HISTORY OF THE U S
HISTORY OF THE U S HIST 105
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Albertha Ryan on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 105 at Texas A&M University taught by Brian Rouleau in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/226150/hist-105-texas-a-m-university in History at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
1 How did human beings first migrate to North America what were the characteristics of early human settlement there and how in a general sense did those patterns of settlement change Ca 15000 BC Early human beings first migrated into North America by crossing Beringia the Bering Sea land bridge These PaleoIndians or huntergatherers followed the migration of megaFauna However around 3000 BC these megaFauna began to disappear due to overhunting climate change and warming temperatures Humans adjust and this brings in the Archaic Period where humans begin sedentary or nonnomadic lifestyles They settled and evolved sophisticated agricultural methods like the ThreeSisters Method of planting corn squash and beans This new sedentary lifestyle introduced four consequences The first was an introduction of a gender division of labor Women tended to the crops and built farms while men hunted and performed in warfare and diplomacy between people The second consequence was the cultural differentiation between different Native American They each began to have their own culture and linguistics They began to become distinguishable from one another There is no sense of unity The third was active trade and communication between these groups The nal consequence was the arise of enormously complex societies and organizations 2 What was the signi cance of the Mississippian civilizations and what did Native American society in North America look like on the eve of contact and colonization These civilizations created large towns like Cahokia the center of Mississippian civilization that became centers of trade religious rights and rituals and ceremonial centers This resulted in divisions in society Higher classes consisted of religious and political leaders and they demanded tributes or labor from surrounding tribes the socially inferior On the eve of contact and colonization North America was already experiencing extreme change as Cahokia pop 4050000 collapsed due to soil exhaustion overhunting and degradation however there consisted of hundreds of tribes around North America 3 What were the chief motivations of European voyages of discovery and what can we say waswere Columbus destinations The chief motivations of European voyages of discovery were to find wealth for their country There were economic and religious motives Columbus wanted to nd a new route to the East Indies to regain strength there Columbus intended to use the wealth discovered in order to fund crusades to recapture Jerusalem and to increase wealth and power 4 Def39me the Columbian Exchange and describe some of its consequences The Columbian Exchange refers to the earthaltering DRAMATIC exchange of plants animals people technology and diseases between the eastern and western hemispheres Epidemic diseases like small pox and in uenza began decimating Native American populations and made effective resistance to colonization dif cult Indian trade networks worked brilliantly to spread disease Native people were already experiencing dramatic social change but then came 859095 mortality rates The new generation and guardians of the past died it was a cultural catastrophe 5 What did English society look like on the eve of that nation s rst attempts at colonization in North America On the eve of England s first attempt at colonization in North America it was experiencing dramatic social change Dramatic population growth was initiated by the Columbian exchange due to new crops increasing agricultural yield and food supply however as population grew less and less land was available for cultivation Now there was not enough food This meant dramatic price in ation More people were demanding food and the price of food increased At the same time more people wanted to work and wages experienced a downward trend At the same time Aristocratic landlords were now enclosing or privatizing lands that had previously been held in common by peasanttenants Enclosure Movement Hundreds of thousands became evicted causing disarray disorder and masspoverty This resulted in a phenomenon where large groups of people had NO PLACE TO G0 The Strolling Poor refers to the strangeness of this phenomenon of this time The poor had been the elderly and unwanted but now otherwise healthy adult individuals are poor and creating social disarray for survival Many people began to wonder about the future survival of English society North America is the solution 6 What was life like in the earliest years of settlement at Jamestown and what did early relations between Native Americans and English colonists look like Jamestown Virginia on the eastern shore of North America was initially designed as an outpost where the English could raid the Spanish empire It had been an abandoned Spanish outpost it was renamed Jamestown after King James I and Virginia after the Virgin Queen Queen Elizabeth I It was also aterm to describe the English point of View of the Virginity of the land This marshy swampland generated disease and not wealth The men that had voyaged to Jamestown were impoverished beggars and adventurous gentlemen Neither had EXPERIENCE and neither would WORK This resulted in a lack of