome ex being rewarded avoiding injury popular Inhibitory and disinhibitory language used to describe how things will be reinforced and some rebuked Outcome eXpectations our guess of what is likely to happen in a given situation ex by watching CSI if I39m ever in that situation I will know what to do Outcome eXpectancies the value we attach to these expectations is our outcome is it good or bad expectancies what we think of those outcomes We develop expectation on how the world works Outcomes that are negative punished inhibitory Outcomes that are positive rewarded disinhibitory 9 How does social cognitive theory reconcile the notions of strong and limited media effects 10 What is a moderator Moderators change relationship by some effect intensity 9 make it stronger or weaken it 11 What factors might moderate the learning processes described by social cognitive theory Moderator change the relationship between some cause and effect 9 can make it stronger or intensify the effects or weaken that learning ex volume dial Ex sunscreen if you put on sunscreen it weakens the sun exposure on your skin 12 Define identi cation and selfefficacy Explain how they moderate learning effects Identl39 cat39ion how you are perceiving your relationship with the characters you are watching if you see yourself like the character you are watching then the learning will be intensi ed if you are dissimilar then the learning will be less intensified Ex Be like Mikequot Gatorade commercial tries to get you to form an identi cation with Michael Jordan and drink the Gatorade Selfe icacy degree to which you perceive you are able to do something can intensify the learning effect if you feel you are able to do what the characters are doing you are likely to model them Ex home and garden shows cooking shows 13 Is violent media content widely available Violent content is widely available especially in entertainment media which causes people to behave in more aggressive ways 14 How does media violence in uence aggressive behavior Aggression is an effect of exposure to violent media content Exposure to violent contents has effects on violent behavior when exposed to it 15 Give an example of a study that demonstrates the effect of media violence on aggression Bobo doll study Scarface video games hurting someone39s chance at winning unreal tournament and cartoons are the most violent genre and some studies include children and adults Theories of Media Processing and Effects Social Cognitive Theory Research Examples 16 What is catharsis Catharsis getting something off you chest this does not happen exercising hostile feelings by watching the violent content we exercise our aggressive feelings a common counterargument to SCT 17 Is catharsis an effect of consuming media violence Yes ex a mom thinks her son is taking his anger out on a video game instead of someone else but it doesn39t work that way 18 Does the type of violence shown matter Yes how it is presented matters Ex is the violence punished Or does the violence include realistic pain and harm cues 19 Describe some characteristics of good media violence versus bad media violence Good media Violence shows realistic pain and harm and are punished may discourage aggressive behavior watching good violence is not a catharsis effect If the violence is punished then the relationship is weakened and relationship can actually be reversed Bad media Violence don39t include realistic pain and harm cues and they aren39t punished Ex Tom and Ierryquot it encourages aggressive behavior because there are no consequences 20 Is the violence shown in cartoons bad Yes because there is no punishment 21 How would social cognitive theory explain the in uence of these characteristics on the effects of consuming violent media Whether or not there are realistic pain and harm cues depends on if the effects are weakened and can be reversed 22 What are prosocial effects Positive effects of media focuses on the child39s learning ex educational programs such as Sesame Street and Mr Rogers Prosocial effects are STRONGER than negative effects in terms of consistency and duration 23 Can children and adults both experience prosocial effects Yes 24 Do children who watch a great deal of television in general exhibit more prosocial behavior than children who do not watch as much TV Whv or th not Kids who aren39t exposed to prosocial TV and ones that are able to watch TV are exposed to MORE NEGATIVE MESSAGES than positive ones if they are exposed Children who watch prosocial television have cognitive effects learning skills facts emotional learning learn sharing and empathy The learning effect would be stronger because no social sanctions 25 What kind of effects typically occurs for children who watch Sesame Street Cognitive Iearning learning language numbers reading and to think 26 What kind of effects typically occurs for children who watch Mr Rogers Neighborhood Emotional Iearning dealing with a friend who hurts your feelings sharing sympathy empathy and learning to care 27 Does adult 39 matter for children who are watching television shows with prosocial messages Yes adult involvement is necessary When an adult sits with child and watches the show and they reinforce the positive results after the show is over is when the real bene t comes 28 How does the evidence about the effects of violent and prosocial content illustrate the principles of social cognitive theory When the media shows violent content children especially are more likely to have aggressive behavior but when the media emphasizes prosocial content the children watching are more likely to learn both cognitive and emotional learning Theories of Media and Society Cultivation Theory 29 How is channel aka