WESTERN CIV TO 1660
WESTERN CIV TO 1660 HIST 101
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carolanne Tremblay on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at Texas A&M University taught by David Hudson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 268 views. For similar materials see /class/226156/hist-101-texas-a-m-university in History at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
quotThe Armada Reading Guide You should understand and be able to account for why each chapter has its particular title Preface lWhat is the traditional View of the Arrnada s goals and intents 2How does Mattingly challenge this View 3What does he suggest instead Chapter I 4Why was Mary Queen of Scots executed Chapter II 5Why did London cheer at the news of Mary s death 6What did her continued living represent the possibility of 7Why was Elizabeth so popular 8Why did she need to be so popular Chapter III 9What were Queen Elizabeth s perplexities 10 Who is Don Bernardino Mendoza Chapter IV 11 What was the Holy League 12 What were its goals 13 What did Mary s death mean to the Spanish Crown Chapter V 14 How did the Spanish war with the Dutch involve England 15 Who was the Duke of Farina and what were his initial plans for Holland amp England 16 How did Mary s death change that Chapter VI 17 Who was William Allen and what does he have to do with the Armada Chapter VII 18 What exactly was the Armada 19 What were its plans 20 Who were the major players 21 What are the risks and bene ts Chapter VIII 22 Who was Francis Drake 23 How did he feel about the Spanish 24 Why did he feel this way Chapter IX 25 What did the battle at Cadiz teach the Spanish about their galley eet 26 Although a tactical success how valuable was the raid in terms of the bigger picture Chapter X 27 What was the result of Drake s foray to Lisbon 28 Why did he want so badly to land in Spain Chapter XI 29 What did Drake destroy that was so essential to the success of the Armada 30 What made the items so important Chapter XII 3 1 Who was Jan Wychgerde 32 What was his other job 33 What was Sluys and why was its capture so important to the Spanish Chapter X111 34 Who were the Three Henrys and what caused the war between them 35 What does the treatment of prisoners from this war suggest about the depth of religious commitment in Europe at this time Chapter XIV 36 How did Henry of Navarre use his Victory 37 What was the result of the Campaign of the Reiters Chapter XV 38 What was at stake in the entire Armada affair 39 What could happen if Spain succeeded 40 What did the signs and prophecies have in store for 1588 41 How does this tiein with Mattingly s comments in his preface Chapter XVI 42 What did John Hawkins do to England s navy that made it so powerful 43 Why didn t Elizabeth send out her superior eet earlier to keep the Spanish in port Chapter XVII 44 What impact did Santa Cruz s death have on Spain s hope for victory 45 Compare the English navy s state of readiness to that of the Armada s How does this foreshadow the outcome of the Armada s mission 46 How did the Spanish get possession ofthe San Francesco 47 According to Cardinal Montalto how would the Spanish defeat the superior English navy 48 Who is Medina Sidonia Chapter XVIII 49 Who were The Sixteen and what do they have to do with the Armada Chapter XIX 50 What happened in Paris on May 12th 1588 51 What significance did this event have on the Armada Chapter XX 52 What was the eet called by the Spanish 53 What affect did the slower cargo ships of the Armada have on the expedition as a whole 54 What problems did the Armada encounter on its rst few weeks at sea Chapter XXI 55 What does Mattingly mean when he says advantage of time and place 56 Advantages for whom Chapter XXII 57 Describe the difference in ghting styles between the Spanish and English navies 58 What impressed the English so much about their Spanish rivals 59 Mattingly says the battle between the Armada and the British was the rst modern naval battle What are the characteristics of modern that is to say modern for the time naval warfare Chapter XXIII 60 What was the outcome of the rst encounter between the English and Spanish navies Chapter XXIV 61 Couldn t they have thought of a better name for it than the poop deck 62 What was the result for both sides of the second days ghting Chapter XXV 63 What did the rst week s ghting reveal about naval gunnery in the 16th century 64 Were the English really at an advantage because of their longerrange guns Chapter XXVI 65 What were the Hellbumers 66 Did the English really have them Chapter XXVII 67 What impact did the supposed Hellbumers have on the Armada s mission Chapter XXVHI 68 What was the tardy miracle 69 Who did it save 70 From what Chapter XXIX 71 What did Queen Elizabeth do about the rising fear of a Catholic 5th Column within England 72 How would you describe the relationship between the queen and her army Chapter XXX 73 What does this chapter tell