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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emmett Renner on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OCNG 251 at Texas A&M University taught by David Brooks in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 321 views. For similar materials see /class/226074/ocng-251-texas-a-m-university in Oceanography at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
OCNG 251508510 Brooks Fall 10 Topical Study Guide for Exam 3 Ch 8 Waves Wave types 7orbital capillary gravity I A wave is a disturbance that carries energy through a medium from one place to another 0 An energy source is needed to create a wave 0 It is the energy that travels not the medium 1 Orbital a wave phenomenon in which energy is moved along the interface between uids of different densities The wave form is propagated by the movement of uid particles in orbital paths As the wave travels the water passes the energy along by moving in a circle I Particles make orbital paths as the waveform passes underneath them These waves transmit energyalong interface between two uids of different density liquids andor gases I Note is the wave shape and not the actual water that moves forward I As a wave approaches from behind you you get pulled back and up and then as the wave passes you go forward and down 9 You end up in the same place that you started 2 Capillary have wavelengths less than about 174 cm and surface tension is the major restoring attening force 3 Gravity have wavelengths more that about 174 cm and gravity controls wave propagation and restoration Wave nomenclature 7 wavelength period height steepness frequency speed 1 Wavelength 2 Period the amount of time it takes for one full wavelength to pass by a fixed point 3 Height 4 Steepness 5 Frequency the number of wavelengths that pass by per unit of time and is equivalent to UT Characteristics of waves in deep water and shallow water speed particle motions The energy spectrum of waves in the ocean Windgenerated waves sea swell surf and breakers Factors determining the growth of wind waves wind speed duration and fetch Concept of a fullydeveloped sea Interference patterns and rogue waves Refraction and re ection of waves Standing waves and the bathtub slos Tsunami storm surges and internal waves Ch 9 Tides Orbital mechanics Newton s gravitation and centripetal force The tidegenerating force and the tidal egg Relative in uence of the Moon and the Sun Consequence of lunar declination 7 diurnal inequality The lunar day why it is longer than the solar day Springs and neaps in the lunar month phases of the Moon Impact of elliptical orbits of Moon and Sun Equilibrium Theory inadequacies and shortcomings Characteristics of the real tide in the oceans Semidiurnal diurnal and mixed tides Amphidromes 7 rotary tidal systems in large basins Horizontal tidal currents ood ebb and slack Short answer questions 1 What factors determine the greatest height of ocean surface waves How is this related to the concept of a fullydeveloped sea 2 When you are in a small boat on a rough sea perhaps feeling a little seasick your dive instructor may tell you to put on your gear and get down below the surface Why should you expect to feel better below the surface 3 How is a standing wave different from a propagating wave What do we call a standing wave in a harbor or bay or lake 4 How do you explain the occurrence of large surfing waves which sometimes occur on the California coast on fine days with no wind How were they generated if the wind isn t blow1ng 5 What would be the speed of a deep water wave with wavelength 40 m compared to one with wavelength 80 In How would your answer differ if the water depth were 2 m 6 Describe how internal waves differ from surface waves What conditions are necessary for internal waves to exist 7 What is a rogue wave Is it predictable Why are they of interest 8 What is the fundamental problem with the equilibrium theory of the tides 9 Why do solar eclipses occur only at new moons and not at full moons 10 Draw a sketch showing the relative locations of the Earth Moon and Sun at times of syzygy and quadrature At which of these times do spring tides occur 11 Given that the tidal height variation in most of the world s ocean is a meter or two how is it that the tidal ranges may exceed 15 m in the upper reaches of the Bay of Fundy 12 What was Tennyson talking about in his poem Crossing the Bar and what does it have to do with the tides 13 What is an amphidrome 14 Show with a simple sketch how the centrpetal forces and the gravity forces associated with the Moon combine to produce two tidal bulges in an idealized ocean complete y covering the Earth 15 What is lunar declination and how does it affect the tides seen at a particular location as the Earth rotates under the bulges you just described 16 What is a lunar day and why is it about 50 minutes longer than a solar day 17 Draw a sketch showing how the sea level height varies in places where the tides are a semidiuInal b diurnal and c mixed Which of these is most like the tides on the Texas oast 18 How do you explain that the center of gravity of the EarthMoon system is actually inside the Earth What is the fancy name for this point Where do you think the center of gravity of the EarthSun system might be 19 What is the difference between higher high water and lower high water Why is there a difference Does this happen with a purely semidiurnal tide 20 What is a tidal wave
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