food and reports of cannibalism These were men that didn t intend to settle in the new land but get rich quick and leave There was no talk no work except to nd gold John Smith even got booted out for trying to establish order Virginia Virgin land is actually Tsenacommacah Densely Inhabited Place rich with human inhabitation and with a long past English forced to negotiate with the more powerful and extensive Native American community The native people the Powhatans had spent the past 2 years conquering surrounding communities including the Spanish settlement They had become rich and powerful but had plenty of enemies Chief Powhatan saw the arrival of the English as an opportunity for himself He saw them as potential allies to establish trading with and to draw other native people into his power English and Native American relations however were plagued with many instances of MUTUAL MISCOMMUNICATION and MISUNDERSTANDING Christopher Newport Governor of Jamestown tried to force Chief Powhatan to kneel and sweat allegiance to King James I From Chief Powhatan s POV he believed King James should be going to them He takes his mantel representing people under his control and puts it over Newport to make him subordinate to him He believed Jamestown weak and inferior and that they owed their allegiance to him and his domain Another instance of MISCOMMUNICATION was Pocahontas saving of John Smith s life This was a ritual communicating that the saved person owed allegiance to the Powhatan but the English saw it as the Powhatan s loving them and wanting to help promote their agenda English and Native American relations became increasingly strained because of the settlers increasing demands for food 7 Describe the transformation of the Chesapeake economy how did the plantation revolution affect different segments of society ie wealthy landowners poorer servants enslaved Africans Native Americans In 1616 the Virginia Company was teetering on bankruptcy This resulted in the headright system which granted land to planters who brought laborers as well as those indentures who survived servitude This promised future rewards and brought more people to the Chesapeake colony Then the tobacco crop rescues Virginia demographically and nancially 16161621 Tobacco Boom Virginia was now a lucrative investment that could promise 5001000 return in pro ts Within 4 years a person could make far more than they could ever hope to make Tobacco hungered for land and this resulted in recurrent con ict between settlers and Native Americans The majority of inhabitants however were poor overworked indentured servants The living and working conditions for laborers were horri c far worse than anything in England When the price of tobacco crashed indentured servants got the worst of it They only had two options become tenant farmers or move west The House of Burgesses the local elected assembly resulted in oligarchy Voting and of ce holding was dependent on land ownership and this eliminated the majority This government was designed to promote and protect wealthy individuals Sir William Berkeley royal governor of Virginia cashed in on this oligarchy by using his position to enrich himself and his friends the Greenspring Fashion He passed crippling taxes to pay his own salary and banned schools and free press because it promoted disobedience He distributed the best lands to his followers and condemned the poorest settlers to a life on the frontier which resulted in Indian attacks He did nothing as people complained against Indian attacks because he had a lucrative trading business with the Native Americans Colonists called foul and this resulted in Bacon s Rebellion Bacon s rebellion consisted of a militia composed of indentured servants ghting to kill Indians When Berkeley declares Bacon guilty of treason they turn back and burn Jamestown to the ground Lesson They needed a reliable source of labor This resulted in the TransAtlantic slave trade This made plantations lucrative and eliminated the instability of labor uprising African Americans were kidnapped and then purchased by European slave traders Enslaved people deemed too ill or weak were disposed of and owners were allowed to earn insurance writeoffs This was the reduction of human life to movable property commodi cation of human life Europeans dramatically enlarged the scale and pace of enslavement and created an entire new slavery that was heritable permanent and had a racial character 8 What were the causes and consequences of Bacon s Rebellion Indentured servants in Virginia were working and living in poor conditions The government consisting of the royally appointed governor Sir William Berkeley and the House of Burgesses did nothing to help alleviate their grievances The House of Burgesses consisted of wealthy individuals that owned land and used their power to help other wealthy landowners Sir William Berkeley did the same and enriched his friends the Greenspring Fashion He ignored the colonist s complaints of Indian attacks because of his lucrative trading business with the Native Americans Nathanial Bacon saw this as a political opportunity for himself and channeled these frustrations to make a militia of indentured servants and poor colonist This militia became enormously popular and became a war on ALL Native Americans Berkeley responded by declaring Bacon guilty of treason and Bacon responded by burning Jamestown 1676 There were three lessons learned A more popular form of government was needed to avoid future frustrations the way to