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by: Carolanne Tremblay


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > History > HIST 105 > HISTORY OF THE U S
Carolanne Tremblay
Texas A&M
GPA 3.97

Kathleen Barr

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Kathleen Barr
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carolanne Tremblay on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 105 at Texas A&M University taught by Kathleen Barr in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/226153/hist-105-texas-a-m-university in History at Texas A&M University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
82913 NEED TO READ FOR EXAMS The Collision of Cultures Eurpoe Africa and the Americas Before Contact The Earliest Americans western 39 Beringia 0 First migrations probably began about 20000 30000 years ago 0 Crossed a land bridge Beringia PQ Everything was passed down orally so there wasn t much written down to tell us about the native Americans contact Hence the term New World The land bridge came to be because the ice age dropped the sea level It is now the bearing straight They were crossing to hunt big game Global warming happens and the bridge is covered again A second theory is that they island hopped and ended up on the paci c coast They then began to travel down North America and then they spread and developed differently Most were hunters and gatherers Agriculture was then discovered by women because when the nomadic people would travel with the seasons They threw apple core and when they came back around in the migration they discovered the sapling trees They no longer all had to be nomadic They lived near forests because there was more game and water When people became sedentary people began to change Hierarchy developed Having a weapon or many things meant you were on top Diversity Throughout the Americas 0 By 1492 between 50 100 million people in the Western hemisphere 0 7 18 million north of rio grande 0 About 50 million south of the rio grande 0 Between 6 8 hundred languages PQ There was no documentation The only way to determine population is to look at the artifacts Mississippian Culture 0 Centered in central lVIississippian Valley 0 Arose around 600 CE 0 Lasted until about 1500 CE 0 Mound builders PQ The Spanish came over after 1500 CE The mounds were used for religious cerimonies maybe or agriculture Maybe also graves The mounds were huge some were 6 miles long Cahokia is the pic she showed Pueblo Culture the Anasazi o Developed in Chaco Canyon area 0 Arose around 400 BCE 0 Still in existence PQ Eventually the spainards gave up They were looking for gold and silver but never found it They had to adapt to the hot and dryness They raised cotton and wore cotton clothing while other places wore leather They began using dry farming techniques They gathered as much rain water as they could They covered a crop with a layer of dust so they water wouldn t be evaporated through the leaves They had extensive trade networks Goods information dna culture ideas and diseases were traded The Iroquois o Developed large scale agricultural societies 0 Maize o Beans o By about 1400 the 5 Iroquois nations emerged as a distinct linguistic group 0 Mohawk Onieda o Onondaga o Cayuga o Seneca PQ They created a political unit This allowed them to be able to resist the anglos from pushing them off their lands longer than the other groups They were on the east coast The Aztecs o Arose around 1200 CE 0 Capital at Tenochtitlan Mexico City it was on a lake 0 Empire fell in 1519 CE PQ They had to gure out a way to get back to the mainland so Aztec engineering was really good They were also agriculturalists Chinampas were wooden structures they used to build up mud They were anchored in the lake They subjugated over 5 million people They grew crops to send to the capital city They also paid tribute in trade goods Gold silver feathers etc were given as tributes Human sacrifices were done for the sun gods Quetzlcoatl was one of the sun gods He was a sun god and a god of war Huitzlopochtli was a god of war also considered a sun god A human sacri ce was given to them so the sun would continue to travel across the sky The gods pushed the sun across the sky There were uneducated isolated communities that actually believed this and that it was necessary 1492 Columbus The capital knew this wasn t true but they continued to do this for power It was a way to control the population There was a game that if they lost they could be sacri ced This taught them to never give up and to keep trying The Incas o Arose around 1200 CE in the Andes highlands 0 Capital as Cuzco 0 Empire fell in 1535 CE PQ Very extensive empire that did some agriculture and went along the paci c ocean in south America The Incas had to build roads in the mountains Therefore they were also good engineers They had lots of gold and silver that the Europeans wanted Before they came into contact gold and silver was not the dominant form of currency Baitering was more of a currency 9 3 1 3 Africa African Kingdoms 0 