medium a scope condition of cultivation theory 30 Explain the nature of television at the time of the proposal of cultivation 31 How has television changed since then How do you think that may in uence how media in uence us 32 Explain cultivation 33 Explain the differences between cultivation and other media effects leg longterm vs short term obvious vs subtle cumulative vs ephemeral 34 E lain the standard research strate for cultivation e content anal sis and surve s 35 Describe the quot 39 39 between viewers made in 39 39 research 36 What are the characteristics of heavy viewers Light viewers 37 What are the kev four attitudes that 39 39 research has considered 38 What are the differences between heavy and light viewers on these attitudes Unit 1 Study Guide 1 What is this course about Theories of communication theory is a story about the way the world works it is an imperfect explanation they focus our attention on some things taking focus away from others 2 What is metatheory Theory about theory CONCEPTUALIZING THEORY AND COMMUNICATION 1 Define theory An imperfect explanation theories are maps of the social world empirical world observable which is the one we experience feel hear and touch everyday theory is exploring unknownnew territory 2 Explain how the phrase quotThe map is not the territoryquot is relevant for this class Applies to this class because theories are not perfect A map helps us understand the theory Theories focus on some aspects of the phenomena at the expense for others 3 In what sense is a theory an abstraction Theories are an imperfect abstraction they are useful because they focus our attention on things this means we focus our attention on some things at the expense of another 4 Are theories perfect representations of the empirical world Explain No theories are not perfect representations of the empirical world Theories represent the imperfect world but do it empirically meaning the world we can sense Theory building should be thought of as exploration You can explore new territory or already known territory But a map of the world is not the world Ex clip from The West Wingquot I Lay theory ex his niece assuming God made everything but mommy mad God I Formal then I Go through a process to decide if the theory is lay or formal is the same you use the empirical world 5 How are the abstract and empirical worlds linked in theory building There are 2 ways to connect theory to the empirical world First start with the empirical world and move from the specific to the general induction Or the second way is to make a guess and then test it deduction As explorers we are likely to do both 6 Define induction and deduction Induction going into the world 9 going from the speci c into the general we draw our own abstraction Ex when he was a kid he would make a rough draft of his house and then perfect it Ex A researched that first observes couples interacting to develop a theory of dyadic communication without considering previous theory or research is creating theory through induction Deduction makes a guess and then tests it you39re going from general to speci c 7 What components should a theory have Description relationship and links to the empirical world 8 Define description relationships and links to the empirical world Description of the phenomena under stud Relationship between phenomena being described Links to the empirical world theory itself has to tell you what you39re looking for 9 What should a theory do for us Solve empirical problems solve conceptual problems and solve practical problems 10 Distinguish between the different sorts of problems theory can address Empirical problems understand how something happens in the world Ex Studying how people give feedback so studying how feedback works and how it39s produced Conceptual problems providing better de nitions for our theoretical concepts Ex Feedback between peers and bosses and employees is very different need to come up with a better idea to understand theory Practical problem has to do with giving recommendations Ex I want to make feedback better so don39t use a feedback sandwich 11 Must all good theory have these components and solve problems Good theory should help us solve at least one of these problems 12 What other factors should we use to evaluate theorv Scope appropriateness heuristic value parsimony validity and openness 13 Define scope appropriateness heuristic value parsimony validity and openness Scope to what conditions does the theory apply is the theory broadnarrow enough Ex map of campus Appropriateness are the assumptions made by the theory a t for what we are trying to do Heuristic value will the theory generate new theory research ideas Parsimony is the theory just complicated enough good theory is just complicated enough Validity is the theory true about the right things The theory has to be true accurate Ex Theory of romantic relationships may not be true if using business relationships Openness is the theory accessible to other researchers Can they test it change it 14 How are these factors connected Provide an example ALL theory must contain a description of how elements are related to each other 15 Must good theory address each of these factors completely Nearly impossible for all theory to meet all questions CHAPTER 1amp2 Reading Questions 1 Explain the domains of 39 39 research in Craig39s 1999 model eg rhetorical semiotic 39 cvhernetic 39 39 39 n critical exigency requiring or gap to sustain processing a Expression interaction Situation requirin causes of behavior to achieve speci ed 2 What is the hvpodermic model of 39 39 Suggests communication is a simple process of injecting with a needle or shooting with a bullet our messages into