political fame was of vocal support of Indian slaughter and a more stable form of labor was needed 9 What were some of the chief tenets of Puritanism What motivated Puritan settlement in New England Describe what made the Great Migration a very different immigrant stream than others within the Atlantic World Puritans wanted to remove all traces of popery and catholic superstition from the Church of England They believed in the complete sovereignty of god and the utter depravity of humanity They believed in Predestination one s Calling and the spiritual equality of the godly They were not simply a religious group or movement but also a political group that pursued revolutionary political and social goals After King Charles I dissolved parliament and began to persecute Puritans they began to look for a new place to go They ed persecution in English society and immigrated to America There they established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in New England They sought to inspire reform in England itself They believed that by creating a godly society in New England they could inspire old England to morally reform itself We must be knit together in this work as one man labor together suffer together for we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill the eyes of all people are upon us It would be a Christian utopia 14000 people emigrate in what was called the Great Migration This migration was different than others in that it primarily consisted of whole families not just men They ed religious persecution and believed they were on a godly mission They worked hard for sufficiency not for profit 10 Describe events surrounding the English Civil War and its effect on colonial society in North America In 1629 King Charles I dissolved Parliament He attempted to rule as an absolute monarch however in 1640 Charles needed revenue to wage a war against a rebellion in Scotland Only Parliament had the power to generate revenue and so he reconvened parliament hoping they would pass the measures he needed Those elected in 1640 were comprised almost entirely of Puritan representatives They were the most vocal proponents for reform and critics of the King They set aside all revenue questions and began to impeach royal officials and attempt to reform the Church of England Charles takes this as an act of treason and rebellion and begins to gather an army Parliament does the same Thus begins the English Civil war Charles I is executed in 1649 and England is brie y declared a republic Oliver Cromwell then declares himself Lord Protector of England a military dictator After the death of Cromwell the English restore the monarchy and allow Charles II to return to England and assumes the thrown This entire 25year period allows North American colonists to go about their own business and establish their own institutions They become accustomed to managing their own affairs When parliament won the war the Puritans felt like they had accomplished their mission They believed they had inspired reform in Old England however during the restoration they felt great despair It was the end of puritan rule Their errand into the wilderness and all of gains from their work were erased This resulted in spiritual devastation Many began soulsearching thinking they had misinterpreted their role in the world Now many began to feel England was hopelessly lost to them and could not be reformed nor saved 11 What was King Philip s War and what did it reveal about colonial New England During the mid l7Lh century in an attempt to resist further theft of their land some Native Americans began to circulate New England trying to produce an alliance amongst themselves Although it was difficult for them to set aside all of their historic differences Sachem King PhilipMetacom of the Wampanoag effectively preached Pan Indianism It was a message of unity Indians were a unified group of people The English see this as a dangerous mission and attempt to kill Metacom before his message could reach more people They raise a colonial militia against Metacom s village to destroy him They instead ended up killing some Nairagansets in the process and they became very receptive to Metacom s mission A massive Native American war resulted 5292 towns of New England are attacked and 12 are totally destroyed It was not until the end of 1676 that the English were able to convince enough Native Americans to join them and a civil war among Indians ensued In 1676 Metacom is captured and executed his head is put outside of Plymouth 12 What were some of the new features of the eighteenth century British Atlantic empire and how did this later period compare to the initial phase of English colonization Describe Anglicization and its effect upon British N01th America The 171 century was plagued with violence and was con ict ridden The 18Lh century however was blessed with mutual peace and prosperity The TransAtlantic slave trade made plantations lucrative and eliminated the instability of labor uprising The 18111 century also marked the beginning of colonial supervision The Board of Trade was a central planning office meant to direct and control settlements and economic development It appointed royal officials and sent them to the colonies It was also responsible for appointing royal governors that would supervise colonial legislatures They were granted veto power over all pieces of colonial legislation Mercantilism also emerged Colonists were only allowed to trade within the empire Colonists were now being asked to do what