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by: Hosea Upton


Hosea Upton
Texas A&M
GPA 3.93

J. Lake

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J. Lake
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hosea Upton on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 351 at Texas A&M University taught by J. Lake in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/226072/clas-351-texas-a-m-university in Classical Studies at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
W2m7utl What is myth Myth is a traditionai taie with secondary partiai reference to something of coiiective importance Aoidos a skiiied epic orai poet who performs iocaiiy Rhapsode Originaiiy a poet who recited his own works iater a professionai singer of Homeric poems A rhapsode traveied around rather than preformed iocaiiy iike an Aoidos Sources for Greek myth Homer wrote the iiiiad and the Odyssey Hesiod wrote the Theogony and Works and Days I Apoiiodorus wrote the Bibiiothecacompiiation of Mythoiogy for Athens Library a coiiection of these works Works and Days This is an 800 iine poem which revoives around two generai truths iabor is the universai iot of Man but he who is wiiiing to work wiii get by This poem is one of the eariiest known musings on economic thought This work aiso iays out the five Ages of Man as weii as containing advice and wisdom prescribing a iife of honest iabour and attacking idieness and unjust judges it describes immortais who roam the earth watching over justice and injustice The poem regards iabor as the source of aii good in that both gods and men hate the idie who resembie drones in a hive Hesiod s Theogong The Theogong concerns the origins oF the worid cosvnogong and oF the gods theogong beginning with Chaos Gaia and Eros and shows a speciai interest in geneaiogg Evnbedded in Greek Vngth there revnain Fragments oF quite variant taies hinting at the rich varietg oF vngth that once existed city by citg but Hesiod s reteiiing oF the oid stories becaine according to the FiFth centurg historian Herodotus the accepted version that iinked aii Heiienes The creation vngth in Hesiod has iong been heid to have Eastern inFiuences such as the Hittite Song oF Kuvnarbi and the Babgionian Enuvna Eiis This cuiturai crossover wouid have occurred in the eighth and ninth centurg Greek trading coionies such as Ai Mina in North Sgria iiiiad Trojan War Achiiies Thessaig Odgsseg The poevn Vnainig centers on the Greek hero Odgsseus and his iong journeg hovne Foiiowing the Faii oF Trog it takes Odgsseus ten gears to reach ithaca aFter the ten gear Trojan War in his absence it is assumed he has died and his wiFe Peneiope and son Teievnachus vnust deai with a group oF unruig suitors the Mnesteresor Proci cornpeting For Peneiope39s hand in vnarriage Mgthographer a covnpiier oF vngth Votive object an itein ieFt in a teinpie iike the bronze statues that the Athietes ieFt at Oiginpus Ancient Approaches to Understanding Myth Rationaiisin a skepticai view on beiier handed down From past generations Pre Socratic Phiiosophg began in ionia with the rationaiists These phiiosophers reject the theoiogicai expianation oF naturai phenovnena They want rationai expianations Theg beiieved in the cosvnos which originaiig Vneant quotsovnething that is weii put together ionia was an inteiiectuai and cuiturai crossroads the birthpiace oF rationaiisvn Thaies oF Miietus was written about by Aristotie he deciared that water was the First principie oF aii things He saw how water changed Forvns and beiieved everything was vnade oF water Thaies student Anaxirnander wrote On the Nature of Things And beiieved that Dirt gt Leaves gtCaterpiiiar eats eaves gtButterfig so therefore DirtButteng Xenophanes 0F Colophon was the FIRST criticai thinker about Greek Mgthoiogg Monotheistic Was the First one to beiieve in Anthropornorphisrn rnan rnade his gods and Furnished thern with his own bodg voice and garments Criticai of the idea that gods acted pettg just iike hurnans Thought there was one god who had his own personaiitg Xenophanes criticized Horner a renowned poet and in turn criticized Greek Cuiture Theagenes was a Greek iiterarg critic of the sixth century BC He is noted For having defended the rngthoiogg of Horner Frorn Vnore rationaiist attacks in so doing he becarne an earig proponent of the aiiegoricai rnethod of reading texts Aiiegorg Historicai rngths are reai events that have been corrupted by the poets Physicai Stoicisrn 300136 Dovninant phiiosophg of Earig Rorne Mgths contain secret rnessages about the naturai worid Morai there are rnorai rnessages in the rngths that are irnportant to heed in exarnpie in the rngth of Apoiio and Daphne Daphne rernains chaste Etgrnoiogg Searching For rneanings in words that rnag or rnag not be there used by stoics Sophists Wandering teachers who wouid teach peopie how to win an argurnent no rnatter what Theg took rnoneg For their teaching Piato gives thern a derogatorg connotation Logos vs Mgthos Those using iogicai thinking approach the worid scientificaiig and ernpiricaiig Theg iook For expianations using observabie Facts controiied experiments and deductive prooFs Truth discovered through iogos seeks to be objective and universai Those using vngthicai thinking on the other hand approach the worid through iess direct vnore intuitive vneans A person vnight gain poetic insights into the nature oF the worid by seeing a caterpiiiar eVnerge From a cocoon or watching a Fuii W00n rise as the sun sets Truth discovered through vngthos is more subjective based on individuai Feeiings and experiences Protagoras said that we know nothing about the gods and that vnan is the vneasure oF aii things He beiieved that vnan had created gods Frovn their own vninds and ivnages Piato and vngth Piato thought that vngths corrupted goung peopie He didn t beiieve that aiiegorg was an excuse For keeping vngth He banished poets From his perFect societg but then iet them back in Theoinachg battie oF the gods ReFers to when the Oiginpians wouid battie Euhevnerus and euheVnerisin He is chieFig knoWn For a rationaiizing vnethod oF interpretation known as euheinerisin the beiieF that the gods were originaiig human and that the poets and storgteiiers gioriFied their stories untii the peopie beiieved they were gods Paiaephatus beiieved that there vnust be sovne probabie series oF events behind aii vngth but the quotpoets and earig historians vnade thevn into wonderFui taies to arnaze their audience He then ciaiins to base what Foiiowed in his book on incredibie Things on personai research going to vnang piaces and asking oider peopie what happened A tgpicai exainpie oF his work is shown here quotThe storg about Caiiisto is that whiie she was out hunting she turned into a bear What i vnaintain is that she too during a hunt Found her wag into a grove oF trees where a bear happened to be and was devoured Her hunting covnpanions saw her going into the grove but not covning out they said that the giri turned into a bear StoicisVn The beiieve in hidden vnessages and hard to obtain wisdovn Stoic Phiiosophers iooked at Greek vngth with the intention oF Finding hidden vneaning behind