At the time of cantact the Songhai empire 1450 1591 dominated W Africa 0 Capital at Timbuktu o Developed complex trade networks PQ Songhai empire had a lot of gold to trade Gold at this time was not used for currency Barter was best form of currency Gold was seen as more of a decoration They would trade gold in cairo and bring back salt They also traded African slaves to the middle east Slaves were more used in domestics West African Society andCulture 0 Family was at the center of society 0 Children provided labor and welfare for the elderly 0 Religious beliefs magni ed the in uence of family 0 Ancestors served as mediators between this world and the next 0 You prayed to your ancestors not gods PQ Islam was very important African religions are a mixute with Islamic and African religions due to the trade between the two places Europes Internal Transformation Europe in the Dark Ages 0 Power vacuum left by the Collapse of Charlemage s Holy Roman Empire 0 Vacuum was filled by nobles and their vassal families PQ Divided empire amongst his three sons Vacuum was lled by nobles vassal families and servants The power layed with the nobles because they had land and armies The Crusades 12th 14 h canturies o Sparked by Muslim advance in the middle east 0 Brought about a large scale exchange of ideas technologies and trade goods PQ Islam crossed into Europe and also went east to occupy jerusulum Nobles set out with their vassal armies to take back J erusumum Merchants followed along after and came to the middle east When they get there they nd silk Bubonic Plague o Came to Europe in 1347 0 After 5 years 25 million Europeans were dead 13 of Europe s population The Growth of Monarch Power 0 By late 15th century monarchs in Italy Spain France and England devised techniques of government that enhanced their power 0 Taxes 0 Used money to create Armies and navies PQ they did not call themselves French or English people They went by their region Consolidation of Power Portugal John I in 1380 s France Louis X1 in 1460 s England Henry VII 1485 Spain Ferinand of Aragon and Isabella wed Merchant Monarch Connection 0 Crusades and increasingly power of monarchs created a connection between monarchs and merchants o Merchants used royal navies to protect commerce 0 Crown gave some merchants monopolies 0 Crown received part of the commercial pro ts when merchants returned from east PQ the merchants were more willing to travel so they could get goods The Renaissance o Merchant Monarch connection set the stage for the Renaissance in Europe PQ Access to technologies like ship building and sailing They wanted people to focus on the afterlife so they had cathedrals like notre dame built Portuguese Exploration 0 Made possible by 0 Stategic location 0 New sailing and shipbuilding technologies 0 Prince henry the navigator PQ portugues were aided by substigies He gave money for military support and navigation They explored the African coast They had maps that showed the African coast They now have a way to get to india They sailed down the African coast and came inso contact with the sanghi They had something the sanghi emperor wanted which was guns and gun powder The rst application was by the Chinese in boats They stopped and began using it in guns The emperor traded slaves for guns and gun powder The Portuguese need slaves because they colonized many islands and were growing sugar and needed slaves to harvest it Reconquista 1492 REMEMBER THIS DATE PQ the kingdom od Granada and spain was a moras kingdom They tried to get rid of outside religions The reconquista happened Columbus came to Isabella and got three ships from her Portugese have the atlantic Italian had the mediteranian The overland routes were controlled by muslims He belived they could sail west and get to the indies In octorber he underestimated the size of the globe and landed in the new world To his death he believed he found a new path to china A portusuese sailer sailed to America and couched south America so they think they have a right to the land Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 0 Drew an imaginary line from north to south about 1100 miles west of the Cape Verde Islands PQ the Portuguese thought they won because there were many spices 9513 QUIZ ON TUESDAY 0 Will only come from lecture o 10 questions 0 Lecture then quiz at end EXAM Johnson throws in a lot of detail but he makes his point If he talks about a person for awhile that is something to look at The places where discussion and slides intersect Look at it We will have a review before exam The Founding of the Colonies English Settlement Queen Elizabeth I o Rivalries with foreign powers combined with support for the Reformation provided the spark of England s initial efforts at exploring the Western hemisphere Economic Rivalries with Forgeign Powers 0 The expansion of maritime trade in early modern Europe created economic rivalries among European powers 0 The dutch played a dominant role in new designs for merchant ships I The heavily armed East Indiaman helped the dutch establish their