s best for the empire instead of themselves A new developing imperial system where control and power was concentrated in Britain itself and radiated across the colonies Britain became more careful of policing its empire People began to prosper and soon North America was attracting people from across Europe 13 Describe the origins of the Atlantic slave trade and the transformative impact slavery had on colonial society Think speci cally about the Black Codes The TransAtlantic slavery made plantations in North America lucrative and eliminated the instability of a labor uprising 124 million slaves were transported to North America in the l7Lh and 18th century Initially slavery had nothing to do with race Europeans had just integrated themselves into a preexisting indigenous slave trade already in Africa Africans would kidnap rival ethnic groups and sell them to European slave traders Those bought as slaves were taken because they were the people available to be sold For example in the Mediterranean sugar plantations used Jewish people because that was who was available Initial slave life in North America was far less harsh than imagine They could be expected to work sidebyside indentured servants to work themselves out of slavery to marry into white families to gain property to exist as political people and to even purchase their own slaves Soon the population of slaves increased dramatically and Bacon s rebellion created a shift from indentured servants to enslavement as the principle source of labor This rise in population also contributed to the fear of a slave uprising To quell this it required the colonial elite to win the favor of the free white population in Virginia to serve in the colonial militia should slave s choose to rebel Free people were armed and concessions began to be offered to free white people such as rights and privileges in exchange for their loyalty This became increasingly rooted in skin color Black codes were then established to secure the allegiance of free white people and help protect and preserve the integrity of the slave system Black codes made illegal all forms of interracial sex and marriage it legalized the right of any white person to correct an enslaved person and it illegalized a black person s ability to own property vote or to work out of slavery This made slavery heritable irrevocable and of a racial character 14 What was the Seven Years War and how did it affect life in British North America On the onset of the Seven Years War in 1754 Spain decreased in power and France increased in power Catholic France now became the new great enemy of Protestant Britain and that rivalry played itself out most violently in North America Tensions had been steadily rising between the rival empires in North America because they were increasingly bumping into one another on the continent The French kept going more and more south into the Ohio River Valley As the French line of settlement extended further into North America small con icts began to result between British settlers and French outposts Captain George Washington was charged to lead a small expedition into the Ohio River Valley to evict the French from land the British claimed to be their own A short battle ensued and the small battle ignited into the much larger war that had been brewing for several years prior It was a battle of Protestant Britain versus Catholic France and its ally Catholic Spain The size of this struggle was matched only by the absolute triumph enjoyed by British at the end of the war in 1763 Now Native Americans had largely allied themselves with the French and with their loss they could not play the great power in the middle The British felt that they could now treat them as conquered people and British settlers in North America were predisposed to exact revenge Post Seven Years War in North America was characterized by the same chaos that characterized the 17111 century The British victory also meant a rise in patriotism amongst colonists in North America They were proudly British citizens however the debt acquired from funding the Seven Years War lead the empire to impose many unwanted taxes on colonists 15 What was the Whig View of politics and how did it shape the way events in North America from 1763 to 1776 were perceived Why did SOME people in the British Empire declare for independence while others remained loyal to the Crown The Whig party was the dominant party in British North America It was the party of more common individuals They were advocates of Constitutional monarchism or mixed government with legislative supremacy rooted in parliament The British constitution was a mixed balanced system of representative government comprised of three components the Crown the aristocracy and the People Whigs were not against the Crown but were against the idea of absolute monarchy or the existence of a supremely powerful autocratic King therefore they were fierce advocates for the English Bill of Rights which established protected civil liberties The Whigs also believed that history was a science that could be studied to know essential truths about human kind One of the most essential lessons learned from studying history was that liberty was very fragile They also believed that human nature was fundamentally corrupt The temptation and abuse of power was inevitable and it was only a matter of time before liberty would be trampled upon by ambition and selfish desire Knowing this Whigs were paranoid and were prepared to find potential corruption and potential