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by: Albertha Ryan


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > History > HIST 105 > HISTORY OF THE U S
Albertha Ryan
Texas A&M
GPA 3.98


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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Albertha Ryan on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 105 at Texas A&M University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/226158/hist-105-texas-a-m-university in History at Texas A&M University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
CHAPTER ONE Who Came and Why They Came 0 Who 0 Why Unruly gallants Wretches Poor gentlemen Broken tradesmen Rakes Libertines Footmen Husbands Children and apprentices run away from their parents and masters Blacks Shop keepers Saucy young women Mostly middle and lower class They came Choice of death or immigration for criminals Worshipreligion Economic reasons Could retain old customs in colonies Why young men went 0 If a relationship just ended with girl 0 Greed 0 Sent by father to be tamed o Gain s sake 0 Why less farmers Would have to abandon his land Transport goods livestock Needed to have advance supplies when get there Would work on unknown land Would work in unknown climate Big risk to start anew What they Brought with Them 0 Class system Who 0 Genteel 0 Only they served in House of Commons 0 Yeomen laboring poor 0 95 population 0 lacked all rights Barriers not insurmountable Dress Ranking Speech Wealth o Englishman s life revolved around first to last I Family 0 Women 0 More freedom 0 Could inherit land stuff 0 Married man they wished 0 Son If not smart would be apprenticed off early I Village 0 No man is an island I Government 0 National affairs only dimly in uenced people 0 Justice of the Peace duties 0 What they did I Fixed wages I Licenced alehouses and checked that they observed hours I Apprenticed boys in trade I Found homes for orphans Saw to the care of poor and ill Disciplined the obstreperous Inspected roadsbridges Punished all leagal infractions large and small I Keep king s ministers informed on all aspects of local life 0 They were rarely versed in the law It became known as babble a Orders carried out by constable I Called petty constable I Usually yeomen I Chased vagrants I Collected fines I Village police force 0 Sheriff I High constable o Churchwarden I Collaborated with justice of the peace and 00 constable I Supervised the care of poor infirmed and aged 0 Immigrants brought I Tools I Pigs I Cows Sheep I Seeds from English plants I Personal belongings o What They Found 0 Forbidding Wilderness Open elds Few surviving Indians Earthly paradise Flora and Fauna I Turkey 0 O O O 0 Climate nor land radically different 0 Three things only America had I Wood I Streams I Land CHAPTER TWO 0 The Town 0 Who I Ages 3040 I Married I Useful people to town 0 Farms I Open eld system 7 farmed plots of land in common planting together I Closed elds system 7 inhabitants could manage as they wish 0 How created I Dispensed land I Colonist came who already knew each other in England I Site previously cultivated by Indians I Village stretched along a single street I Narrow strips of houses 0 Had 0 Garden 0 Small orchard o A cow or two 0 Planted owned lot 0 Assigned to him 0 Could sell or bequeath 0 Size 0 Depend on social status 0 Location 0 Lower class extreme ends of strip 0 High class got choice spot I Most resettle within town s expansive boundaries 0 The County Greediness 0000000 0 Something Different 0 Would rather c 0 Calendar 0 Julian O 0 When William Hamlet Death rate appalling Excessive drinking People very dispersed Limited amount of tobacco you could plant Must plant 2 acres of corn Must go to church regularly Religion had little effect on their lives onserve than innovate Gregorian New Style Dutch Hudson Valley Germans Penn Old Style English Penn create Penn want diverse ethnic and religious people Have land big enough to hold 10 families of similar backgrounds Land laid out in pielike slices Failed o Settlers not like long walk from hamlet to edge of farms Soon build houses closer to center and thus spreading farms as far as those in Chesapeake Have 0 o Blacksmith shop 0 Carpenter 0 Cooper or wheelwright 0 Church 0 Store Travel 0 Costly and slow 0 Lack of water networks Swiftness of settlement 0 Open up a forest 0 Erect snake fences o Ignored clapboardside houses and used log cabins 0 Use aX 0 Community help When new person come neighbors help him build log cabin then later they help the neighbors by clearing stumps Barn