supremacy in the Indian Ocean PQ When we think about the Netherlands we don t think about power But all in all they were very powerful They traded heavily throughout asia Colonies provided raw materials and markets So they needed to eastablish colonies England believed that is they didn t get into the settlement game they would be left behind economically The Reformation o In 1517 a young professor of sacred scripture Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Catholic Church in Wittenberg Ger39many PQ Relics and corruption There were statues you could buy and play to If you bought indulgences it was like a get out of purgatory free card So basically heaven was for people with money Martin Luther said that this was wrong When he did this he had no intention of starting a fire He just didn t want rich people to be taken advantage of and the poor people to feel as though they wouldn t go to heaven The gained protestant followers They were for the most part Germans The Reformation in England 0 In 1533 the pope denied King Henry VII s petition for an annulment of his marriage to Katherine of Aragon o In 1534 the English Parliament made the English monarch head of the Church of England PQ Katherine was Ferdinand s daughter Katherine didn t have a boy so he wanted a annulment Pope said no because it wasn t a good reason and it could start war He went to parliament which made him able to divorce Katherine He marries his girlfriend who had a girl and was beheaded On the day of Henry VII s death his only son Edward became king at 16 His sister Mary the first daughter becomes queen She was so determined she persecuted people who did not go to catholic school She reigned for 3 years Then Elizabeth the lst reigned for 15 years It is during Elizabeth s reign that angloism gets the stamp of approval So conquistadors came to new Spain But they were more of normal people but with more nobility But why would nobles come to a new world They get off a ship and come to a place that is very uncolonized They came in part because there was gold and silver glory for the Spanish crown land They had built in labor to do things for them so they imported labor They were not always kind to the labor force The Black Legend 0 Refers to a View of spain and its people sd psrticularily cruel prejudiced and greedy 0 Two sources 0 The writings of baltolome de Las Casas a Spanish bishop who wrote a vivid account of the conquistadors brutality t0 the Indians 0 European Protestants hostile to Catholic Spain PQ He wrote it so we could hear the voices of the people Hence the title voices and freedom He saw freedom differently for men and women He talks about Bartolome When he talks about the account with the native Americans he says that they were treated terribly Roanoke Island 0 In 1585 Walter Raleigh with a royal charter from the queen attempting to establish a colony at Roanoke Island 0 Raleigh and Capt John White returned to England in 1587 0 They were unable to return until 1590 I When they returned no settlers were found PQ The Spanish armatta were happening in England so it prevented then from coming back soon Jamestown o In 1607 the London group of the Virginia Company founded a colony at Jamestown 0 Over the next three years about 4 5 s of the population dies from starvation and disease PQ because it was not a religious venture they did not have as much success getting the native Americans to help The men who came to Jamestown were not farmers or fisherman Middleclass came to find gold Johnson talks about English people sort of getting experience in settlement in Ireland They had gone over to Ireland with English people and established there English people had Irish people as a labor force When they came to America they assumed the native Americans would be their labor force In 1609 the Virginia Company became a joint stock company A joint stock company is when many investors own a company The advantages are that there is not a whole lot of risk A disadvantage is that you do not make a lot of money because it is all spread amongst people The Dutch created the first one The creation of a joint stock company turned around the fortunes of Jamestown They appointed a resident governor and a counsel It is true that this counsel had no real power But it showed a representative government In 1610 150 more men came thus stabilizing the economy 91013 FIRST QUIZ Sir Thomas Gates 0 Lawes Divine Morall and Martiall 0 Established a strict legal code for the colonists o Dealt with increasing tensions between settlers and Indians PQ If you don t work you don t eat or stay in the colony Tense relationship between native Americans and settlers They had very different ideas about property British thought of property as enclosure As land became for valuable people began to enclose their land in Britian before that it was mutual land Natives couldn t see land and water as being owned Natives took things from the English settlers Ifthe Indians saw something they wanted they took it Thomas Gates tried to deal with this John Rolfe o