receivers It is linear and only oneway approach to communication 3 Explain the SMCR model of communication Source Message Channel Receiver model of communication characterizes the communication process as a straightforward activity or transmission through a singular conduit 4 What is the relevance of the quote one cannot not communicatequot for communication research P9 Meaning is inherent in all human behavior This quote argued that only intentional behaviors should count as communication THEORIES OF DEVELOPING AND ONGOING RELATIONSHIPS 1 What are the three key areas of metatheoretical assumptions we reviewed in class Ontology epistemology and axiology 2 Define ontology epistemology and axiology Ontology the study of the nature of being ex Matrix surrogates Epistemology has to do with the nature of knowingknowledge Axiology has to do with the nature of values or worth what is worthwhile 3 Compare and contrast realist quot and social constructionist 39 nersnectives Realist stance holds that the world is REAL and it39s properties are NOT up for negotiation Nominalist stance human beings NAME the world around them and that is what they KNOW ex we think our deskis real because we named it Social Constructionalist stance incorporates realist and nominalists stance changes the way we think construct about the world SOCIETY imposes what the names of things are names can change if everyone wants them to change Ex Taxes Realist taxes are real must pay Nominalist taxesgood or burden Social yes taxes are real and we pay them because everyone else does and if you don39t you get in trouble 4 Compare and contrast objective and subjective notions of epistemology Objective stance the world can be KNOWN it can be researched in a SYSTEMATIC WAY knowledge is TRANSFERABLE Subjective stance our knowledge cannot be separated from our perceptions how we know the world is based on how we view the world believes knowledge CANNOT BE TRANSFERRED How do the meta hors of the faucet lea faucet slab leak and re hose a l to axiolo Faucet we can turn off the faucet our values should not in uence our worth and we have complete control Leaky Faucet there is a leaky faucet and I can39t x it I want my worth to be independent of my values and be aware of how my values in uence my worth Slab Leak leak is not from faucet it is a slab leak well we should still worry about our values but have no control can39t even know how our values in uence our worth Fire hose re hose no leak our values should be thought ofa way toguide our worth and should in uence our worth 6 What is our de nition of 39 39 quot There is no correct de nition of communication 7 Is it okay that we don39t have one This is okay because all of our different ideas are used for all of the different situations 8 What are the ve kev 39 39 39 we discussed in class Process Transactional Symbolic Social and Intentional 9 Explain how communication may be seen as process transactional symbolic social and intentional Process it UNFOLDS OVER TIME and communication is VERY COMPLEX deals with history before Communication happens over time to understand one exchange it depends on what happened in the past Communication is complex different levels that communication occurs Transactional meaning there is EXCHANGE involves feedback reaction between communicators involves context Communication involves feedback Communication is not only an exchange but also a context in which the exchange takes place Symbolic an ARBITRARYNESS BETWEEN THE SIGN and THE SYMBOL Fuzzy relationships between symbols that we use and the relationship they represent these are useful because it allows us to do more than 1 thing with our communication at once ex I forgot my walletquot doesn39t directly say I need moneyquot Social LIMIT COMMUNICATION BETWEEN 2 PEOPLE but you don39t have to senders and receivers Intentional difference between intentionally from a sender39s view and a receiver39s view Sender s View communication to be intentional strategic goal driven but primarily automatic Receiver s View any behavior can be seen as communicative inference Communication is automatic but strategic meaning what you are saying is automatic but you still think about it before ex writing a paper 10 What are the two main questions problems we discussed about developing relationships Why do some relationships develop from first meetings whereas others do not How does this development take place 11 What are two reasons studying rst meetings is important Because people struggle with this and people who are in relationships are usually happier live longer and are healthier 12 What does the existence and commercial success ofrecipes for cookbook communication leg quot50 never fail opening linesquot suggest about first meetings These suggest that people have enough trouble with first meetings to want to buy the books and people attach importance to relationships 13 Explain social penetration theory SP This theory is about how relationships first begin Relationship development is a process of sharing info 14 What are the four stages ofl 39 39 Orientation cautious communication is scripted these are acquaintances Exploratory a ective begins to involve more intimate relations also known as exploratory a ective exchange this is typical of most friendships A ective exchange even more emotion and intimacy marriages and best friends Stable exchange most intimate very stable closest relationships can nish each others sentences these could be best friends siblings marriages 15 What is the primary mechanism through which we progress through these stages Disclosure guided by the principle of reciprocity and communication 16 What is the norm ofreciprocity If I give you a gift you feel you need