raising I lauds invites neighbors Curb blocking raising the barn 0 Within a few years Germans vs Colonists I Germans o Plowing clearing elds 0 Fenced in livestock 0 Designed deepbellied wagon 4 times size of colonists o Produced new weapon ri e I Colonists o Grubbing out tree stumps 0 Let livestock roam free 0 Regular wagon CHAPTER THREE 0 Intro 0 English yeoman s life differ American Farmer I English 0 Seldom go beyond sound of church bell 0 Short walk to tavem local pub 0 Lots of craftsman 0 Close community ties I American 0 Looser community ties 0 Farms 4 characteristics 0 Cut from daily contact with larger world 0 Selfsustaining to a point 0 Familyrun 0 Small by modern standards 0 Clearing the Ground 0 Innovative responses to America I Ways to remove trees 0 Girdling Cut a notch in bark a hand wide and wait for tree to die 0 Grubbing 7 removing trees by roots dig it up 0 Could only clear 12 acres a year I Fencing Land 0 Fenced in crops fenced out livestock o Postandrail fence 0 Vertical post with crossbeams nailed in o Abandoned in most regions because costly to keep up and rotted after a few years 0 Splitrail zigzag fence Chesapeake region 0 Rails crisscross atop one another 0 Need no postholes o Durable 0 Easy to repair o Easily torn down and reassembled o Subsistence o Farmer s work force I himself sons wife I rarely indentured servants I blacks few 0 Tools limited the farmer I Shovels spades hoes and mattocks 0 Made of wood with cutting edges sheathed with strip of iron I AX o Took a century to evolve to more efficient form I Plows uncommon o Grew what I Corn no part of plant went unused 0 Feed man and beast o Immune to most diseases 0 Easy to raise o No more than 50 days 0 Easy harvest 0 House Extensions I Corn diet supplemented with produce from kitchen garden I Had Orchard 0 Brought with them I Pi gs I Chickens I Goats 0 Welcome in colonies because 0 Easy to transport 0 Fed on anything 0 Provide milldcheese I Hogs o Became staple meat I Sheep 0 Pros 0 Did have wool o Cons o Fussy eaters o Demanded grassy meadows 0 Bit too close to ground left little for other animals to eat 0 Docile 0 Easy prey to wolves I Horses 0 Too small to use but for riding I Cattle Swine Could eat them Was cash income Became the rst major industry More valuable than land 0 Branded by special notching on ear 0 Nature vs Farm 0 North Wheat blast ruin harvests Jimsonweed Jamestown Weed 0 Drive cattle berserk 0 Men become natural fools Pests o Gnats mosquitoes bedbugs roaches hordes of ies New Predators o Wolves wildcats black bears o Raccoon 0 Eat corn 0 Passenger Pigeons maize thieves Weather 0 Too little rain 0 Snow 0 Drought 0 Hailstones 0 First ever hurricane noted Two Kinds of Farms Walls 0 Stone 0 Postrail fence House 0 Small 0 Unpainted o In unshaded clearing o If next to tree could fall and hit house 0 Shingles would rot if in shade o Faced South 0 Chimney Behind the House 0 Barn 0 Hold livestock 0 Store fodder o Thresh grain 0 Keep tools 0 Chicken coop 0 Wagon shed o Smokehouse Well No more than 50 acres NO farm selfsuf cient Would rather have longrun nancial security of familyunit than take risks and have huge pro t 0 South I Houses 0 Shoddy o Carelessly managed o Disgustingly shabby Tobacco Fa1ms o Eager to produce large cash crop that other parts of farm rot away 0 Work 0 Begin late Feb 0 Had to be closely cared for 0 End Late NovDec 0 Did not leave much time to X other thing on farm I Neglect Orchard 0 A New Breed of Man 0 Semiisolated o Came to be known Jack of all trades CHAPTER FOUR o Makeshift Beginnings 0 Housing I Pitched tents I Dug caves I Solution to housing shortage o Sod Houses Dig big pit in ground stabilize walls with planks cover with spars for roof 0 o Huts 20ft X 20ft half a story high loft chimney Shutters keep winter wind out o Doorways Small 0 Wretched Dwellings 0 Doors I Door ties instead of hinges Bare oor No windows No furniture Board with sticks table 00000 0000 o Dank dark drafty 0 Log cabins o Ideally suited for inexperienced newcomer 0 Better and tighter drafts 0 But for some reason no many people built them 0 Mansions for rich 0 The Floor Plan 0 When colonist come over want to make houses like they lived in before 0 Features 0 O I Substitute shingles for thatched roofs I Cellar Generally unknown in England I Fireplaces 0 North 0 Because colder winters and abundance of wood 0 Larger replaces 0 Located centrally in house 0 South 0 End of house to dissipate heat in summer 0 Made of brick Standardized oor plans I Because speed was necessary to help out all new colonists coming in at once I No rooms