Introduced Oronoco a variety of West Indian tobacco into English markets 0 Caused resentment among Indians as their land was increasingly taken over for planting PQ SIGNIFICANT Comes into Jamestown from the Caribbean by James Rolfe Land was being put under cultivation and the native Americans were being pushed off King James HATED tobacco He said it made your breath stink it ruined your teeth He allowed it to be traded there because England got money Tobacco gave the colonist an economic foundation SIGNIFICANT 1618 the joint stock company instituted what is called the headright policy Anyone who bought a share of the company and could transport themselves to Virginia could have 50 acres of land And then 50 acres more for every servant that they brought Once they arrive they begin to buy more land By the 1830s there are a small group of land owners who own a lot ofland General Assembly of Virginia House of Burgesses SIGNIFICANT o In 1619 the Virginia Company granted settlers the rst representative assembly in N America 0 Cultural baggage the English brought to their colonies o Adrive troard selfgovemment PQ In 1620 90 women came to the colonies and were sold to husbands of their own choice for the price of their transportation When the women had babies this brought stability to Jamestown King James I o Tensions with Indians increased in spite of success of the colony 0 King James revoked the company charter o In 1624 Virginia became a royal colony PQ In 1622 the native Americans attacked Jamestown The king sent over an investigative team to see whose fault it was The King then decided to make Jamestown a royal colony It took the power away from the colony and gave it to the crown The New England Colonies Plymouth 0 Virginia Company of Plymouth hired Capt John Smith in 1614 to explore the northern part of England s territorial claims 0 The site of Smith s rst encampment was Plymouth PQ Seperatists set sail on the May ower to Smiths settlement The seperaists wanted to separate from the Anglicancatholic church completely JOHNSON believed this was the most important event in early American history The crisis was that they had a major role in the civil war They and their prodigy were fanatical uncompromising and courageous They wrote and signed the may ower compact The May ower Compact was atradition of the Magna Carta giving power to the people It said they would govern themselves Religious leaders ran the colony In that first year they had a very difficult time They were saved however by native Americans They celebrated with a thanksgiving dinner In reality no native Americans were there They women served the men and the ladies didn t eat until the men and kids were fed Pilgrims landing at Plymouth in December 1620 o In 1620 a group of Separatists embarked from England on the May ower o Became known as Pilgrims 0 En route the men aboard ship signed the May ower Compact PQ Plymouth is actually the size of a backpack Puritans in Massachusetts Bay Colony PQ They wanted to stay as part of the Anglican church but to have it more purified The first 400 settlers established Salem in 1630 700 more came 3 months later to the Boston area 20000 came to Massachusetts bay to contribute to what is called the great migrationIn new England it was religious everywhere no so much in Jamestown Tobacco played a big part in Jamestown not so much in New England Families came to New England from the very beginning so they had stability John Winthrop o Winthrop was the rst governor of the colony 0 He believed Massachusetts Bay should be a city upon a hill PQ He believed others should look at MB and aspire to be like them Some would argue that a sense of religious purpose led to the idea of American acceptionalism Some believe that thinking things like this has forced us into things like Vietnam When anglos began moving into texas they came into contact with Spanish folk who were catholic Anglos didn t agree so texas became a protestant state Johnson talks about Winthrop and his feelings on freedom John Winthrop thinks freedom is Natural Freedom the freedom to do whaat you choose He thought this was bad because it leads to individualism which can lead to evil and moral freedom to do gods will and to follow gods will He believes women should be subservien 91213 1619 were the rst slaves in America Dutch Settlement 1626 Dutch West India Company authorized Peter Minuut to buy Manhattan Recruited Protestant Dutch Settlement weren t in the US for very long very focused on trade Peter Minuit In 1626 the Dutch West India Co authorized Peter Minuit to purchase the island of Manhattan from NA the exchange rate was not as uneven as some historian would say the funny thing is that NA didn t believe in land value and that the ones that sold it to him didn t even live there Recruited Protestant refugees to come to New Amsterdam was a refuge for them Colony struggled because they were traders Not colonizers didn t want to work and didn t know how to farm didn t want to let anyone in Peter Stuyvesant 1652 the colony came