the stories Heraciitus the Grammarian Neopiatonism we iive in an imperfect Worid but there is a perfect worid above Etioiogy is the study of causation or origination The word is derived from the Greek oltiTLo70YL39o aitioiogia or quotgiving a reason for An Etioiogicai myth is a myth that expiains the origin or function of arituai or cuitic practice some aspect of the naturai worid a name etc Orthodoxy the acceptance of a certain beiief system is VERY important in orthodoxy Orthopraxy the acceptance of a certain beiief system is NOT important in orthopraxy but rather oniy the way one goes about worshipping and sacrificing to the gods Nature myth narrates the origin of certain naturai things why the sun shines why the moon comes up at night why the sea is separate from the and or sky Charter myth narrates the origin of sociai constructs royai famiiies why we must sacrifice etc Historicai origins of Greek myth Homer and Hesiod wrote down iyricaiepic poems iiiiad odessey works and days theogony Aii information was compiiied from the various orai traditions of the time Periodization of Greek history Bronze Age Minoans gt indo Europeans gtMycenaeans gt Sea Peopies Dark Ages Archaic Period Persian Wars Ciassicai Period Peioponnesian War gtAiexander the Great Heiienistic Period Roman conquest of Greece Bronze Age Eariy Heiiadic pre indo European inhabitants of mainiand Greece worshipped a fertiiity goddess Cyciadic the cuiture of the Aegean isiands worshipped a mother goddess Minoan Fiourished on Crete goddesses seemed to be more prominent East West cuiturai drith the cuiture and gods and goddesses and traditions aii seem to have originated in the near east and trickied into Greek cuituremgthoiogg iater on Heiiadic and Cgciadic civiiization The Heiiadic civiiization couid be Found on mainiand Greece and worshipped a Fertiiitg goddess The Cgciadic civiiization was Found on the nearby Aegean isiands and seems to have worshipped a mother goddess Minoan civiiization The Minoan Civiiization was highig deveioped with Fiush toiiets and incredibie paintings Huge paiaces buii ieaping nature and a mother goddess dominated this earig Cretan cuiture Minoan buii iconographg Minoans heid Festivais each gear where giris dressed in white wouid preForm dances with the buiis that invoived buii ieaping a daring Feat where the perFormer does Fiips oFF oF the back oF a charging buii and stags skiiiFuiig out oF their wag Pasiphae and the Minotaur daughter oF Heiios the sun god She was aiso the mother oF quotstariikequot Asterion caiied the Minotaur by the Greeks aFter a curse From Poseidon caused her to experience iust For and mate with a white buii sent bg Poseidon indo Europeans Homeiand the steppes around the Biack and Caspian Seas EXpansion in the 4th miiiennium BC they began to migrate east and west and arrived in Greece around 2100 BC and gained controi over the native inhabitants Languages most European ianguages and indo iranian ianguages Persian Hindi Bengaii and Urdu Characteristics 0 Patriarchai Organization 0 Tripartite Organization oF societg Kings and Priests Warriors Farmers o Agricuiture is practiced but the raising of horses and cattie is more important in this societg o Originaiig nomadic or semi nomadic o Traditionaiig assumed to be highig war iike indo European gods 0 A skg Father is the supreme deitg Zeus Greece Jupiter Roman DgausPitar Vedic 0 An Earth goddess but she died out in Greek mgth o A daughter of the skg Vedic Ushas Survives as Eos in Greek mgth Dawn but no ionger a daughter of Zeus 0 Twin sons of the skg Castor and Poiiux Mgcenaean civiiization The Mgcenaeans were Greek speaking indo Europeans Their civiiization Hourished on mainiand Greece between 16200136 and 1200136 They were characterized lag a warrior aristocracg Pettg kings dominated the Greek countrgside with waiied Fortresses important cities Mgcenae Thebes Athens Pgios Sparta Orchomenos Linear B Linear 13 is a sgiiabic script that was used For writing Mgcenaean Greek an earig Form of Greek After the Faii of the Mgcenaean cuiture it was no ionger used and in the Dark ages which Foiiowed this civiiization there was no evidence of a written ianguage Potnia the ancient Greek wordfor quotMistress Ladg titie of a goddess Dark Ages 1200 7762136 Later Greeks attributed the destruction oF the Mgcenaean worid to the Dorians invaders From the northwest iater associated with the sons oF Heracies The Dorian vnigration probabig did happen but there are no particuiars The Dark Ages were characterized by a deciine in popuiation poverty no great architecture and the disappearance oF iong distance trade iron was introduced as weii as aiphabetic writing Poigtheisvn the beiieF in Vnang gods Huinanisvn Heinrich Schiievnann Creation Mgths Song oF KurnarabiKingship in Heaven Hittite creation vngth EnuinaEiish Babgionian creation Vngth Hesiod s Theogong Greek creation vngth Oceanus Thethgs Aiternative Theogong Hesiod Was born at Ascra near Mt Heiicon He had a brother Perses who he vnakes Fun oF Criticizes in Works and Days He ciaiins to have received a COWVViSSi0V From the Muses whiie tending his Fiocks to covnpose poetrg He is vnost coinvnonig known For coinposing The Theogong and Works and Days around 700136 Muses are the goddesses who inspire the creation oF iiterature and the arts Theogong this poem is both a theogong an account oF the origin oF the gods and a cosvnogongan account oF the origin oF the universe it Functions as a sort oF divine geneaiogg beginning with Chaoschasvn and ending with Zeus and his chiidren Works and Dags Chaos vneans Chasvn produced darknessErebus and nightNg who produced RadianceAether and DagHeinera Gaea means Earth mated with Uranuswho she First produced to produce the Titans the Cyciopes and the Hecantonocherres or the hundred handed ones She aiso produced Typhoeus Tartarus and Eros Tartarus pit oF suFFering in the Underworid and a deity produced by Gaea the Earth Eros in Greek mythoiogy was the primordiai god oF sexuai iove and beauty Aiso produced by Gaea Parthenogenesis is a Form oF asexuai reproduction Found in Femaies where growth and deveiopment oF embryos occurs without Fertiiization by a maie Typhon Typhoeus the Father oF aii Monsters the Finai son oF Gaea Fathered by Tartarus The most deadiy monster in aii oF Greek Mythoiogy Titans a race oF giants that were produced by Uranus and Gaea Cronus was the ieader and the youngest oF the First generation oF Titans divine descendants oF Gaia the earth and Uranus the sky He overthrew his Father and ruied during the mythoiogicai Goiden Age untii he was overthrown by his own sons Zeus Hades and Poseidon and imprisoned in Tartarus known in Roman mythoiogy as Saturn who ate his own chiidren because he Feared a prophesy that he wouid be overthrown by one oF them Origin oF Aphrodite According to Hesiod s Theogony she was born when Cronus cut oFF Uranus genitais and threw them into the sea and From the sea Foam aphros arose Aphrodite Rhea sister and wiFe oF Cronus Rhea was the Titaness daughter oF Uranus the sky and Gaia the earth She was known as quotthe mother oF gods and was iater seen by the ciassicai Greeks as the mother oF the