assigned functions bathroomkitchen ect I All family members used same privy outside House Expansion I Cooking area moved 0 North 0 moved out ofhall called keeping room best room 0 Would keep guests there entertained 0 South 0 Detached from house Fire Place I Had tools to handle fire I Lots of wood to keep it going I Twice the size of English fireplace I Soot accumulated quickly 0 Drop chicken down to clean Furnishings I Chairs and benches 0 Not common but if did have one Father sat there I Bed 0 Were rare 0 More common was bed roll or shake down 0 Trundle bed for infants 0 Could hinge bedstead to wall 0 Most common mattress stuffed with rags corn husks or bits of wool I Table called board 0 No individual settings shared with another person CHAPTER FIVE 0 Some 2 nmntinn and 0 Family was extended rather than nuclear FALSE I Extended 7 servants apprentices and other nonkin I Nuclear 7 Fahter mother children I False because there is no way all of an extended family could live in a 20 x 20 house 0 Children in family were numerous TRUE I Average house between 710 but not all kids in house at once 0 Marriage age was early FALSE I Married late 0 Women 7 early twenties 0 Men 7 Late twenties Morality Rate for Infants and mothers at childbirth high MUCH EXAGGERATED I Really only one out often 0 Life expectancy low FALSE I Lived around three score and 10 years 0 Men and women married 2 or more times b c death of spouse MUCH I39 mu 0 EXAGGERATED I Because of high life expectancy remarriage didn t happen that much 0 Factors that shaped American Family I English background 0 Disagreement on proper way to raise children I Ethnic and religious factors I No man was an island 0 From age 3 children contributing to family unit 0 The Clan 0 Because of waning village life they transferred it to the family 0 Clan 7 a community of kinfolk I Took care of it s orphaned ill and indigent o Chesapeake Region the form and strength of the social bonds were direct corollaries of the fragility of life 0 Even if members of clan hate each other they still get together and help matters get solved 0 get together and help matters get solved 0 Women 0 Quote by John Winthrop A young woman had lost her understanding and reason because she had given herself wholly to reading and writing and written many books She would have kept her place if she had attended to household affairs Roles in family I No longer limited to household chores I Became the husband s partner in the elds Differences in 3 types of women I Immigrant woman 0 Single Between 18 and 25 years old Indentured servant Forbade to marry until completed her contract Exposure to malaria 0 made her susceptible to more deadly diseases 0 weakened her and failed to survive childbirth o Easily exploited by master 0 Some 20 had bastard children 0 Quickly married when free 0 Mainly because men outnumbered women 7 to l 0 Women so rare that none could be overlooked o 12 of children not reach maturity o If lived to age 45 usually outlived husband 0 Gained some of husbands property 0 Enjoyed great respect 0 Could remarry 0 Could now be choosy about husband because she has property to offer and labor if she has children I Native Born Daughter 0 Seldom in servitude o Marry younger 16 12 years old 0 20 of women still pregnant before married like before 0 Home her domain I Salem Women 0 Men and women both live long 0 Infant morality low 0 Children live to maturity 0 Salem change from farming village to mercantile town 0 Husbands become gunsmiths coopers cutters so on 0 Less dependent on agriculture 0 Wife s share in family economic production fell 0 Forced back into traditional role Children 0 Taught early about horrible punishments waiting in hell for those who did not listen to parents 0 How strict I Parents strict but also loving I Stricter parents 0 Congregationalists Presbyterians Quakers I Less strict o Anglicans Dutch Lutherans I Parents saw childhood as time to be enjoyed as much as possible Given chores I Keep them underfoot I Not supervised very much Move toward adulthood in straight line no miseries of adolescence I No awkward age I No generation gap 0 What parent taught child continued with next generation and so on Leaving I Apprenticeship I New child born South I Death rates really high I Lose at least one parents before reach maturity I Go live with relatives I Separated from siblings if unlucky I Cheated out of inheritances or exploited 0 Children s court tried to protect them Education I Haphazard in the way of distribution I Grammar schools free for poor I Plymouth 0 No schools until 1670 s I