under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant still part of the West India Trading Co l664 the British former allies of the Dutch took control and renamed it New York Dutch built wall later became Wall Street French Settlement initial exploration Between 1534 and 1543 Jacques Cartier made 3 voyages along St Lawrence River looking for a North West passage connecting Atlantic to Paci c theoretically there is but its in the Arctic or go eXplored maritime areas of what now is Canada Samuel de Champlain didn t have initial intention of establishing a settler colony came to Canada in 1603 and began a series of 11 voyages agreed with NA on trading terms wanted religious haven for persecuted Catholics Dutch English and Germans were Protestants the Fur trade came to dominate the French settlement in north America Settlement patterns English French Dutch Huguenotsgt French protestants Quebec in 1608 Champlain organized the city of Quebec First permanent French settlement in N America Quebec currently wants to be independent because culturally decedents of the French Company of the Hundred Associates French organized a company to spur colonization gt Louis XIII too expensive to transport settlers focused more on fur trade and that way they could live back in civilization in 1663 3000 settlers lived inthe colony make your money across the ocean and then go home to civilization the French focus on bringing ppl over when they get into con ict with the English the English because they didn t nd goldgt had to settle the colony in another way brought women and families over Colonial Life English Southern Colonies Economy and Society Economy early 1730s economic boom that began in Virginia due to rising tobacco prices land sales in Virginia soared Slavery in Colonial America tobacco prices rising even though more and more was planted gt equilibrium increase of spreading of plantation system increase plantation increase in slave average tobacco plantation gt 200 acres drawing the color line drawing people created it Zinn america develops along 2 different paths the racism that eXist today started when those 20 slaves got off the boat in Jamestown is the racism natural or a construct something people created concem was that white servants and slaves would rise up and revolt and overcome white land ownersgtslaves punished worse than the servants so the whites could associate themselves with the whites so the color line was drawn until 1617 indentured servitude dominated labor system until 1670gt transport to the colonies paid by someone and they would work to pay off their contract not a regulated system conditions were bad for them too No laws to put a limit basically treated them like slaves as well harsh punishment was dominant because it was cheaper than bringing in slaves because you had to take care of them pay for housing clothing transport etc until they died Indentured servants only had 7 years changed when Africans were forcibly brought into the colonies after 1670 so prices go down for buying a slave compared to indentured servants Emergence of Gentry Class Land sales in Virginia surged beginning in the 1730s had to do with Head right policy and immigration into Virginia Settlers moving into Virginia and NC social system evolved that ensured the primacy of the landed class large tracks of land concentrated on a few land owners large landowners were willing to sell small portions of their land tobacco farmers wanted settlers to move into ur region gt buying other stuff but didn t want them to take a big chunk of land gt keps the gentry class in their place until the civil war 91713 PQ Quizzes should be on ecampus by Thursday As we read look where slides and reading intersect Johnson writes about what he considers noteworthy Johnson wrote a lot about John Winthrop so ready that As we read write about each of the people We know how Zinn feels about everything So after every chapter write a thesis for Zinn On Foner read what we have covered 50 questions Long skinny green scantron 50 on front and back Test in this room at time we always meet Carolina 0 In the early decades of the 18th century southern Carolinians began large scale cultivation of rice 0 As rice cultivation spread so did slavery PQ Carolinas were still one then but they developed differently Rice grew along the coast because it was humid They planted a lot in southern Carolina Rice farming was hard work so they brought over more slaves Indigo o In the 1740s indigo was introduced into southern Carolina by the Pinckney family PQ Pinckney was from the Caribbean He grew indigo there Between him and his daughter Eliza they determined it would grow well in southern Carolina Eliza ran the plantation nancially and did it all She raised two sons Northern Carolina 0 In the early 1700s northern Carolina became more separate socially and economically from southern Carolina 0 Slavery slow to take root 0 Pine forests dominated economy PQ They were more involved in ship building and all the biproducts that came from pine Culturally northern and southern Carolina