Oiympian gods and goddesses though never dweiiing permanentiy among them on Mount Oiympus Cronus Rhea39s Titan brother and husband castrated their Father Uranus AFter this Cronus re imprisoned the Hekatonkheires the Gigantes and the Cyciopes and set the monster Campe to guard them He and Rhea took the throne as King and Queen oF the gods This time was caiied the Goiden Age Chiidren of Cronus and Rhea Hestia Hades Derneter Poseidon Hera and Zeus Cronus swaiiowed thevn aii as soon as theg were born since he had earned Frown Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcovne bg his own chiid as he had overthrown his own Father when Zeus was about to be born however Rhea sought Uranus and Gaia to devise a oian to save hivn so that Cronus wouid get his retribution For his acts against Uranus and his own chiidren Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete handing Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddiing ciothes which he promptig swaiiowed thinking that it was his iast son Zeus OceanusTethys Oceanus was the river encirciing the worid and a Titan son of crous and Rhea he vnarried his sister Tethgs and produced the ngvnphs water goddesses Cosvnoiogg the studg of the structure and changes in the present universe Cosvnogong is a studg concerned with the origin of the universe Hittites The Hittites were a Bronze Age peopie of Anatoiia Theg estabiished a kingdovn centered at Hattusa vnodern dag Turkeg Song of KurnarbiKingship in Heaven the Song of Kuvnarabi is a Hittite poem that exsists of three Fragmentarg cuneiforvn tabiets Aiaiu King of Heaven who is overthrown bg his cupbearer Anu Anu Slltg is then overthrown bg Kuvnarabi who castrates hivn with his Vnouth and swaiiows three gods Kuvnarabi swaiiows what he THINKS is his son but is reaiig a rock The Storvn god Teshubheioed bg Anu Iltiiis Kuvnarabi and overthrows hivn EannaEiish a Babgionian ooern recited at the New Year s Festivai in honor of Marduk Tiavnat Fevnaie sait water who vnates with Apsu Waie Freshwater Marduk defeats Tiavnat and spiits her in haif vnaking the heavens and the earth Provnetheus Hesiod does not vnention it but other Greek Vngths attribute the creation of Vnan to Prornetheus He created thevn out of earth and water He steais Fire Frorn Zeus and angers him Zeus ties him to a rock and his iiver is eaten out bg a vuiture everg dag and grows back every night iapetus Epimetheus means aFterthought The Fooiish brother oF Prometheus who s name means Forethought He is married to Pandora Mekone the piace where Prometheus heips man get the best oF the gods in what theg sacriFice He suggests that theg iet the gods choose their sacriFice and teiis them to put the Fat on top oF the bones and the good meat inside the stomach the gods choose the Fat and are upset at Prometheus For cheating them and heiping the humans Pandora means aii giving She opened the box given to her bg the gods as a wedding present and iets out evergthing we see in the worid but shuts it in time to trap hope inside Misoggng the hatred oF women Reiationship 0F creation oF man in Greek mgth and Pandora to Near Eastern mgth Pandora is sent to the worid as the gods punishment on Prometheus For the theFt oF Fire Outwardig beautiFuL with a bitches mind she reieases terribie things on mankind and embodies the wag that mang men Feit about women Hesiod s Ages oF Man and Near Eastern paraiieis Found in the Works and Dags when Cronus ruied the gods created a race oF men Fashioned From goid AFter the goiden race came the siiver bronze the heroes then iron Each race is weaker and more vicious then the iast Paraiieis to Daniei Persian paraiieiAvesta indian paraiiei Four castes Greek fiood vngtn and Near Eastern oaraiieis si39iniiarities and differences 3 mVSKnAKNNH Man is evii Fiood is decided upon Survivor receives warning and advice The person warned is a pious servant of the gods Tne nero is instructed to buiid a skip Tne nero takes nis wife with niln The ship covnes to rest on a vnountain Tne nero vnakes a sacrifice Tne saved coupie never repopuiates tne eartn it is done by tnrowing rocks over tneir snouiders or bibiicaiig bringing tneir sons and tneir wives aiong Atranasis tne Noan of Babgion Ziusudra tne Noan of Suineria Noan Vnan wno is saved from a woridwide fiooddestruction Deucaiion tne Noan of Greece Pgrrna wife of Deucaiion Heiien daugnter of Deucaiion and Pgrrna Dorians ionians Aeoiians are birtned fr0W tne union of Orseis and Heiien Zeus and the Oiginpians They are Anthropoinorpnic tneg iook and act iike nutnan beings They are ivninortai because they eat nectar and ainbrosia and icnor not biood fiows in their veins They are wise and powerfui but not ovnniscient or ovnnipotent Tneg did NOT create tne universe but are a part of it in generai they do not care about nutnanitg Zeus Historicai origins Zeus is the onig god with undisputed indo European origins He is the sky Father Though he begins as the god of the ciear skg he deveiops into the weather god Birth he was born on Crete the iast son of Cronus and Rhea The onig one of his brothers and sisters to NOT be eaten by his Father and he overthrew hivn Characteristics seriai aduiterg uphoider of justice and orderdillte spheres of controi storvns weather thunder iightning dike and safeguards the institution of XENIA rituaiized guest Friendship He protects beggars and strangers Has an oracie at Dodona one of the oidest in the worid Sgrnbois eagie and iightning boit Epithets o Zeus Agoraios presides over the agora the poiiticai and cowunerciai center of the citg o Zeus Poiieus is guardian of the citg state o Zeus Bouiaios is the guardian of the councii o ZuesHerkeios protects individuai househoids o Zeus Ktesios is the protector of propertg o Zeus Soter is caiied upon to avert crises Know this materialFor all of the Olympians Near Eastern in uences on Zeus and paraiieis to Zeus his rise to power through the dethroning of Cronus rnirrors the rngths of the Hittites and the Babgionians His status as kingig ruier is a product of the in uence of Marduk Aiiotment of spheres of controi to other gods in the Theogong and the casting of iots in the iiiad Hesiod s Theogong At Gaea s suggestion theg pressed Zeus the Oigrnpian to be the king and ruie the irnrnortais Then Zeus deait out their priviieges and rights in Hovner s iiiiad he said that heaven and earth were divided into three equai parts and each of thern Poseidon Hades and Zeus cast iots For their spheres of controi Near Eastern paraiiei Atrahasis casting of iots Titanovnachg War oF the Titans the ten gear series oF batties Fought in Thessaig between the two cavnps oF deities iong beFore the existence oF vnankind the Titans based on Mount Othrgs and the Oiginpians who wouid covne to reign on Mount Oiginpus The onig surviving account oF this exists in Hesiod s Theogong Dodona Zeus oracie was here Oigvnpia Mountain where the OigVnpians reign Metis inteiiigent Metis was predestined to bear two chiidren with Zeus Zeus First wiFe and vnother oF Athena Zeus kiiis her by turning her into a Fig and swaiiowing her 7 vnonths iater Athena is born out oF his head when sovneone chops it open with an axe This is to show