us about the problems of getting accurate news in 1588 74 How varied were the stories of the eXpedition s outcome 75 What kernels of truth can be found in the exaggerated stories Chapter XXXI 76 On the way home what was the biggest problem for what was left of the Armada 77 What is Mattingly s assessment of how both eets were handled during the whole ordeal Chapter XXXII 78 Who were the FortyFive 79 What role did they play in the War of the Henrys Chapter XXXHI 80 What was the reaction of King Philip 11 upon hearing about the outcome of the Armada s mission 81 How did the myth of the Winds of God arise 82 What does Mattingly say about this myth Chapter XXXIV 83 What did the English do in 1589 in retaliation for the Armada 84 How successful was it Chapter XXXV 85 What are the many legacies of the Armada 86 Which legacy does Mattingly support History Exam 2 Review 1What were the most desirable qualities emphasized by Roman morality 131 0 Roman morality made honor the reward for right conduct which required up rightness faithfulness and respect for others 2Which Roman institution was already fully developed at the start of the republic 134 o The family was the bedrock institution of Roman society because it taught values and determined the ownership ofproperty 3 In Roman religion what was the gods39 primary function 134 0 Roman gods were more connected to national security and prosperity than to human morality 0 People prayed to the gods for victory in war and fertility in agriculture 4What was the name of the yearly festival of role reversal between Roman masters and their slaves and when was it celebrated 13 8 o The December 17 Saturnalia festival honoring the Italian god of liberation Saturnus temporarily turned the social order upside down to release tensions caused by the inequalities between masters and slaves 5 How did the office of tribune differ from most other political offices 145 0 Tribunes were the creation of a special panel of ten annually elected officials that had to be plebeians 0 Their responsibility was to stop actions that would harm the plebeians and their property 0 Tribunes based their power on the sworn oath of the other plebeians to protect them against all attacks this protected status called sacrosanctity allowed tribunes the right to use a veto to block the actions of officials suspend elections and even counter the advice of the Senate 6When did the bloodiest loss in all of Roman military history the deaths of an estimated fifty thousand Romans occur 150 0 During the first two Punic Wars First 264241 BC and Second 218201 BC 7 How did elites profit from Rome39s expansion and undermine traditional Roman values 15715 8 o Rome s elite reaped abundant rewards from imperialism o By using their gains to finance public buildings the elite built up their reputations while benefiting the general population 0 The elite profited from Rome s expansion by filling government offices in the new provinces they could enrich themselves if they ignored the traditional value of uprightness 8Which Roman politician said that Roman soldiers quotfight and die to protect the wealth and luxury of others they are styled masters of the world and have not a clod of earth they call their own 15 9 o Tiberius spoke bluntly about the horrible lives of the landless poor 9 In which way were the violent deaths of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus a turning point in the history of the Roman republic 15 8 160 0 When the tribunes Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus agitated for reforms to help poor Romans their opponents in the Senate resorted to murder to curb them 0 The violent deaths of the Gracchus brothers and so many of their followers introduced a deep rupture in Roman elite politics 0 Members of the elite divided themselves either as quotsupporters of the common people or quotsupporters of the best peoplequot this split in the elite made political cooperation in service of the republic a lost cause 10 How and why did the Social War which took place between 91 and 87 BC arise 161 o Sulla exploited the dirty secret ofpolitics in the late republic traditional values no longer restrained commanders who prized their own advancement and the enrichment of their troops above peace and the good of the community 0 Sulla wielded his client army as a weapon to extort the consulship and dominate the Senate perverting the Roman notion of honor and his opportunity came when Rome s Italian allies rebelled in frustration at their being denied citizenship o The Italians discontent finally erupted in 9187 BC in the Social War 11 When and under what circumstances was the First Triumvirate of Pompey Crassus and Caesar formed 164 o In 60 BC Pompey Crassus and Julius Caesar joined in an unofficial power sharing arrangement 0 Their combined power proved unstoppable Pompey rammed through laws confirming his eastern arrangements and guaranteeing land for his troops thus affirming his status