were different Georgia 0 Conceived by founder James Oglethorpe as a refuge for paupers and debtors o Mainly served as a buffer colony PQ Proto industry what would become the industrial revolution People began to come in large numbers to cities A whole bunch of people are out of work London then decided to put them in jail Jails got overcrowded so they sent them on ships to the Thymes River Penocolony very famous in Australia Society and Economy in New England 0 New England economy based on triangular trade 0 Raw materials from New England to Great Britian 0 Raw materials turned into finished goods in England 0 Traded with Africans for slaves 0 Sent to England s colonies in the new world PQ Raw goods going to England and nished goods coming back Wanted to lay out as little as possible to maximize their pro ts The Middle Colonies A blending of the societies and economies of the southern and New England colonies Farming in the western regions of Pennsylvania Maryland and New York Trade in the cities Philidelphia Baltimore and New York PQ Paul Johnson talks hypperbally or exaggeration One thing that seperates colonists is the idea of the land The land god gave them was indeed a Promised one Basically what he says is that it is the land that has made America great Land offers opportunity that Europeans would not have in Europe If you were born poor in England you would stay poor But if you came to America it would be different COLONIAL LIFE 1680 1754 Growth and Diversity 0 In 1700 about 250000 people of European and African desent lived in England s N American colonies 0 Natural increase accounted for some of the increase babies 0 Immigration accounted for a significant portion of the raising population Population Increase 1700 1770 0 Nearly 250000 African slaves were brought to the colonies 0 50000 English convicts mainly to Maryland and Virginia 0 210000 free whites o More women and children Non English Immigrants o Scots Irish 0 Originally came to Philadelphia I Farming I Religious freedom 0 Germans o Settled in Pennsylvania 0 French 0 Settled in southern Carolina and New York I Religious freedom The Enlightenment 0 Based on caoncepts of Scienti c Revolution 0 Enlightenment philosophers applied reason and rationality to human behavior PQ Life Liberty and Property Social Contract Theory An unwritten contract between the governor and the governt When the king doesn t do his job and govern revolt The enlightenment was very popular with some colonists like Ben Franklin There were people in the colonies afraid of the enlightenment religious leaders They feared god was going to be taken out of the equation Creationalism is now called intelligent design Impact of Growth and Diversity 0 Two manifestations of the turmoil associated with economic and social development in the colonies 0 Salem witch trials 0 The Great Awakening 91 9 13 Witchcraft in Salem 0 Began in 1692 in seaport town of Salem 0 Lasted about a year 0 27 people came to trial 0 19 were hanged I 14 women I 5 men 0 1 man crushed to death PQ Lasted about a year Most people were jailed and the youngest was a 4yearold girl He was crushed to death with stones and the whole point of it was to torture him until he confessed to being a witch His name was J0nas Corry Tituba from Barbados had the care of young girl And when they were in her care she were do witchcraft but today we would call it magic like slide of hand The girls went home and told their families that Sarah Good and Sarah Ozborn dancing around re naked Sarah Ozborn was the daughter of an inn keeper Tituba actually admitted to witchcraft and then was released She was released because she was of African decent and they were afraid she was also released because she named the names of Sarah Good Sarah Ozborn and Jonas Corry Factors Contributing to Hysteria 0 Limited options for young girls in Massachusetts Bay Colony 0 Witchcraft turmoil fed on local con icts o Conservative backcountry farmers losing out to the growth of commercial capitalism 0 Lack of a charter from 1684 to 1691 caused concern I Would land claims still be recognized I Who would be allowed to vote 0 Perception of a decline of piety PQ They didn t have a lot to do in Salem so that s part of the reson why the girls stirred the pot We don t think they actually intended for anyone to die Salem town was a seaport it was commercial and it was prosperous Salem Village was not as prosperous There was trade in Salem seaport like capitalism People were doing very well because the market was free Salem Village said that they have a advantage over them so accusing people of witchcraft would get people killed off real quick Charters were made and people were worried they would lose their land So if the proprietors chose they could take the land away The idea of the charter was unsettling and it added to the turmoil As commercial was on the rise piety was on the decline this was another issue The Great Awakening o A religious revival that swept through the colonies in the 1730s 0 Two Leaders 0 Jonathan Edwards 0 George White eld o Proclaimed