Make the plow and leaming go together 0 Women not allowed to learn 0 Up to father to teach 0 Son must learn to add so he knows that family is getting good price for corn or whatever 0 Needs to know how to write so can be involved with public affairs Addendum 0 Many more could read than write CHAPTER SIX A Physical Checkup 0 Bad teeth 0 Better in north than south I Chesapeake south 0 Have 80 morality rate from disease by polluted wells 0 Health improved with orchards 0 Fresh fruit supplemented ciders for drinking water 0 Malaria bad 0 It wouldn t kill but rather called the great debilitator I Andover very healthy city 0 Settlers better nourished and except for malaria outbreaks were better able to resist disease I The absence of concentrated populations reduced the severity of epidemics o What They Ate 0 Every settlement had starving time I First settlers too weak when arrive I If had enough energy there were still drawbacks 0 Few were familiar with guns 0 Few household could serve up a hardy meal I Meals leaner in winter 0 Meals I English 0 They were picky and had tasteless meals 0 Likes 0 Took all sh from water except salmon o Huckleberries blackberries strawberries apples 0 Dislikes 0 Salmon 0 Sweetwhite potatoes 0 Vegetables I Thought they were unhealthy raw I When did eat them overcooked them and lost nutritious value I Dutch 0 Oysters o Cabbage 0 Cookie Dutch word koekje o Cruller Dutch word krulle I German 0 Cabbage o Waf es o Sauerkraut 0 Diet became Americanized by lSt generation 0 Added protein to keep healthy I Roaming pig 0 Bad teeth I Like sugar a lot 0 Came in white cones 0 Family use one cone a year o What They Drank Substitutes o Molasses Honey Maple sugar M uscovada unre ned sugar 000 o Distrusted water 0 Milk from goats 0 None of I tea coffee or chocolate I In beginning no wine or beer 0 Whiskey I Grain and corn was mashed together and distilled into it 0 Reason for Orchards I Fruit converted to drink 0 Alcohol I Excessive drinking remained common I Wine 7 rich people I Beer 7 common people I North I South 0 Diseases supplement beer and rum with hard cider Preferred peach brandy 0 Common diseases I In uenza I Syphilis mutation from leprosy I Malaria I Smallpox I Cancer Ulcerous spreading sore I Consumption 7 persistent respiratory illness 0 Fever Vary from tuberculosis to pneumonia I Helped diagnose diseases I Example Intermittent fevers 7 came and went at regular intervals 0 Left person weak rarely kill Agues 7 if accompanied by chills Tertian ague 7 chills every third day usually malaria Malignant Pemicious or Putrid fevers 0 Dangerous and often fatal Nervous Fever 7 Typhoid Jail Fever 7 typhus I Cure fever by bleeding out I No medicines given until bowels emptied o The Healers o Colonies did little to oversee practice of medicine but did attempt to control fees 0 Three Branches I American Physician o Called Doctor 0 University Graduate 0 Spent time traveling to and from patients 0 How far he had to go was included in bill I Surgeon o Called Mister 0 Little more than a craftsman I Apothecary o Compounded and sold drugs 0 Not enough customers to keep all of them employed 0 Winthrop represented best medical practice of the time I Nothing got well of itself I Somewhere in nature existed a remedy to cure every illness CHAPTER SEVEN o The Calendar 0 O 0 English changed to new style in 1752 Gregorian New style calendar I Germans Swedes anyone who emigrated from the continent Julian Old Style Calendar I English I New England Congregationalists and Quakers in Delaware Valley had own version of Julian o Stripped of pagan heritage 0 Sunday became first day 0 Christmas taken out Sabbath observed various ways I Dutch 7 taverns open and day for pleasure I Chesapeake 7 strict Sabbath 0 Church attendance required once month 0 Sheriff couldn t make arrests I Rural districts 0 Badly kept Women I Tied to house and farm I Days varied little I Cook wash tend to children I Same north or south Men North I More variety I Work depended on seasons for farm I October harvest O 0 Men South I Broke from winter to plant tobacco o A month before the northern farmers I Same time harvest for northern farmers same time southern farmers drying crops Both farmers on varying rhythms which affected how they each observed the calendar 0 Rites and Ceremonies O O O 0 Few rites and ceremonies Much of heritage vanish in America Marriage I Constants o Negotiations on bride dowry o Betrothal engagement I Difference in the ceremony 0 Dutch and Penn Germans o Preformed in own native language Quakers o Held at meetinghouse South 0 Embedded