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by: Albertha Ryan


Albertha Ryan
Texas A&M
GPA 3.98

Philip Smith

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About this Document

Philip Smith
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Albertha Ryan on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 226 at Texas A&M University taught by Philip Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see /class/226151/hist-226-texas-a-m-university in History at Texas A&M University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Key Terms Teotihuacan 100600 Mayan o Considered the most intellectually advance discovered number zero 0 Yucatan peninsula amp Guatemala 0 Architecture astronomy calendric Cahokia 8001100 0 Chaco canyon Indians had already created complicated and advanced societies Chaco Canyon 8501150 0 Pueblos Indians Tenochtitlan 13001521 Aztec 0 Mexico city surrounded by water 0 Named MeXica o Contained pyramids royal places social classes handmade canals o Warlike amp human sacrifice Inca Empire 12001533 0 South America Ecuador to Chile headquarters in Cuzco present day Peru 0 Road system to any in Europe able to mobilize troops fast and govern Bridges J umano o Spanish s used the word as trader Plains Indians 0 Apacheslinguistically to tribes in Canada o Comanche highly mobile and unmatched riding skills most feared leading Indians in Texas 0 Wichitas and tonkawas Reconquista 1492 0 Regain Spain from Muslims o Conquistadores Religious crusade religious believes encouraged war etc Vaqueros cattle ranching herding of animals Encouraged selfgovernment Encouraged missionary activities First Contact 0 In Texas 1528 Panfilo Narvaez by accident Cabeza de vaca part of the crew Iberian Legacy 0 First whites to encounter with Indians in Texas Cort s in Mexico 1521 o 1521 conquered and plundered Montezuma s Aztec empire 0 Continued until dominion of rest of Mexico Pizarro in Peru 1532 o Executed Inca emperor and conquered them Plundered wealth New Spain 1535 o Spanish s possessions in the New World Cabeza de Vaca amp Estevanico 1536 o Expedition to Texas tales of cities of gold Coronado 1541 o Expeditions to Zuni country con ict with Pueblo Indians o No riches in Texas no further expeditions De Soto 1542 From Florida to Alabama looking for riches and civilized tribes His crew ended up in Texas trying to reach Mexico When they finally did they reported Nothing found further dampened desire to explore Texas Caddo Indians quottechasquot o Northeast Texas Indians 0 Dome shaped homes four families could live there farmingtwice a year hunting 0 Chiefs know as Xinesi government structure 0 Hasinai Indian group Referred by the Spanish s as Tejas St Augustine 1565 0 Florida fort establish due to France threat Santa Fe 1609 0 Don Juan de Onate expedition La Salle 1684 o Mistook rio Nueces for the Mississippi 0 Fort St Louis coast of Texas 0 1687 died near Trinity river Missionamp presidio system 0 Presidio militarized region protected by fortifications Act as government protection of missions and garrison for soldiers Also as ajail 0 Mission guarding compounds as friars attempted to pacify and instruct newly converted congregations of Native people Christianization turn Indians to Catholic religion establish friendly relationships retain conquered territory Nacogdoches mission 1716 o Threat of France in Louisiana Natchitoches at Mobile Bay in 1702 Established by Captain Domingo Ramon Four closely mission Accomplishing two objectives To revitalizing missionary work among the East Texas Indians ward of French encroachment San Antonio de Valero 1718 0 Martin Alarcon military postsupply station Christianizing the Coahuiltecan Indians near French post San Antonio de Bexar 1718 0 Martin Alarcon military post supply station Christianizing the Coahuiltecan Indians near French post La Bahia later Goliad 1721 0 Established to secure bay trade with Louisiana French people 0 Garrison to store provisions brought to Texas from Vera Cruz 0 In 1749 moved to inland toward the San Antonio river Los Adaes 1729 o Nuestra senora del pier by Marquez de Aguayo in 1721 Just 15 miles away from the French Canary Islanders Los Isle os 1731 0 San Fernando de Bexar in 1731 16 families 0 A Villa or civilian settlement 0 Early settlers of San Antonio who came from the Canary Islands Comanche 0 Plain Indian tribe great warriors Attack Apaches and pushed them to Texas 0 Horse masters French and Indian War 1763 0 France left North America and Spain acquired Louisiana New Regulations for Presidios 1772 0 To stop wasting money in Tejas and close all but two presidios 0 Two years before American revolution Age of Revolution 0 Spain lost most of its American colonies including Mexico 0 Haiti became the second independent nation in the Americas 0 Napoleonic wars in Europe destabilized the Spanish royal government Bernardo de Galvez 0 Galvez aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against Britain in the Revolutionary War defeating the British at the Siege of Pensacola 1781 and reconquering Florida for Spain He spent the last two years of his life as Viceroy of New Spain succeeding his father Matias de Galvez y Gallardo The city of Galveston Texas was named for him 1790 population 0 New Spain 4800000 including countable Indians 0 United States 3700000 not including Indians 0 Texas 3179 not including Indians Louisiana Purchase 1803 0 Population of Louisiana 50000 James Long 1819 0 He invaded Texas with an American militia and declared independence Peninsulares born in Spain Crillos born in America Mexican Revolution Miguel Hidalgo Battle of Medina 0 Most deadly battle ever fought for Mexico s independence in Texas AdamsOnis Treaty 18191821 Transcontinental Treaty 0 Florida sold to US 0 Border of Texas defined 0 The treaty defined the boundary between Spain and the United States in North America Treaty of Cordoba 1821 Mexican independence 0 Created the independent nation of Mexico Moses Austin o In 1820 this person made the original approach to Spanish authorities about a large scale settlement of Anglos in Spanish Tejas Baron de Bastrop 0 Received permission from Spain to form a colony in the Ouachita River valleyHis contract with Spanish colonial governor Francisco Luis Hector de Carondelet provided for European settlement of 850000 acres on the Ouachita 0 Used his influence to