the folly of salvation through good works 0 Affirmed the need for complete dependence on God s grace PQ The great Awakening was a reaction from the great enlightenment The two men came to preach We needed a great awakening because people were working and making money instead of going to church There was a perception that commercialism was taking the place of God In places like Boston and Massachusetts Bay there were churches built that were amazing but the priests were talking theology he was talking over their heads about Godly things like arc angels The two men then came and told them that it was God s grace that was going to save them Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God PQ The sermon given by Jonathan Edwards was 15 pages long Told them they were all going to hell unless God s grace saved them This kind of emotional connection interested people This was his most famous sermon What did Foner say about the Great Awakening 23 thousand people came to see him speak There were centers of learning created so people could go there and learn out the bible and God s grace Dartmouth Brown Princeton and and Rutgers all began like this By the 1700s religious folks weren t going out to the slave areas to convert the native Americans like they were before A third outcome of the great awakening was the first cpontanious mass movement of the American people They experienced the same great awakening in China like they did here This had a way of uniting people When we begin to think about the colonists they see themselves as a unique set of British people The Road to Revolution 1763 1776 Mercantilism o Prevailing economic theory in 17th and 18th century 0 The total of the world s gold and silver was xed 0 A nation could gain wealth only at the expense of other countries 0 In order to dominate trade a government had to direct all economic activities limit foreign imports and preserve favorable balance of trade PQ Ways to get the gold was going to war or dominating trade Navigation Acts 0 Legislation passes beginning in 1660s implement mercantilism policies PQ 4 acts One made a list of which goods were to be taxed Not all the colonists paid this This was a way to keep the gold there Another restriction items on this list could only be sold to English agents Had to be shipped on English ships Those ships had to be manned my crews that were at least 3 English The goal of this was to eliminate the middle man to eliminate other markets for English goods Smuggling was happening If the French made better mine you would want that These laws were difficult to enforce because of smuggling Another reason why it was difficult was because of the glorious revolution The Glorious Revolution 1688 o Placed Protestants of Orange and Mary daughter of James II on throne of England PQ There were some people that wanted England to be catholicm and some wanted protestism Charles II was beheaded for treason Upon his untimely death James 11 becomes king he is catholic and his young son is catholic too They forced him to advocate William of Orange was dutch The dutch were protestants This was both a political and religious decision It is called the glouious revolution because there was no blood shed Long term Effects in America 0 Bill of Tights and Toleration Act passed in England 0 Set precedent for the bloodless overthrow of monarch 0 John Locke published Two Tretises on Government 0 Established Locje s contract theory of government PQ Toleration Act was the toleration of religion This was done so the government couldn t choose their religions After the ratifying of the constitution we voted This is an enlightenment idea There is a contract that exists between the govern and the governor Protection of interests When contract is broken it is an obligation to nd someone else to re that head of stat and nd someone else Social contract theory has been broken because KingGeorge no longer protects the interest of the colonies French and Indian War Seven Years War 1754 1763 0 Started when the British crossed the Allegheny Mountains into Ohio River valley 0 Ended with Treaty of Paris 1763 PQ 4 WW happened In the colonies it was 7 years When the British crossed into their territory and they argued whos land was whose By that time the British didn t have many Indian allies but the French did However the british still had the largest army The French controlled he port 92413 Effects of French and Indian War 0 Heightened a sense of identity among colonist o Strengthened colonists pride in being members of the British empire 0 Defeat of the Catholic French seemed to be a triumph of liberty over tyranny Problems Associated with Empire 0 How to defend o How to govern 0 Who should pay George Grenville Chief Minister 0 Advocated three things 0 Keeping a large army in the coloies to defend the frontier o Enforcing acts of trade raising taxes by taking new sources of revenue 0 Ended policy of salutary neglect Legislation 0 Stamp Act 1765 0 Legal documents had to be stamped I Affected the most articulate elements in colonial society 