the Book of Common Prayer Chesapeake 0 Did not have publication of banns let town know that someone was getting married so town people not know because they were so dispersed 0 Instead created marriage license New England 0 Believed that bible said nothing about marriage being a religious rite 0 Was civil affair officiated by a magistrate 0 Very casual Funerals I More of a social event I Minister presided I After burial mourners returned to house and shared a meal Most rituals that evolved combined work and pleasure I Husking bee 0 Men husk corn and women sit around and gossip Court days I South s equivalent to town meeting Sundays I Were about church but also about socializing 0 Recreation 0 0 Fishing and fowling Hunting I Wild horses I Vermin 7 raccoons and opossums 0 Horse Racing I Ruled by gentry o Cock ghting 0 Bull Baiting 0 Winter I Dancing I Card playing I Ice skating I Sledding I Ice sleighing o All of these things were devised to vary the daily drudgery But not a single rite or ceremony or holiday united them even for a moment through the year CHAPTER EIGHT 0 Language 0 New environments freeze languge 0 England I still in process of expanding language I But settlers too isolated to be affected 0 America I Blacks o Terrible English 0 Not because of education 0 Learned from indentured servants fresh off the boat I Naming new items 0 Given short descriptive names 0 Popcorn 0 Eggplant o Redbird 0 New watercourses not found in England 0 Branch 0 Fork 0 Run 0 French I Chowder chaudi re I Caf 0 Dutch Farm bowery I Letter brief I Ghost spook I Riverboat scow I Frontdoor stoop 0 German I Sauerkraut 0 Indians I Hickory I Squash from isquotersuash I Raccoon Mrathkone I Persimmon I Skunk I Moccasin I Canoe 0 Same animal but different name in different region I Spanish 7 Puma I Virginia 7 Mountain Lion I South Carolina 7 Tiger I Penn 7 Panther 0 New Jargon I Immigrant wanted to be called Hired hand or simply hand I They wanted room and board housing and food 0 Crime and Punishment 0 Drunkenness most prevalent 0 Robbery o Ecclesiastical courts I Adultery I Whoredom I Incest I uncleanness and wickedness of life I became called bawdy courts 0 New England I depended on bible on guiding de nitions of capital crimes I Rape presented a problem 0 Became capital crime 0 Death Sentence I For murder sodomy witchcraft insurrection I No attempt made to make sentence painless o Slander I Was a serious offense I Because of the delicate situation the whole country was in if anyone tried to bring it down it could be disastrous 0 Number of Appearance in court I The more times you come the worse the punishment got I Avoided jail sentences I Rather public humiliation o Flaw of double standard I Depending on status the punishment could be different I Social positions determined the quality of justice 0 Rank and Style 0 Determined by I Lineage I Education I Professional training Wealth How you dress 0 Titles I Wife called goodwife or goody I Husband Goodman I If you changed your position on society your sir name would change too 0 Clothes I Best clothes for Sunday I Daily Dress 0 Men 0 Shirt breeches doublet closefitting jacket 0 Women 0 Skirt bodice sleeves gown 0 Children 0 Dressed like miniature adults 0 Colorful clothes 0 subdued the farther you moved into the back country 0 Footwear o Moccasins I Many didn t care about fashion 0 Housewives changed that who wanted to up their social status I New fashion is welcomed as a new language to discredit the old a way in which one generation can repudiate the old 0 In the end nothing like dress lineage or education that determined status 0 It was wealth that mattered CHAPTER NINE 0 Indians 0 No other topic has created so much controversy by historians 0 White man had good intentions I Wanted them to be equal members of society I Tried to protect them with laws 0 Shield from weakness for alcohol 0 Must purchase land with compensation o Misconceptions I Thought of them as barbaric 0 Indian Response I Resisted and were destroyed o Pequots Powhatans Yamasees I Endured long after other trebes because was able to balance Iroquois I Stay alive and preserve culture Piscataway o What English took from Indians I Paths through the woods I Learne d to plant harvest and cook I Culture was not fundamentally altered o What Indians took from English I Diseases I Becam 0 e cultural prisonor because whites have stuff they want Woolen blankets Iron pots Knife AX Gun Alcohol 0 Used to bribe them 0 Usually cheated out of their money for it o Hated settlers because of their weakness to it 0 Culture Loyalties I