help Moses Austin and later Stephen F Austin obtain grants to bring AngloAmerican settlers into Texas later to be called the Old Three Hundred Stephen F Austin 01d Three Hundred o In order to settle in Tejas the Old Three Hundred immigrants had to renounce US citizenship Can immigrants being slaves Empresario Alcalde Constitution of 1824 United States of Mexico State of Coahuila y Tej as Nueces River border Republic of Fredonia 1826 0 First attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico The settlers led by EmpresarioHaden Edwards declared independence from Mexican Texas and created the Republic of Fredonia near Nacogdoches Texians and Tejanos Will slavery be legal in Tejas Battle of Velasco 1832 o Domingo de Ugartechea the Mexican commander in charge of a fort at the town of Velasco attempted to block attempts by the Texans to transport a cannon for possible use against Mexican forces at nearby Anahuac After several days of fighting the Texans under John Austin and Henry Smith 0 Come and take it Flag Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Sam Houston Santa Anna overturned Mexican Constitution of 1824 o It meant that a stronger central government might end slavery in the entire nation Zacatecas revolt 1835 o Revolt due to overturn of Mexican constitution of 1824 more power to government 0 Was put down by Santa Ana o Showed Santa Ana s power Martin Perfecto de Cos o Kicked out of San Antonio by Texans o In December 1835 this Mexican general was defeated at San Antonio Siege of the Alamo FebMar 1836 o It rallied sympathy for Texas independence in both Texas and the United States Goliad WashingtonontheBrazos 0 Place of birth of Texas David Burnett appointed president Lorenzo de Zavala vice president Runnaway Scrape o Mobilization of people feeing attacking army Battle of San J acinto April 21 1836 0 Sam Houston39s combined force of Texians and Tejanos decisively defeated an advanced element of the Mexican army and captured General Santa Anna 0 Texas Independence Treaties of Velasco o Signed by Santa Ana gave Texas independence Border was to be at Rio Bravo President Sam Houston 18361838 President Mirabeau Lamar 18381841 President Sam Houston 18411844 President Anson J ones 18441845 Strengths and weaknesses of the republic Annexation or foreign recognition GTT Gone To Texas Differing Indian policies Archive war Santa Fe expedition Mier expedition Statehood 1845 Texas and the politics of slavery Nueces Strip MexicanAmerican War 18461848 0 Started after 6 months of the annexation of Texas 0 President Polk order soldiers to occupy Nueces river 0 Zachary Taylor invaded north of Mexico 0 In 1847 Field Scot landed in Vera Cruz amp marched towards Mexico city Wilmot Proviso 0 To support war 0 No slavery in new territory acquire Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo 1848 o Ended MexicanAmerican war 0 Mexican cession of land 1848 0 Finally fixed the border between Texas and Mexico at the Rio Grande New Mexico Territory amp Santa Fe County Compromise of 1850 o Settled Texas border with New Mexico 0 Solved Texas state debt problem 0 Strengthened fugitive slave laws Cart War Antebellum society planters slaves yeomen KansasNebraska Act 1854 0 Made slavery in new territories determined by popular sovereignty Secession and Texas Texas during the Civil War Indians choose sides Terms of service Slaveryamp refugeeing 0 Texas was considered a refugee state slaves were brought to keep them protected from union army Unionist loyalty in Texas 0 Union League in and around Cooke County on the Red River Gainesville hanging 0 Most infamous incident hanging of union supporters Chosen randomly approximately 150 J uneteenth o The day of Emancipation in Texas African American holiday June 191865 0 Announced by General Gordon Granger as he anived in Galveston Presidential Reconstruction 0 Andrew Johnson appointed president on April 151865 after Lincoln s assassination Appointed Andrew Jackson Hamilton as former US congressman from Texas 0 Take oath of loyalty to the United States 0 Ratify the 13th amendment 0 Reconstruction remained under eXconfederate leaders and military men 0 Maintain antebellum status union soldiers frequently attack Radical or Congressional Reconstruction 1867 0 Only southemers who had stayed loyal could vote and serve in the government Former confederate states should be treated like conquered provinces All means should be taken to guarantee full equality of freepersons with whites President Johnson refused to cooperate States divided into five military districts Write new constitutions suffrage and right to hold office for African Americans No confederate could vote Civil War Amendments 13 14 15 Freedmen s Bureau 0 1865 group of agents helping in the transition of slavery to freedom radicals of the north 0 Referred as carpet baggers Offer health care to those who needed School integration not successful Plight of freedmen White resistance to Reconstruction Sharecropping and tenant farming Redeemers Andrew Hamilton Former US congressmen from Texas Fled to the union at the beginning of the war Call convection and create new state government for Texas Understood that whites wanted to maintain power New state constitution call for protection of life liberty and property of freemen Did not advocate rights of voting or hold office James Throckmorton Conservative unionists Fought against secession later became confederate officer Governor of Texas Confederate views disliked free African Americans Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Northerners trying to make money of the south Scalawags same thing but they were southerners taking advantage of situation Compromise of 1877 o Unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 US presidential election and ended Reconstruction in the South Texas Redeemer Constitution Morrill LandGrant Act Conditions of Texas AampM founding Indian policy Adobe Walls 0 The attack on buffalo hunters o Comanche leader Quanah Parker almost killed Quanah Parker 0 Quanah Parker was the last Chief of the Comanche39s and never lost a battle to the white man His tribe roamed over the area where Pampas stands He was never captured by the Army but decided to surrender and lead his tribe into the white man39s culture only when he saw that there was no alternative


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