tyranny in any new set of laws or political players Colonists had believed that the empire was a shared endeavor between equals and that a British colonist was not less equal than a British subject in Great Britain however in Great Britain the empire looked quite different They believed that colonists were dependent on them and owed their allegiance They believed colonists to be subordinate to the center and could be dictated to Leading up the revolution colonists began to realize they had been sorely mistaken After the Seven Years War Great Britain had an enormous debt to pay off and had to pay for the administration of new land that it had acquired from France George Grenville the Prime minister first attempted to limit the cost of colonial protection by instating the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade British settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains A standard army in North America was then provided to govern the line To colonists it seemed outrageous to have a standing army in a period of peace They felt that the empire was siding with the savages instead of fellow subjects They felt that the soldiers were prohibiting them from participating as British subjects within the basic political operation of the colonies You needed land to vote and they were not allowed to gain more land Furthermore to pay for this garrison along the proclamation line Great Britain instituted the American Revenue Act or the Sugar Act of 1764 This placed a direct tax on the importation of sugar and molasses into British North America Colonists felt that this taxation was illegal because they had no direct representation in Parliament To which Parliament responded by stating that colonists were virtually represented because Parliament inherently spoke for all British people This tax was doubly evil for colonists because violation of the act was tried in a military court with no jury All people were presumed guilty and had to prove their innocence reversal of the principle enshrined by the English Bill of Rights The Stamp Act of 1765 was another tool to derive revenue that would help pay for the empire It was essentially a tax on paperall public business all legal forms all newspaperseven playing cards They all needed a special stamp that proved that an individual had paid taX on it The problem with this taX was that it angered the WRONG people Lawyers and newspapermen Printers would quite likely rally a protest movement around the stamp act and lawyers with legal training would construct elaborate arguments against the act Responses to this act were urban protests and the mobbing of excise collectors lead by the Sons of Liberty nonimportation agreements in which everyone agreed to refuse to bring in and purchase any British goods and the meeting of a Stamp Act Congress which issued a Declaration of Rights and Grievances All these protests were written in a way to demonstrate affection for the King and the British Constitution It was framed in a language to emphasize violation of British Liberties as British subjects The law was repealed in 1766 however each side in the controversy learned the wrong lesson and this generated further protest Parliament believed that the debt that they had acquired had been incurred defending the colonists and did not understand the protests They believed the colonists were out of control and parliament could not back down again from a confrontation or else they would lose complete control over North America Colonists believed that there was a conspiracy against British North American liberties They believed that they should keep resisting In 1770 the British East India Company began to approach bankruptcy and so parliament offered a bailout by granting them a temporary monopoly of all tea sales in North America These tea sales would them be taxed by Parliament as a source of revenue Colonists argue that this is just another form of the same conspiracy against British liberties in North America The Massachusetts Tea Party of 1773 was organized in response to this tea taX and this begins to break down from parliament s point of view all authority within British North America This generates armed military con ict Parliament passes a series of laws known as the Coercive Acts of 1774 This closed the art of Boston to all trade until restitution was made on East India tea 1 J J the 39 colonial 39 39 39 and removed legislative control from the hands of British North Americans An aha moment colonists felt their conspiracy theory was now proven The Quebec Act further confirms the conspiracy It closed off all British settlement to the province of Quebec in Canada and created the province of Quebec for French Canadians Colonists felt that parliament was taking key liberties from them and giving them to the Catholic enemies The only colonists against separation the loyalists were mostly concentrated in the Caribbean where the British had not passed such coercive acts 16 Explain how the American Revolution was not a single con ict but in fact a series wars occurring simultaneously First shots had been outside of Boston small skirmishes Then Thomas Paine published Common Sense which stated that the king was nothing more than a criminal descended from criminals that had taken the thrown from opportunity He felt that colonists had the opportunity to begin the world over again King George than responds to the First Continental Congress s Olive Branch Petition by instating the Prohibitory Act that declared the colonists in