0 Colonists called the Stamp Act Congress 0 Formulated Declaration of Rights and Grievances in New York Declaration of Rights and Grievances o Affirmed the loyalty to the king and Parliament but denied Parliament s right to tax the colonies o Englishmen in the colonies were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen in Britain I Englishmen could not be taxed but by consent either by themselves or their representatives in Parliament I America was not represented in Parliament and therefore could not be taxed except by colonial legislatures PQ Parliaments response was that the colonists had Virtual representation Nonimportation Movement 0 Artisans and merchants in the colonies began a nonimportation movement boycott 0 Had a direct impact on British merchants who urged Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act 0 Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but passed the Declaratory Act 0 Declared Parliaments authority in all cases whatsoever Charles Townshend Chief Minister 0 Passed Townshend Duty Act 1767 o Imposed a duty on glass lead paper and tea imported into the colonies 0 Provided for establishment of a board of customs of cials to be headquartered in Boston 0 Another act suspended the assembly of New York PQ They brought English of cials and army into the colonies to enforce act Colonial Response 0 Sons of Liberty 0 Loosely organized protest groups 0 Nonimportation 0 Women began making homespun 0 An indication of revolutionary activity among colonial women PQ Homespun is spinning the cotton into threads and then the thread into cloth A lot of clothing was not dyed because they didn t have time and it was a bit rough If you saw the homespun you knew she was protesting Paul Revere s Engraving of Boston Massacre 1770 PQ British called it the incident on King Street Boston Tea Party 0 In 1773 Parliament passed Tea Act 0 An attempt to bail out East India Co I Lowered duties on tea 0 Colonists opposed to any tax to which they had not consented o Colonists dumped 342 cases overboard PQ Led by Sam Adams they dressed as Native Americans Coercive Intolerable Act 0 Boston Port Bill 0 Closed the port of Boston until damages were paid 0 Massachusetts Government Act 0 Gave powers of appointment to royal governor PQ Busiest port in colonial America Goods were not coming in or out Colonists no longer had the say over who represented them First Continental Congress 1774 0 Met in Philadelphia 0 Not a legislative body consultative only 0 Called for boycott o Advised colonists to arm themselves PQ In April of 1775 the shooting started at the battles of Lexington and Concord Second Continental Congress 1775 o Called for creation of a Continental army and navy 0 Appointed George Washington commander o Authorized printing of paper currency REVIEWkkkkkkk Read Zinn the coming to the revolution tyranny is tyranny There are four chapters You should get to sunrise What argument is he making how is he going about it and what conclusions does he come to Bacon Rebellion Why they wrote history the way they wrote it 0 Spoke very high of the founding fathers Bacon was rst rebellion along with the 18 uprisings there were 6 black rebellions from SC to NY amp 40 riots of various origins Foner there are documents Natives in the new world and davis de las casas Also he talked about john Winthrop We talked about indentured servitude 2 documents Slavery John Peter The great awakening comes to Conneticut 0 De las casas known as the Apostle of the Indians Freed his own slaves and preached against injustices of Spanish rule 0 John Winthrop He gave a speech distinguishing sharply between two types of liberty Natural and moral 0 Natural acting without restraint a liberty to do evil 0 Moral a liberty to do only what is good It meant obedience to religious and government authority following gods law and the law of rulers like Winthrop himself This speah has been used many times by religious groups who feared Americans were becoming sel sh and immoral He tried Anne Hutchinson a woman charged with faulty preaching She sealed her fate as guilty when she said God spoke to her directly which went against puritan teachings o The Great Awakening comes to Connecticut George White eld the whole world is his parish sparked the great awakening Talked about Cole seeing White eld giving his speech He says he looks angelic 3 4 thousand people came to see 0 John peter Johnson 0 Richard Hakluyt Roger Williams Walter Raligh a prono American John Winthrop Cotton Mather calls him a tragic member in history Very smart Yougest student at Harvard Wrote a book about how puritans changed Most signi cant event in US history Land with the Indians Moral libery Revolution issue George Washington Johnson takes a different View Says British leadership were thunderheads and makes stupid decisions All of the policies just made the colonists angrier The great awakeningin response to the enlightenment and the enlightenmentreligi0n people were not happy 50 questions 10 are matching


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