that Zeus produced Athena wisdoin asexuaiig Zeus and Metis son was supposed to overthrow Zeus but he was never born This is a very rare exaVnpie oF a god escaping Fate Thevnis Order Zeus second wiFe Their chiidren are personiFications oF the order oF the universe 0 Thevnis Vnothered the Seasons Horai the Fates Moirai Dike Justice and Eunovnia Good Order Mnevnosgne MeInorg Mothered the nine Muses bg sieeping with Zeus nine nights in a row These Muses teii Hesiod to stop Fariningtending sheep and to begin singing and composing poevns about the gods Dione M other Goddess A Femaie Form oF Zeus Aphrodite is the onig exception oF a goddess who is not a sister or daughter oF Zeus According to Hesiod Aphrodite was created bg the Foam oF Uranus severed genitais According to Homer Aphrodite was created bg Zeus and Dione Ganymede Zeus abducted him in the Form oF an Eagie Gangmede is Zeus maie over and he becomes Zeus cupbearer io Priestess oF Hera Mortai ngmph who was seduced bg Zeus when Zeus was seducing her Hera turned 0 into a cow to prevent Zeus From having sex with her 0 ends up in Eggpt and becomes a goddess Zeus does not ever get to be with her Europa Phonecian Princess Zeus transFormed into a tame white buii and seduced her Zeus swan to Crete where Europa became the First goddess oF Crete Danae Daughter oF King Acrisius King Acrisius Finds out that Danae wiii bear a son who wiii overthrow him so he iocks Danae up in a tower Zeus came to her in the Form oF a goiden rain and impregnated her A at oF giris used god impregnation as an excuse For not remaining abstinent Leda Mortai wife of Tyndareus of Sparta Leda and Zeus had sex when he was a swan Leda gave birth to three or Four ohiidren No one knows who was Fathered by Tyndareus or Zeus Heien of Troy and Ciyteinnestra are both Vnortai but unsure of the Father Castro and Poiiux one is of Zeus and the other Tyndareus Poseidon Earth Lo rd God of the sea earthquakes and horses Brother of Zeus and Hades 4500 peopie sacrificed nine buiis to Poseidon Poseidon was second to Athena in importance Typioai representation of Poseidon is the three pronged Trident Poseidon kiiis the Giant Poiybotes by kiiiing him with a bouider AVnphitrite Poseidon s wife Ares Oniy universaiiy attested son of Zeus and Hera Very disappointing to them Frivoious siiiy and immature dating Aphrodite who is the savne way Number of non ivnpressive ohiidren who are now vnoons of Mars Hephaestus puts a net around the bed of Ares and Aphrodite so the next time they are together they are trapped and aii the Greek gods covne and iaugh at thevn Cadinus and Harvnonia Cadvnus is the Founder of Thebes he siays a dragon who is the son of Ares Harvnonia is the daughter of Area and Aphrodite Hephaestus Asexuaiiy produced by Hera Hesiod or by Zeus and Hera Homer Married to Aphrodite and traps her in a net with her over Ares Strongiy associated with the city of Hephaistias a non indo European god God of biacksmiths Fire and artistians Seen as an outsider not beautifui and not a warrior Some say he was thrown out of Oiympus by Hera For being crippied or by Zeus For siding with his mother Hera in an argument Married to Aphrodite but she ai ways cheats on him To get back at Hera he creates a throne that traps her Faiis when he tries to rape Athena Lemnos the isiand east of Greece where Hephaestus is born and has his tempie Hermes Messenger of the gods God of guidance to shepherds traveiers and the souis of the dead Represents abundance and prosperity deception and trickery caiied the prince of thieves Argus a giant with 100 eyes that Hermes put to sieep with his trickery Herm Probabiy the origin For the name Hermes Heap of stones that was piied up by traveiers Boundary mark between territories or personai iands Every person that passed the stones wouid add a stone For good iuck Apotropaic device Hermes Psychopompus Boundaries of Crossing Stones put in Front of your house to ward off intruders Usuaiiy a crude symboi on the stone Caduceus Heraid s Staff An attribute of Hermes aiong with winged sandais and Petasos a traveiers cap Oi gmpian Goddesses Athena born From the brain of Zeus Goddess of wisdom warfare womens handicrafts victorg in war civiiization strength strategy crafts justice and skiii Her sgmbois were the oiive tree and the owi She wears armor and a heimet whiie carrging a spear and bears the Aegis Athens is named after her because in a competition to see who wouid be the patron of Athens she gave them the Oiive Tree which is their greatest iiveiihood Acropoiis in Athens the acropoiis is the steep Fortified hiii atop which stood the Parthenon and other tempies dedicated to Athena Acropoiis means highest citg in Greek Panathenaea Athens major annuai Festivai honoring its patron Athena it inciuded athietics poetry and musicai contests and ended with a great procession to the tempie of Athena Erichthonius the supposed ancestor of the Athenians due to mgth produced by Hephaestus39s Faiied attempt to rape Athena Hephaestus s sperm Feii to the ground and produced Erichthonius Athena raised him in secret and then gave him to the ruiers daughters in a box He was haif snake and can be seen behind Athena s shieid Aegis the breastpiate of Zeus a protective garment decorated with a Ciargon s head and surrounded bg a Fringe of snakes worn by Athena representing her as the goddess of victorg in war Artemis one of the most wideig venerated of tne Ancient Greek deities often described as tne daugnter of Zeus and Leto and tne twin sister of Apoiio She was the Heiienic goddess of the hunt wiid animais wiiderness cniidbirtn virginitg and young giris bringing and reiieving disease in women often was depicted as a nuntress carrging a bow and arrows Caiiisto daugnter of Lgcaon king of Arcadia ngmpn of Artemis took a vow to remain a virgin as did aii tne ngmpns of Artemis Zeus disguised nimseif Ovid sags as Artemis nerseif in order to iure her into nis embrace and rape ner Artemis kiiis her for tnis but Zeus transforms her into a bear and sets her among the stars Actaeon Artemis was batning in tne woods wnen tne nunter Actaeon stumbied across ner tnus seeing her naked He stopped and stared amazed at her ravisning beautg Once seen Artemis punisned Actaeon He was transformed into a stag and nis raging nounds struck with a 39woif s frenzg tore him apart as tneg wouid a stag ipnigenia daughter of quotg 39 quot39 m and C39f J ra quotg 39 quot39 m sacrificed her to Artemis to get tne winds to biow so tnat nis snips couid saii to Trog otner sources ciaim tnat pnigenia was saved bg Artemisand taken to Tauris in Crimea to prepare others for sacrifice and tnat tne goddess ieft a deer in her piaceipnigenia becomes tne Keeper of the Keys of tne feminine mgsteries Niobe daugnter of Tantaius and tne sister of Peiops and Broteas Niobe boasted of her superioritg to Leto because the goddess onig had two ckiidren the twins Apoiio and Artemis wkiie Niobe bad fourteen cniidren seven maie and seven femaie Using poisoned arrows Artemis kiiied Niobe s daugnters and Apoiio kiiied Niobe s sons A devastated Niobe fied back to Mount Sipgius and was turned into stone and as she wept unceasingig waters