Indians loyal to own culture enraged whites I Those who bridged gap were treated like second class citizens 0 War I English hate Indians way of war I Carried out conscious criminal conspiracy to exterminate them I Leads to breakdown of their culture The Indentured Servant 0 13 emigrated to north colonies as servants 0 Why come I Hard times at home I Labor demand in the colonies was high I Wello rganized servant trade 0 John Hammond lived in colonies 21 years published pamphlet I Gave advice that you need your contract in writing before you go or it means nothing when you get there I Misleading Information not included information 0 0 Typical Chara I Male I Single I Young 0 North Appalling death rate among new comers Servant could garner a small estate only with the master s consent No real rights as servant Treated bad cteristics 1627 Church Respect for education Watchful eyes of neighbors imposed restraints on mater s conduct to servants Treat them like your own children Laws protected the bonded servant Their wellbeing still very much relied on the luckofthedraw for a good master The Slave 0 O O O O Prejudice 7 an attitude Discrimination 7 an action Common hardships and shortage of hands put difference races and sexes on more equal footing I That changed with series of court decisions that began closing gates of freedom along racial lines Dutch I Less prejudice North I Treated like white servants I Not grow in north 0 They were not main trade routes for slaves taken to south first 0 White servants not want to work in same place as black servants o Promoted white colonies as having more land and less blacks South I Growth came slowly 0 Because of high death rates 0 Questions like what to do with status of child born here Less risky to pay for white servant than black because black had lifetime commitment and could die early 0 At first now legal tradition regarding slavery 0 Viewed as black indentured servants but with no terminal date I Increase in 1670 s Life expectancy increase Risk of buying them lessened Indentured servants became disruptive force New rigid slave code Offspring now become slave too I The slave shippers started picking up blacks from different regions so they couldn t communicate with each other 0 0 Only small uneasiness about enslavement but not enough to make a difference CHAPTER TEN o A New Kind of Enemy 0 War tactics of Indians I Isolated skirmishes I Picked away at settlers I Musket was settlers new best friend I Most were useless soldiers I Took too long to load and shoot gun while Indians shoot arrows I Indians had the advantage 0 New Command I Smith in Jamestown I Rebuilt fort post sentries I Have morning drills I Fatal wound forced to go back to England I Smith told king colonies need help I King refuse to give substantial military aid I Colonist must make own militia 0 Militia 0 English I Only wealth men could afford the gun ammo armor and sword I Wanted to keep lower class down and without arms I More social than military 0 Colonies I Members of local community I Still have to equip themselves I Officers usually gentry I All ablebody men 1660 required to serve I All men had right to bear arms 0 Fear of Indian attack outweighed upper classes fear of revolt 0 War 0 How could a people unable to support a standing army defend itself against an omnipresent enemy that fought war by its own rules 0 The solution had aws that emerged as the century wore on o Adjustments 0 Fight Indians by own rules 0 Went through woods by thinning and scattering men 0 Strategy of total war I If attack town kill men women and children 0 Evolvingtools I Musket o Lighter o Shorter o Coat barrel to prevent glinting I Clothing 0 Wore moccasins 0 Body armor o Darker colors that blend with forest I Swords and Sabers became 0 Axes o Hatchets o Tomahawks o Scalping knives o Avoiding service 0 O I Rich pay or hire substitute I Some not required to go Judges 0 Clerks 0 Magistrates o Physicianssurgeons o Ministers 0 School masters 0 Students South I Denied blacks to bear arms Flaws I Could not anticipate surprise attacks I No centralized command center I No way to keep troops supplied Practice I Every Sunday I Once a Month I 3 times a year Other Notes I Was better at negotiations than actually ghting I Tried to create barrier with string of block houses but failed 0 Flawed Weapons I Muskets always needed repair I Not enough people to fix guns I Even if gun perfect if rained couldn t shoot gun CHAPTER ELEVEN 0 Wood and Water 0 Trees I Obstacle to be cleared I A commodity to be converted to fuel I Above all money I America