as a generous patron Caesar gained the consulship for 59 BC along with a special command in Gaul allowing him to build his own client army financed with plunder and Crassus received financial breaks for the Roman tax collectors in Asia Minor whose support gave him political clout and in whose business he had invested 12 Although Julius Caesar had won the civil war by 45 BCE and appointed himself dictator how and why did he preserve traditional republican offices and elections 166 o By 45 BC Caesar had won the civil war but faced the problem of how to govern a shattered republic only a strong sole ruler seemed capable of ending the cycle ofviolence but the oldest tradition of the republic s elite was its hatred of monarchy 0 Elections for offices continued for example but Caesar controlled the results by recommending candidates to the assemblies which his supporters dominated Naturally his recommendations were followed 13 If the Roman generals Sulla c138 78 BC Pompey 106 48 BC and Iulius Caesar 100 44 BC can be said to have anything in common what was it 167 o The quotliberatorsquot had no concrete plans for reviving the republic 14 What was the Second Triumvirate 173 o Octavian Antony and a general named Lepidus then joined forces to eliminate rivals they forced the Senate to recognize them as an official emergency panel for quotrebuilding the state 0 With no checks on their power they began to murder their enemies and confiscate their property 15 Because by 27 BC Augustus39s only title meant quotfirst man what is his government often called 172 o Principate 16 Under the rule ofAugustus what was the purpose of elite culture and popular entertainment 182 0 To express the legitimacy of his transformed system of government 17 What were the fundamental differences between slavery in Rome and in Greece 180 o Slaves occupied the lowest rung in society s hierarchy 0 Rome gave citizenship to freed slaves a policy meaning over the long term that many Romans were the descendants of slaves o All slaves could hope to acquire the rights of a free citizen and their descendants if they became wealthy could become members of the elite 18 When much of Rome burned in 64 AD who did the emperor Nero publicly blamed the fire on 186 0 He outraged the senators by making them attend his singing performance and by bankrupting the treasury to pay for his building project and a trip to sing all over Greece 19 When Tacitus c 56 120 AD remarked quotWe just have to wait for the bad ones to pass and hope for good ones to appear who or what was he referring to 187 o Domitian s reign 20 What characterized the reigns of the five quotgood emperorsquot 96 180 CE 0 They succeeded one another without murder or conspiracy the economy continued strong and the army remained obedient 0 Their reigns marked the longest stretch in Roman history without a civil war 21 In the decentralized Roman tax system what happened to provincial officials who failed to collect enough funds 190 o The decentralized tax system required public service by the provincial elites the government s financial wellbeing absolutely depended on it o If there was a shortfall in tax collection or local finances these wealthy men had to make up the difference from their own pockets 22 Why did Romanization have less effect in the eastern provinces than in the west 19 2 o Romanization affected the eastern provinces less they retained their Greek and Near Eastern character daily life continued to follow traditional Greek models 0 While retaining their local languages and customs the eastern social elites easily accepted the nature of Roman governance the emperor was their patron and they were his clients with the mutual obligations this traditional relationship required 23 Why did the Roman governor Pontius Pilate r 26 36 AD execute Jesus of Nazareth 197 o Fearing Iesus might ignite a Jewish revolt the Roman governor Pontius Pilate ordered his crucifixion the usual punishment for rebellion in Jerusalem 24 How did early Christians go about resolving disputes over doctrine and practice in the latter first and second centuries 201 o Believers began transforming their faith into a religion organized to survive indefinitely instead of an apocalyptic offshoot of Judaism predicting the immediate end of the world 0 To make this change they tried to achieve unity in their beliefs and created a hierarchical organization to impose order on congregations 25 What was the most popular of the philosophies espoused by upper class Romans 205 o Stoicism 26 What effect did debasing the imperial coinage have 206 o In desperation at their financial problems some emperors responded to rising prices by debasing imperial coinage in a vain attempt to cut government costs Debasement of coinage meant putting less silver in each coin without changing its face value and therefore creating more cash with the same amount ofprecious metal 27 The difficulties facing Rome in the third century AD convinced