started to pour from her petrified compiexion PotniaTneron PotniaTneron that is The Mistress of wiid Animais Worsnip of Artemis at Epnesus At Epnesus sne was worshipped as a fertiiitg goddess ner massive tempie was counted as one of the seven wonders of the ancient worid Hestia Eidest daughter oF Cronus and Rhea and virgin sister oF Zeus she guarded the Oigrnpian hearth Hera wiFe and one oF three sisters oF Zeus in the Oigvnpian pantheon goddess oF wovnen and vnarriage The cow and iater the peacock were sacred to her Hera39s mother was Rhea and her Father Cronus She was jeaious vindictive and vioient punishing not onig Zeus s vnistresses but their chiidren Major sanctuaries were Found at Argos and Savnos Hera s chiidren with Zeus Eiieithgia Daughter oF Hera a minor goddess oF chiidbirth Ares Son oF Zeus and HerapersoniFies Vnaie aggression and the Fighting spirit highig respected in Rorne where he was identified with Mars an itaiian god oF agricuiture and war Hera and Hephaestus Son oF Hera Hesiod or oF Hera and Zeus Horner he was god oF Fire and the Forge the vnaster oF vnetaicraFt who buiit the Oigrnpians paiace and Fashioned arvnor For Achiiies He was married to Aphrodite who preFerred Ares as her over Sevneie she was consuvned in Zeus39s iightning when she devnanded to see hitn in his true Forvn due to trickerg on Hera39s part Diongsus iater rescued her Frovn Hades and escorted her to heaven Leto Titan goddess bg whovn Zeus Fathered Artevnis and Apoiio Hera wouid not iet her give birth on the Vnainiand but Vnade her go through a terribie q dag iabor Cgprus Third iargest isiand in the Mediterranean Sea South oF Turkeg Aphrodite is said to be born there Cgthera The isiands oF Cgprus and Cgthera vnag represent the path that the worship oF Aphrodite took Frovn the Near East into Greece ishtarAstarteinanna eastern Fertiiitg goddesses that are reiated to Aphrodite Cingras and Mgrrha 2 Svngrna Aphrodite punishes King Cingras of Cgprus and his daughter Mgrrha after Cingras s wife boasts that their daughter is vnore beautifui than the goddess Adonis After rescuing Mgrrha s son Adonis Aphrodite becovnes enaWored with him but cannot prevent his death bg boar Resevnbies certain aspects of Diongsus vnaie fertiiitg figure sgvnboiizing the naturai cgcie of vegetative growth death and regeneration Hippoigtus Aphrodite destrogs Hippoigtus son of Theseus and Hippoigta queen of the Arnazons because he vows hivnseif to Artevnis The Judgvnent of Paris Eris arrived to the wedding of Peieus and Thetis with a goiden appie inscribed with the words to the fairest one which she threw avnong the goddesses who aii ciaivned it was to them Paris was aiiowed to decide the owner of the appie Aphrodite promised him the vnost beautifui woman in the worid Heien to be his wife and he chose her Horneric Hgvnn to Aphrodite Zeus angry at Aphrodite s corrupting infiuence causes her to faii in iove with a vnortai Anchises Of the four iongest Hovneric Hgvnns it is the onig one that does not deai with the estabiishinent of a cuit or rituai or the acquisition of a god s powers The poem is instead a kind of Vneditation on the incoinpatibiiitg of iove affairs between vnortais and ivnvnortais Both Zeus and Aphrodite express shavne at their affairs with Vnortais in spite of their heroic offspring HeraciesAeneas it can be read etioiogicaiig as an expianation for whg gods no ionger have iove affairs with vnortais Aphrodite s passion in the poem iike sexuai passion in generai is both fieeting and potentiaiig destructive Aeneas son oF Aphrodite and rnortai prince Anchises Found in the iiiad Journegs Frorn Trog with heip Frorn Aphrodite ieading to the Founding oF the citg oF Rorne Derneter benefactor to rnankind Daughter oF Cronus and Rhea goddess oF ag ricuitu rai Fertiiitg Persephone Derneter s daughter kidnapped bg uncie Hades Her rnother s despair caused a great drought and Persephone was aiiowed to return to Derneter However she was required to spend a Few rnonths oF each gear in the underworid causing the seasons Kore a iater name For Persephone Greek terrn For rnaid Great Goddess Ancient parthenogenetic goddess worshipped in Oid Europe and rnang other cuitures whose Functions inciuded overseeing the cgcie oF iiFe death and regeneration Originaiig a creator deitg she eventuaiig acquired association with agricuiture and was worshipped as an earth goddess Gaea is the oidest Forrn oF the Great Goddess speciFic to Greek rngth Hecate attributed aii the powers oF the gods and considered by Hesiod to be the deitg rnost honored by Zeus Associated with Fertiiitg oF the soii victorg in contests oF battie weaith through Fishing and Farrning and anirnai breeding She is associated with Derneter because she heiped her search For Persephone Homeric Hymn to Demeter it serves an etioiogicai Function expiaining the origin and various aspects oF oF the Eieusinian Mgsteries it aiso expiains the origin oF the seasons through a mgth simiiar to those Found in severai Near Eastern cuitures Persephone gathering Fiowers is kidnapped bg her uncie Hades Demeter wanders the earth iooilting For her but cannot Find her She traveis to Eieusis in disguise and meets the Four daughters oF King Keieos Queen Metaneira invites her to be the nurse to her goung son Demophoon Demeter attempts to make Demophoon immortai but is inadvertentig thwarted by Metaneira Demeter orders the residents oF Eieusis to buiid a great tempie to her She sends a Famine to earth robbing the gods oF the sacriFices oF men Zeus sends iris to persuade Demeter but she reFuses to reient eventuaiig Hermes is sent to Hades who iets Persephone go in the interim Persephone is given seeds oF the pomegranate to eat Having tasted oF the Fruit oF the Underworid she is compeiied to return For part oF the gear it expiains the seasons For 13 oF the gear winter Persephone remains in the underworid it expiains the origin oF the Eieusinian Mgsteries Demeter instructs the ruiers oF Eieusis to buiid her a tempie and carry out sacred rites in her honor Eieusis it was here that Demeter disguised as an oid iadg was abducted by pirates in Crete Eieusinian Mgsteries a cuit at the town oF Eieusis invoiving the worship oF Demeter Persephone and Triptoiemus initiates were sworn to secrecg ngeon barieg water mixed with mint Keieos king oF Eieusis Father oF Demophoon Metaneira Queen oF Eieusis invites Derneter to be the nurse to her young son Dernophoon Dernophoon son oF Keieos and Metaneria younger brother oF Triptoieinus Whiie searching For Persephone Derneter becarne his nursernaid and tried to vnake hirn irnrnortai by hoiding hirn in Fire untii the process was interrupted by Metaneira Triptoieinus introduces grain and seed to rnankind has Favor with Derneter The rnan whorn Derneter chose to travei the worid teaching the skiiis oF agricuiture Cybeie The Phrygian rnother goddess associated with Rhea or sometimes Derneter by the Greeks She rareiy occurs in Greek rnyth She initiates Dionysus when he arrives in PhrygiaShe is invoived in the rnyth oF Attis in Ovid Cybeie Faiis in iove with the shepherd Attis and rnakes hirn her priest Attis breaks his vow oF chastity and is driven rnad by Cybeie