an open state of rebellion The second continental congress responds with the declaration of independence a formal act of severance between colonists in North America and the country they d owed their allegiance to The rst phase of the war consisted of smallscale skirmishes between minutemen Massachusetts militia and British regular troops taking place mostly outside Boston It was more like a civil war within an empire The British believed that if they could stamp out revolutionary sentiment in Massachusetts they could eradicate all of this sentiment Troops began to patrol Boston to disarm them and prevent any insurrection Colonists were now just trying to protect their homes Lexington and Concord rally militia members Regulars are coming As war expanded in scope and size so did distinct American and British camps The second phase began when Britain failed to invest suf cient resources into the con ict and it grew into a much larger war This bought the continental congress time and permitted them to begin raising its own army and to begin printing its own money to pay for this army The continental army was immensely limited on resources and man power and it was enlisted to ght against the most powerful military machine in 1776 Commanderinchief George Washington very quickly learned the art of retreat Without signi cant allies the war could never be won And so George Washington s hope was to win one great victory to convince potential allies that the continental army had a chance for success This came at the Battle of Saratoga of 1777 France the historic enemy of Great Britain hoping to embarrass Great Britain formally signs with the US atreaty of alliance that granted the US access to military assistance The third phase was a global war between empires The British decide to withdraw from North America not because they had been defeated but because they need to build up their military is other parts of the world that they deemed more valuable The revolution was also not simply a war between the United States and Great Britain the war was also a conquest over western lands a war for control over Indian country Settlers aligned themselves with patriot cause to legitimize attacks against Indians western lands would open up if Americans won The United States paid its soldiers in western land bounties The function of the army itself was dependent entirely upon the conquest and removal of Native Americans This was also a war amongst slaves and slave owners Lord Dunmore royal governor of Virginia in 1775 offered emancipation to any slave who ed to British lines and agreed to ght for the Crown This enraged patriotic forces through out the southern colonies and lead to the largest slave uprising in American history 17 Describe the political climate in the states during and in the immediate aftermath of the American Revolution Explain how the Federal Constitution was designed speci cally to address those developments Political wars within individual states by new peoples that were beginning to de ne themselves as American with a speci cally American way of organizing their politicssociety government As Americanism emerged social and political forms in North America needed to change as well New American way Newly independent states began to reorganize themselves by convening individual constitutional conventions comprised of elective delegates from various regions within each state State constitutional conventions began to write individual state constitutions All states inputted some form of republican ideology into their constitution which included rejection of all forms of inherited authority placing political power into the hands of the People allowing those People to rule themselves and stating that the law would be the supreme authority in the republic State governments were now radically committed to public education because educated voters could allow a republic to thrive They also dramatically REDUCED property quali cations to vote and hold office Some states argued over the RADICAL potential of words like liberty Things like gradual emancipation and wealth redistribution laws begin being passed Vermont for example thought it hypocrisy to ght for liberty and hold slaves New Jersey even experimented with women s suffrage State legislatures passed economic laws attacked privileges of wealth If all men are created equal how can wealth be distributed unequally This attacked bankers merchants large property holds and the wealthy elite of society Laws were passed to favor the interest of the debtors over the lenders Laws were passed permitting the printing of more and more paper money Many colonists were indebted to both a local elite and Boston creditors who held titles to their farms These men had fought during the revolution and yet they were losing their property because they could not afford payment on their mortgages Rebellions ensued Shays Rebellion 1786 There was too much anarchy in the states and a new and more powerful government was needed to dissolve all of the disorder and chaos The federal constitution responded to this by insulated the voting decisions of ordinary people The new government was designed to be moved from the decision making powers of the people Why Ordinary people did stupid suspicious things therefore the only political body directly voted on by the people was the House of Representatives The object of this new federal government was to SLOW GOVERNMENT DOWN It was against popular disorder
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