the emperor Decius of the need to appease the gods So between 249 and 251 what did he do 208209 0 Polytheists explained these horrible time in the traditional way the state gods were angry because the presence of Christians who denied the existence of the Roman gods and refused to participate in their worship 0 Decius conducted systematic persecutions to eliminate Christians as a way to regain the goodwill of the gods he ordered all inhabitants of the empire to prove their loyalty to the state by participating in a sacrifice to its gods Christians who refused to join in were killed 28 When Diocletian came to power in 284 how did he indicate his autocratic intentions 215 o Diocletian proclaimed himself dominus master 0 Roman imperial rule from Diocletian onward is therefore called the dominate o Senators consuls and other traditional republican offices continued to exist but the emperors held all the power so they reigned as autocrats true sole rulers 29 To what does the term tetrarchy under Emperor Diocletian r 284 305 refer to 216 0 quotRule by four Diocletian s attempt to keep imperial government from being isolated at the center and to prevent civil war over who should be the neXt emperor 30 In 395 the Roman Empire was formally divided into two halves where were the capitals 218 o Constantinople was the eastern capital Constantinople had been reconstructed and renamed by Constantine in 3 24 as his quotnew Rome he had chosen it for its geography on an easily fortified peninsula controlling routes for trade and troop movements 0 Honorius made Ravenna the western capital because it was a naval base and an important commercial city 31 Who ruled the four divisions of the empire 216 o Diocletian appointed three quotpartnersquot so he and they could govern cooperatively in two pairs both consisting of a senior quotAugustusquot with a junior quotCaesarquot as his adopted son and designated successor 32 What convinced the emperor Constantine of the truth of Christianity 232 o Constantine changed the empire s religious history forever by converting to Christianity He chose the new faith because in the belief that he would receive divine protection for himself and the empire 33 The Edict of Milan promulgated by Constantine in 313 declared what exactly 2 21 o The Edict of Milan of 313 proclaimed free choice of religion for everyone and referred to the empire s protection by quotthe highest divinity an imprecise term meant to satisfy both polytheists and Christians 34 Following the emperors39 conversion to Christianity how did Iews fare 224 0 Jews rejected the new state religion so fourthcentury and later emperors placed legal restrictions on them 0 By the late sixth century they increased the pressure on Jews to convert to Christianity by barring them from making wills receiving inheritances or testifying in court made Iews into secondclass citizens 35 Which developments illustrate the growing in uence of the church in state affairs 2 27 o The final development that promoted the spread of Christianity was the creation ofa hierarchical organization in which male bishops became Christianity s official leaders 0 Bishops controlled their congregations memberships and finances became emperors partners in local rule gained power because they could in uence the emperor to direct money back to their religion 36 Monophysitism Nestorianism and Arianism were all part of the debate ab out which important theological issue 2 272 2 9 o The church s hierarchy of bishops struggled to create uniformity in belief and worship to ensure it members spiritual purity and to maintain its authority over them these leaders clashed over theology 0 Questions about the nature of the Trinity of Father Son and Holy Spirit which orthodoxy defined as a unified coeternal and identical divinity caused the worse con ict 0 Arianism eliminated the difficulty of understanding how a son could be as old as his father and also because its making the son inferior to the father corresponded to regular family life 0 Nestorianism enraged orthodox Christians by rejecting Mary s title as theotokos o Monophysitism refused to agree that Jesus had only a single divine nature they split from the orthodox hierarchy in the 6th century 37 During the transformation of the Roman Empire how was becoming a monk and living a life of selfdenial seen 232233 0 Earned high status lived alone but in communities for mutual support in the pursuit ofascetic holiness 0 Egyptian Christians believed that their monks religious devotion made them living heroes ensuring the annual ooding of the Nile 38 Who saw their authority most threatened by monks and monasteries 235 o The monasteries independence threatened the power of the church s hierarchy monks challenged bishops authority because holy men and women earned their special status not by having it awarded by the church s leaders but by earning it through their own action
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