aFter which he castrates hirnseiF when Cybeie buries Attis s severed genitais vioiets and an airnond tree spring up From his biood and the biood oF his bride to be who kiiis herseiF on his grave Zeus grants that Attis s body wiii not decay Descent oF inannaishtar The story exsists in a iong Surnerian version and a shorter Akkadian one inanna the Sumerian goddess oF iove and war descends to the underworid to become queen She ieaves instructions with her rninister Ninshubur to ask For heip Froin Eniii Nanna and Enki iF she does not return She descends to the underworid and dethrones her sister Ereshkigai The gods oF the underworid then punish her with death Ninshubur is rejected by Eniii and Nanna but Enkiagrees to heip He creates two servants to bring her back The heiper gods sent by Enki join Ereshkigai in weeping For the chiidren oF earth and she grants thern a wish They ask that the corpse oF inanna be given to thern and they bring her back to iiFe inanna is aiiowed to ieave the underworid but rnust Find a repiaceinent Her consort Durnuzi Faiis to rnourn her absence and is sent to the underworid by dernons His sister Geshtin ana agrees to take his piace For six rnonths every year inanna cornes to mourn the ioss oF Duvnuzi and during his tirne in the Underworid she withhoids the biessings oF Fertiiity Apoiio Apoiio Son oF Zeus and Leto Radiant god oF iight vnusic prophecg and the arts Twin brother oF Artevnis Evnbodies inteiiectuai and spirituai eniightenvnent Has a passion For Vnusic Known For his creative inteiiect and For rationai order Seen as Heiios in iater vngths as the sun Shares duties being a patron oF shepherds Fiocks and Fieids with his haiF brother Hermes Shoots siiver arrows Frovn a great distance known For cooi detachvnent but capabie oF savage crueitg He and Artevnis siaged aii the chiidren oF Niobe when she vnade Fun oF Leto For onig having 2 chiidren Portraged as goung and beardiess gouthFui Waie beautg Seen as the god Frovn aFar Portraged as traveiing great distances in vngths Apoiio controis DiseaseHeaiing PuriFication Archerg Prophecg Poetrg and Music initiation Coionization the Sun Carried a Lgre given to him bg Hervnes when he stoie Apoiio s cattie Origins 0F Apoiio His vnother Leto was raped bg Zeus Leto had to search For a newig Forvned isiand oF Deios to guve birth on She was accepted by the peopie there and assured thevn her son wouid aiwags Favor the citg Dorians A Greek peopie distinctive iinguisticaiig and cuituraiig Fr0W other Greeks who controiied Argos and Sparta Foiiowing the Mgcenaean coiiapse Theorg hoids that Apoiio was introduced into Greece by the Dorians who wugrated Fr0W NW Greece in the earig Dark Ages Apeiia Court sgstevn Eiected bg appiause vnostig aristocratic Vnen Resnep Near Eastern Apoiionian in uence Bronze Age god piague god wno Fires Havning arrows Oracies of Apoiio At Deipni Oracie was estabiisned From 700 to 700 BC Tne ternpie was inscribed witn two sagings Meden Agan notning in excess and GnotniSauton know tngseiiquot Peopie Vnade sacrifices to Apoiio tnere to seek advice Pgtnia was his oracie was said to have covnvnunicated with him His snrines at Deios and Deipni were both distinct cuits of their own Mount Parnassus Sanctuarg of Apoiio at Deipni aiso snared witn a tevnpie of Diongsus His virgin priestess Pgtnia practiced tnere Castaiian Spring Spring was used For consuiting tne Oracie Persons wisning to ask question of tne Pgtnianad to wasn in tneCastaiian spring tnen pag a Fee and offer a sacrifice The Pgtniatnen drinks the water Frown the spring and chews on iaurei or bag eaves tnen enters a trance Paean is Found in the writings of Homer is the heaier of the gods The Paean iater becomes a cuit hymn to Apoiio Paean was introduced From Crete of Sparta eariy in the 7th century 136 and was performed at Apoiio s Spartan Festivai Ephebe A ciass of Greek youths approximateiy 18 20 who underwent systematic educationai and physicai training to serve the poiis city as hopiites citizen soidiers Typhon Typhoeus and Hera Typhon was the reptiiian chiid of Hera an incarnation of storm winds Hera without maie heip conceived Typhon whose strenyth equaied Zeus himseif Hera entrusted Python to raise Typhon Homeric Hymn to Apoiio Comprises two poems that were iater combined into one a hymn to Deiian Apoiio and a hymn to Pythian Apoiio The Deiian Hymn recounts Apoiio s arrivai on Oiympus and the story of Leto s search For a piace to give birth Teiphusa Was the Naiad Nymph of the Teiphousian spring of Mount Heiikon in centrai Greece She tricked Apoiio into not buiidiny his shrine beside her spring as punishment he buried her waters beneath a piie of stones Her name suggests that her waters were unsafe to drink Python Python at Deiphi The serpent that guarded the ancient Deiphic shrine of Themis and that Apoiio kiiied with his arrow Python kiiiing described in Pythian Hymn to Apoiio Pythian Games Was estabiished by Apoiio for his defeat against Python Pythian Games were heid every 4 years and were second oniy to the Oiympics in importance to Greece s athietic competition Pythian games aiso emphasized performances in music poetry and dance Croesus King of Lydia 5620 5462 136 famous for his great weaith His kingdom was captured by Cyrus founder of the Persian Empire Ortygia isiand becomes Deios isiand Ortygia was the barren fioating isiand whereLeto suffered for nine days in iabor because Hera didn t aiiow Eiieithyia Goddess of chiidbirth to ieave Oiympus After Leto gives birth Apoiio iater transforms his birthpiace into the isiand of Deios permanentiy fixingit in the midst of Cyciades Deios became an important reiigious center honoring Zeus s Oiympian twins Stepterion Performed every 8 years The priests of Deiphi reenacted Apoiio s siaying of Python in a reiigious drama caiied Stepterion Daphne A nymph beioved of Apoiio she was changed into a iaurei tree the eaves of which were thereafter sacred to the god Hyacinthus A youth who both Apoiio and Zephyrus ioved when Apoiio and Hyacinthus were throwing the discus the jeaious Zephyrus interfered striking the boy with the discus kiiiing him after which he was changed into the fiower bearing his name Co ronis Coronis was the princess of Thessaiy She was pregnant with Apoiio s chiid but decided to ieave him for a human over The gods send Artemis to siay Coronis but the unborn chiid is preserved and given to Chiron who was the wisest of the centaurs The chiid Asceipius haif horse and haif human becomes one of myth s most potent symboi of human endeavorSon of Apoiio and Coronis the Greek founder and patron to medicine when his skiiis brought the dead back to iife Zeus kiiied him with a thunderboit Hyrnn to Pythian Apoiio Dionysus The Pythian Hyrnn describes Apoiio s search For a site For his oracie his deaiings with Teiphusa his kiiiing of Python and the estabiishrnent of his ternpie Origins of Dionysus Histo ricai M ythicai Dionysus is the son of Zeus and Serneie He is the oniy god to have a Vnor tai parent Zeus carne to Serneie in the night invisibie Feit oniy as a divine presence Serneie was pieased to be a over of a god even though she did not know which one Hera went to