to give me one back in exchange 17 Explain the 39 39 force social exchange that explains people39s choices to develop a relationship l or not Relationships develop because of social exchange Engage in process where the relationship is headed and you base your choice to develop a relationship on the values you get from the relationships You stick with a relationship because you are getting something out of it 18 Armrdinu to SPT can 39 iump from one stage to another No follows same order of stages from 14 19 According to SPT when you leave a relationship do you go through the same stages In what order Yes stable exchange 9 affective exchange 9 exploratory affective 9 orientation 20 What are the important characteristics of small talk Safe and scripted 2 1 Explain how small talk is safe and scripted Safe focus on safe topics ex name major age hometown They minimize your vulnerabili They minimize your chance for disagreement Associated with the orientation stage See a variety oftopics and not much depth Scripted in multiple ways follow a typical patter a Q 8L A sequence it tends to be parallel I tell you my age you tell me yours in exchange openings and closings in small talk are ritualized 22 What is the paradox of small talk Amount of negative terms we have for small talk shows how little we value it 23 Why is small talk important For relationship building to audition for friendships good for interviews and in sales positions helps us show we are well behaved 24 What is trivial talk 2 examples cluster 1 small talk sports talk current events talk and weather talk cluster 2 gossip joking around catching up and recapping the day 25 Typically how much of our talk is trivial across all sorts of different relationships Up to 2 339s of communication time is made up of trivial talk 26 How does the makeup of trivial talk in relationships change as they develop The closer and more intimate your relationship is with someone the smaller cluster 1 is compared to cluster 2 27 Why is small talk needed for relationship development Put another way how is it like an audition We use small talk to audition for friendships meaning we try out for and lay out the groundwork for our next conversation 28 In what sense is small talk phatic communication Phatic a technical term meaning it is only social talk task talk for talks sakequot what your saying is less important than the fact you are saying something 29 How would SPT explain Charlotte39s missteps at the partv Charlotte is a bad small talker because she is nervous over shares said too much personal information about her sex life and she is rambling she monopolized the conversation 30 Explain the recommendations can we make for small talk given SPT 1 Increase topic intimacy gradually really awkward if you tell personal info from very beginning SPT says people are guided by social norms when in intro stage your supposed to stay with safe topics but slowly reveal more 2 Give and use free info norm of reciprocity this recommendation draws on this theory 3 Show interests in the other person obvious ways verbal nonverbal ways through back channels and listening skills 4 Share the oor important for both people SPT says other person has to have a chance to speak also 5 Follow the rules at least initially but need to start breaking the rules hard to choose when to do so 31 Explain the two criticisms of SPT we emphasized 1 the theory is too rational the rational actor criticismquot according to SPT we stay in relationships because we39re getting something out of it very rational SPT doesn39t count for people doing things rationally 2 the theory is too Iinear not every relationship goes through the stages stated by SPT 32 How do theories of Relational Dialectics RD attempt to address the criticisms of SPT Says relationships are about negotiating competing ideals In SPT disclosure is a good thing but one of the key internal dialectics opennessclosedness says we want disclosure in a relationship but we also need to keep some secrets 33 What does it mean to say that relationships are messy Because relationships begin with the idea of let39s get complicated 34 How does the scope of RD differ from SPT RD has a much broader scope compared to SPT 35 What is a dialectic A method of argument the relationship IS the tension 36 What does it mean to say that the relationship is the tension Tension is adherent in relationships 2 or more ideals are inherently contradictory 37 Are dialectics always managed in the same way in a relationship overtime No we have to manage the tensions adherent in the relationships the management never goes away How you manage the tension in a relationship may change over time 38 Must a dialectic be solved for a 1 39 39 to be c 39 quot No you never fully resolve tensions in relationships and very often we manage these tensions through communication 39 What are the key internal dialectics Connectionautonomy certaintyuncertainty and opennessclosedness 40 What does it mean to say that they are internal dialectics Has to do with the things being negotiated on the inside within the relationship 41 Explain the 39 certaintvuncertaintv and openness dialectics Connectionautonomy one of the most fundamental for relationships treated as the dialecticquot says in a relationship we want to be connected to our partners but separate at the same time EX Marge decided to be a gambler Marge has a need for autonomy Certaintyuncertainty Certainty means we want them to be predictable and known and without uncertainty there is no spice Opennessclosedness meaning in terms of disclosure Openness means how much you tell your partner and closedness means how much you keep to yourself


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