s chief natural resource I Within a generation settlers distinguish between types of trees 0 Techniques to convert logs to lumber I Rive the log with wedge and axe I Saw by hand I Sawmill 0 Water and wood merge I Use streams to move logs I Emptied extra sawdust in water 0 Not Environmentally friendly I Problems 0 Icedover stream could close mill 0 Draught keep mill idle o Gristmill I Huge investment 0 None other bigger than ship building I Every community with fastmoving water wanted this mill I Try lure miller to them 0 Most important person in village Give choice land lO15 of pro t Promised a monopoly for them Also tried to restrict them 0 Monopoly had time limit 0 Restricted him from charging customers 0 Travel 0 By Water I Average Englishman did little traveling I Colonists lived near water I Drawbacks o Colonists lacked talent to build anything other than canoes o Landlubber sailing dangerous 0 Horseback I Inexpensive travel I Speedy I Drawbacks 0 Had to stop at squalid inns if no farmer could take them in o Paths ran through farmer s land 0 Had to stop and open and close gates No road signs Strangers usually get lost 0 Meetinghouse o It was church but was basically called meetinghouse o Chesapeake took religion more lightly 0 Building community I Neighbors join together and build church I Find location together I Figure how large it s to be I Find someone to build it I Contribute to church 0 Money 0 Supplies 0 Labor 0 Port Towns No such thing as selfsufficient farms Rich planters create stores Trade was everywhere Every port town had a shipyard Trade with ships Lives of people in port towns varied little from those in England Close ties with England kept class distinctions alive in towns as they waned in the countryside OOOOOOO CHAPTER TWELVE o S39gys and Superstitions o All natural disasters were signs of God s wrath 0 But not all attributed to god Satan had a role too 0 Most people believed in them 0 Moon Watching 0 Farmers did these based on moon phases I sowed and harvested crops I Pruned fruit trees I Slaughtered hogs I Cut rewood I Built fences 0 Everyone familiar with I signs of the zodiac I shifting planets in sky I position of constellations o Witchcraft in Salem 0 Problems to start off with I Education generally neglected I Founding members had just recently passed away I New clergyman 0 Elements needed for witchcraft mania I Quarrel between minister and people I Circle of young girls from 1120 years old I Girls met at minister s house and practice folksorcery I Girls manifest symptoms of hysteria I Doctor call it an evil hand 0 Used settlers skill against them I One hanged because she like to be very clean I Another because he could carry barrels with his thumbs in the holes 0 Effects I Population of Salem decreased I Businesses suffered o Addendum 0 Witchcraft happened in other places 0 Accused in Salem never had fair trials CHAPTER THIRTEEN o The Count side 7 North 0 Sarah Kemble Knight went on trip from Boston to New York 0 She noticed these things different to her I No one tried to rob her I Saw Indians I Thought they had too many slaves I Had plain dress I Types of trading 0 Pay 7 exchange for provisions such as grain pork or beef at rates set by government 0 Pay as in money 7 Spanish pieces of eight rials or shillings minted in Mass 0 Pay as in hard money 7 silver coins from England 0 Trust 7 credit on terms buyer and seller agreed on I Farmers still living in the past I Good Health I Social Distinctions minimal I Language they spoke was becoming American 0 The Count side 7 North 0 Vastly different from North I Poor people I Miserable huts I Wide gap between rich and poor I Farms that prospered became plantations I Everyday life pretty much same for south and northern farmers I Chesapeake farmers differ from northern farmers o A third had lost title to lands and become tenants of plantations 0 Religion played a smaller role I Lower than poor whites were blacks 0 Town Life 0 Differed from port town life I Heavydrinking town I Problems that rarely concerned the countryside infected townspeople s daily affairs 0 How to dispose of garbage Firewood once used to be close now was farther away Disease spread quickly Care for indigent became a problem Poor increase and so did crime rate 0 Would have traded places with port towns I Port towns 0 Had public markets 0 Had new dishes and foods 0 Had more varied social life than countryman o Barstavems called Public House I Had chess and backgammon boards 0 Ships come in all the time 0 Had a newspaper


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