Serneie in disguise and convinced her she shouid see her i over as he reaiiy was when Zeus next carne to her she rnade hirn prornise to grant her one wish She went so Far as to rnake hirn swear on the River Styx that he wouid grant her request Zeus was Vnadiy in iove and agreed She then asked hirn to show her his true Fortn Zeus was unhappy and knew what wouid happen but having sworn he had no choice He appeared in his true Form and Serneie was instantiy burnt to a crisp by the sight of his giory Zeus did rnanage to rescue Dionysus and stitched hirn into his thigh to hoid hirn untii he was ready to be born His birth From Zeus aione conferred irnvnortaiity upon hirn Myth s insistence that both Athene s cooi rationaiity and Dionysus s passionate sensuaiity derive Frorn the same Father Zeus conveys the Greek beiief that both discipiined inteiiect and unrestrained ernotion are part of the naturai order and therefore equaiiy divine Homeric Hymn to Dionysus This hymn begins with a sensuaiiy phrased description of the beautifui god Dionysus and then narrates the story of the god39s capture by the crew of a rogue saiiing ship The poet narrates the argument between a heimsman who recognizes the hoiiness of the prisoner and the captain who is determined to hoid the prisoner for ransom As the ship saiis onward on the captain s orders vine ieaves appear and sprout grapes and Dionysus transforms himseif into a iion terrorizing the crew Finaiiy aii the crew but the heimsman jumps overboard and they are turned into doiphins The heimsman is richiy rewarded and the hymn conciudes with praise of the god Thyrsus Dionysus s symboi a staff topped with a pinecone sometimes with ivy ieaves Semeie Dionysus s mortai mother ino Semeie s sister who aiong with nymphs raised Dionysus on a mountain named Nysa Athamas the King of Orchomenus married no who iater raised Dionysus her nephew in vengeance jeaiousy Hera struck Athamas with insanity Ampeius A boy or young satyr aiso found as a nymph of the vine who was ioved by Dionysus He feii to his death from a tree or was kiiied by a buii and transformed into the vine icarus Dionysus gave the wisdom of winemaking to the peasant icarus and his daughter Erigone in return for their wonderfui hospitaiity to him Foiiowing Dionysus39 wishes the pair then taught other peasants this new technique The neighbors at first enjoy the wine but drinking too much they think they ve been poisoned They ciub icarus to death and bury him Lycurgus was a mytnoiogicai king oF tne Edoni in anace He banned tne cuit oF Dionysus wnen Lycurgus neard tnat Dionysus was in nis kingdom be imprisoned Dionysus Foiiowers tne Maenads Dionysus Fied taking reFuge witn Tnetis the sea nympn Dionysus then sent a drought to anace Going insane Lycurgus mistook his son For a mature trunk oF ivy which is noiy to Dionysus and kiiied nim pruning away his nose and ears Fingers and toes Dionysus decreed that the and wouid stay dry and barren as iong as Lycurgus was ieFt unpunisned For his injustice so his peopie had him dismembered by wiid horses in Homer39s iiiad Lycurgus punisnment For nis disrespect towards tne gods particuiariy Dionysus is biindness inFiicted by Zeus Foiiowed not iong aFter by death Pentneus Agave was a king oF Tnebes Pentneus banned the worship oF Dionysus and did not aiiow the women oF Cadmeia to join in his rites Dionysus caused Pentneus39 motner and nis aunts no and Agave to rusn to Mount Citnaeron or Mount Parnassus in a baccnic Frenzy Because oF tnis Pentneus imprisoned Dionysus but nis cnains Feii oFF and tne jaii doors opened For him Dionysus tnen iured Pentneus out to spy on the baccnic rites Tne daugnters 0F Cadmus saw him in a tree and thought him to be a wiid animai Pentneus was puiied down and torn iimb From iimb by them sparagmos causing tnem to be exiied From Tnebes the daughter oF Cadmus the king and Founder oF the city oF Tnebes Greece and oF tne goddess Harmonia She was the vnother of Pentheus She was a Maenad a foiiower of Dionysus in Euripides s piay quotThe Bacchae Theban Maenads vnurdered King Pentheus after he banned the worship of Dionysus because he denied Dionysus39 divinity Dionysus Pentheus cousin hivnseif iured Pentheus to the woods where the Maenads tore hivn apart and his corpse was Vnutiiated by his own vnother Agave This Wurder aiso served as Dionysus39 vengeance on Agave and her sisters no and Autonoe Sevneie during her pregnancy with Dionysus was destroyed by the sight of the spiendor of Zeus Satyrs the vnythoiogicai vnaie counterparts of Dionysus s fevnaie foiiowersnyvnphs They however are not covnpieteiy human but part vnan and part anivnai with a horse s taii and ears and a goat39s beard and horns They are usuaiiy depicted nude and often sexuaiiy excited Maenads The fevnaie worshippers of Dionysus The word iiteraiiy transiates as quotraving ones They were known as wiid insane wovnen who induiged in copious avnounts of vioience bioodietting sex and seif intoxication and vnutiiation aii due to their obsession with Dionysus Bacchants another tervn for Maenads the wovnen Euripides describes in his tragedy the quotBacchae They are inspired by the god Bacchus Dionysus and are superhuvnaniy strong and wiid Thiasos the coiiective ecstatic retinue of Dionysus often pictured as inebriated reveiers Sparagvnos refers to an ancient Dionysian rituai in which a iiving anivnai or sovnetivnes even a human being wouid be sacrificed by being disrnevnbered by the tearing apart of iirnbs frovn the body it is associated with the Maenads or Bacchantes Ovnophagia often foiiowing sparagvnos ovnophagia is the eating of the raw fiesh of the one disrnevnbered Ariadne was daughter of King Minos of Crete and was the bride of Dionysus Anthesteria one of the Four Athenian Festivais in honor of Diongsus heid in Februarg or March The object of the Festivai was to ceiebrate the rnaturing of the wine stored at the previous vintage and the beginning of spring Diongsus Zagreus the god of the orphicists Foiiowers of a rngsterg cuit The navne is Thracian and the cuit beiieved this Diongsus was the son of Zeus in the shape of a snake and Persephone Zeus had decided that his son wouid ruie the worid which his wife Hera strongig opposed to She vnade the Titans kiii and eat the chiid but they were kiiied by Zeus iightning and turned to ash Because the Titans hadn39t eaten the chiid39s heart get Zeus gave it to Serneie who gave birth to a new Diongsus Out of the ashes of the Titans the hurnan kind was born and so everg huvnan has both a divine and an evii nature The AFteriiFe and the Underworld Hades Son of Cronus and Rhea brother of Zeuswas given dorninion over the Underworid rnortais usuaiig did not refer to hirn bg his narne because of Fear there is virtuaiig no cuit of Hades though a teinpie in Eiiis is vnentioned he is unaware of vnost things occurring outside of the underworid ex Gods were Fighting and Hades beiieved that it was an earthquake that couid spiit open the underworid He rareig ascends to Oigvnpus but has rnade an appearance once or twice Persephone Daughter of Zeus and his sister Demeteroersoni39Fied the grain harvest when Hades took her to the Underworid