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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Queenie Schumm on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OCNG 251 at Texas A&M University taught by Mary Richardson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/226073/ocng-251-texas-a-m-university in Oceanography at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Planet Earth Overview Ocean sizes depths locations text figures comparison with land Early exploration text gures Paci c Islanders 7 long distances 7 1000 s BC World map 7 focus Mediterranean 450 BC Earth s circumference 200 BC method Scientific advancement declined for 1000 yrs l at Earth Vikings explored N Atlantic Ocean 9th and 10 centuries text figures Ptolemy s republished map from 150 AD Need for faster trade routes to the east travel over land trade routes around Africa text figures Christopher Columbus reached San Salvador Island on October 12 1492 Europeans explore North and South America Circumnavigate world 7 led by Magellan How do you know where you are on Earth Position on Earth Latitude and Longitude How does knowing time help know position longitude 360 degrees24 hours x degrees per hour Each degree of longitude is divided into 60 minutes Time in Greenwich 0 degrees longitude when it is noon sun directly overhead at current location Examples of calculations Measuring time at sea Harrison s chronometer text figure Continued Exploration text figure Cook 18 m century accurate maps southern oceans Hawaiian islands using a Charting the Gulf Stream 7 travel to and from Europe 7 faster route Benjamin Franklin 18 century Charles Darwin voyage of HMS Beagle 183136 the life history of coral reefs Galapagos natural selection The Origin of Species Challenger Expedition 187276 first entirely devoted to science depth species salt Polar oceanography Fram locked inthe ice for over 3 years 189396 Arctic Palmer Antarctic Southern Ocean 20th Century Oceanography TAMU Oceanography department World Wars technology submarines military applications Jacques Cousteau 1943 popularize ocean study SCUBA Nature of scientific inquiry Natural phenomena governed by physical processes Physical processes similar today as in the past Scientists discover these processes and Make predictions Scienti c method Observations Hypotheses Testing and modification of hypotheses eory Example class examples Formation of Solar System and Earth Nebular Hypothesis animation Solar system scales 7 stars galaxies Hubble telescope Protoearth homogeneous composition radioactive heat Density strati cation layered Earth text gures High density materials move to center Chemical composition physical properties of layered Earth text gures Crust mantle core Lithosphere asthenosphere mesosphere outer core inner core Early ocean and atmosphere sun as heat source text gure Atmosphere nebula gasses blown away outgassing water vapor carbon dioxide methane ammonia hydrogen no oxygen Oceans outgassing water vapor rain 4 billion years ago salinity NaCl and ions Life originates in oceans earliest life forms about 35 billion years old marine rocks Types of life forms Heterotrophs animals Autotrophs plants Photosynthesis respiration text gure Oxygen crisis about 2 billion years ago life changes photosynthesis Photosynthetic organisms created today s Ozrich atmosphere Geologic time text gures Earth 46 billion years Radiometric age dating text gures ope spontaneous changedecay halflife parentdaughter number of isotopes determine age Example Dating table Given halflife is 700000 years Ratio Halflife Age years pd 11 1 700000 13 2 1400000 1 7 3 2100000