her mother sgmboiizing the Fertiiitg of the soii Feii into such extreme grief that the gods ordered Persephone s return to the dagiight worid For most of the gear River Stgx River in the Underworid marking the boundarg between iife and death the gods swear bg this river Acheron One of the main rivers of Hades the Cocgtus and the Phiegethon combined Cocgtus One of the Four main rivers of the Underworid it is the River of Lamentation Waiiing Phiegethon The Fierg river of the Underworid that in a huge waterfaii joined the Cocgtus to Form the Acheron Lethe in Hades the River of Forgetfuiness Eigsium or Eigsian Fieids A oosthumous reaim of earthig deiights reserved For those especiaiig Favored bg the gods Cerberus The three headed watchdog of Hades Charon Ancient boatman of the Underworid who Ferried souis across the River Stgx the sgmboiic boundarg between iife and death The Furies Dirae Born From Uranus39s biood theg were goddesses of biood vengeance in Aeschgius they were daughters of Night Minos Name of a kingwho ruied at Knossos on Crete The son of Zeus and Europa Rhadamanthus Son of Zeus and Europa who with his brother Minos became a judge of the dead and ruier 0F Eigsium Aeacus king of the isiand of Aegina in the Saronic Guif He was son of Zeus and Aegina a daughter of the river god Asopus Thanatos The personiFication oF Death he was the twin brother oF ngnos Sieep ngnos A oersoniFication oF sieep he was the twin brother oF Thanatos Death Morpheus Son oF ngnos Sieep and the god oF dreams Tantaius Son oF Zeus and Father oF Peiops whose Fiesh he served to the Oigmpians an act For which he was condemned to eternai torment in Tartarus As ounishment For this he was doomed to be Forever thirsty and hungry Peiops Son oF Tantaius king oF Phrggia he was served by his Father to the gods at a banquet AFter Demeter absorbed in her grieF For Persephone took a bite From his shouider the gods restored it with an ivory repiacement The Peioponnesian Peninsuia is named aFter him his sons inciuded Atreus and Thgestes Sisgpus Founder oF Corinth known For his greed and deceit He was abie to avoid death twice because he was not buried correctig and so he argued that he must return to earth and teii his wiFe to properig burg him however he does not return to the underworid iike he promised Since he tricked Persephone he was condemned in Tartarus Forever to roii a huge stone uphiii From whence it aiwags roiied down again ixion AFter Zeus had merciFuiig oardoned him For murder ixion treacherousig tried to seduce Hera and rape her For which Zeus bound him on an eternaiig revoiving wheei in Tartarus Descents oF Heracies Theseus and Orpheus into the underworid Heracies Son oF Zeus and the mortai Aicmenehe was the strongest and the most iong suFFering oF aii Greek heroes best known For the Tweive Labors imposed on him bg King Eurgstheus he was eventuaiig rewarded with immortaiitg on Oigmpus Descent oF Heracies As his Finai and most chaiienging iabor Heracies descends into the Underworid to subdue Cerberus the savage three headed hound the guards the entrance to Hades By bringing Cerberus into the upper worid Heracies attains the extreme iimits oF heroism braving the terrors oF death and demonstrating that human courage and inteiiigence when supported bg the gods Athene and Hermes act as his guides mag accompiish the impossibie Theseus Son oF Aegeus and iegendarg king oF Athens he won Fame bg siaging the Minotaur at Minos s paiace on Crete He Fathered Hippoigtus bg the Amazon Antiope and iater married Phaedra daughter oF Minos Descent oF Theseus Theseus a iegendarg king oF Athens who supposedig iived in Minoan times The Athenian hero whose Father was Poseidon was the devoted Friend oF Pirithous a mortai son oF Zeus Because they were both oFFspring oF gods theg decided that onig daughters oF Zeus wouid make acceptabie wives They tried Heien oF Sparta but Found she was too goung to marrg Theg then descended in to Hades reaim For the purpose oF kidnapping Persephone Whiie searching they accepted an invitation to dine with Hades Seated at the banquet theg Found that theg were immobiiized in their chairs unabie to rise Heracies then came and Thesus iost part oF his buttocks accounted For the subsequent prevaience oF siim hips among Athenian gouths Thesus tragedg is that he returned to iiFe without the person he ioved best The gods imprisoned Pirithous Forever in the chair oF obi ivion Orpheus The archetypai poet and singer who descended into Hades to rescue his wife Eurydice he iater suffered sparagVnos after which his iyre syvnboi of divine harmony was transforvned into a consteiiation Descent of Orpheus into the underworid the descent Vnyth that had had the vnost enduring infiuence coVnVneVnorated for Vniiiennia in Western art reiigion and phiiosophy is that of Orpheus who entered Hades reaivn to retrieve his adored wife Eurydice who had died of a poisonous snakebite Orpheus is the archetypai creative artist expressing powerfui evnotions in poetry of irresistibie beauty Orpheus vnusic charvns Hades fiercest Vnonsters inciuding Cerberus and the Furies who quietiy iet hivn pass Singing of his iove Eurydice Orpheus reduced Hades and Persephone to tears winning their pervnission to reciaivn his wife provided he does not at or speak to her untii after they have evnerged into the worid of ght OrphisVn A particuiari y obscure Vnystery cuit in which devotees were initiated into the secrets of Vnorai transfiguration and future iVninortaiity Greek views of the afteriife Many poets and phiiosophers argued that a person s behavior in this iife detervnined one s fate after death Greek ideas about the afteriife however changed significantiy over tivne in Book 11 of Hovner s Odyssey except for some notorious sinners aii of the dead are housed indiscrivninateiy in a dank cave with no hope of seeing iight again By contrast in Book 6 of Virgii s Aeneid written approximateiy 700 years iater souis are assigned quaiitativeiy different fates with the virtuous enjoying a spiendidiy iiiuvninated paradise and the wicked unspeakabie torvnent Bacchic instructions to Dead covnes frovn Bacchus which is another word for Dionysus and those who worshipped Dionysus foiiowed these instructions They ciaivned to know speciai things about the afteriife and by foiiowing these instructions the afteriife was said to be more bearabie for Bacchic initiates Goid Sheet with Orphic Text FromThurii these instructions inciude code words to sag to Persephone in the afteriife it aiso sags that the dead confront obstacies in the afteriife and so the goiden ieafiets are intended to heip warn about things iike the river of forgetfuiness Pgthagoreanism Comes from Greek ohiiosopher and mathematician sixth century 136 who taught the transmigration of souis a beiief that the immortai soui undergoes a series of incarnations in different bodies inciuding those of animais and piants He aiso is associated with the Pgthagorean theorem and aiso suggested that music and math are harmoniousHe beiieved that the goai in iife is to be good and pure so that one can end the cgcie and go to heaven


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