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by: Carole Johnston III


Carole Johnston III
Texas A&M
GPA 3.53

James Rossman

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James Rossman
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carole Johnston III on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RPTS 311 at Texas A&M University taught by James Rossman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/226163/rpts-311-texas-a-m-university in Rec, Park & Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
RPTS 311 Test 1 Notes Chap 1 Program a designed opportunity for leisure experience to occur 0 Elastic o Activites Events or Services 0 Design always involves planned intervention 0 Notion of Design assumes I we know how leisure is construed amp experienced by individuals I We know attributes of the leisure experience Leisure is construed by how a participant processes hisher experiences of a program amp interprets what has occurred Programmers must understand that leisure is a state of mind when participants enter freely chosen programs that enables them to achieve personal goals by consciously directing interaction in a social occasion Program provides an opportunity for leisure to occur but can t ensure it does Programming designing staging amp delivering leisure opportunities by intervening in social interaction 0 Predicated on info developed through scientific method 0 Distinctive element of leisure action is that it s focused on the experience rather than external outcome 0 Responsibility of programmer to design a program that will result in leisure experience for participants How a program is staged more important than specific activity itself Leisure is multiphase experience I Three phases of human experience anticipation participation amp reflection 0 Good programming designed intervention that is staged based on knowledge of social interaction amp social psychology of experiencing leisure Program Development overall management process in which the programmer designs stages manages and delivers program services wl context of specific agency 0 Understanding amp developing an agency s mission assessing needs designing programs staging them delivering them and evaluating them to document the benefits that have been provided Leisure social experience constructed through interaction in social occasions 0 an experience most likely to occur during freely chosen interactions characterized by a high degree of personal engagement that is motivated by the intrinsic satisfaction that is expected to result 0 1st Dimension Freedom I Some determined by degree of which they free individuals from social constraints Freely choosing the leisure activity Freedom can create a unique condition for an optimal selfactualization experience to occur 00 Overprogramming can cause too much structure leaving few choices Ex entertaining instead of engaging participants 0 2quotd Dimension lntrinsic Satisfaction I Provides sufficient for individual to continue no external reward is necessary I Determined by individuals past experiences amp current expectations I Selfdirect the outcome of engagement 0 Games leisure experiences w formal rules that define the interactional content attempt to equalized the players and define the role that skill and chance will play in determining outcome I High probability for a leisure experience I Rules must define the focus of the contest amp what exactly is being contested I Chance is used to make unequal players equal 0 Recreation leisure that is engaged in for the attainment 0 personal and social benefits Socially purposeful amp moral incorporates a rightness and a wrongness I Considered to have a specific moral purpose in society I Restoration from toil of work recuperate I Used as diversion from gov t repression war economic depression I Institutionalized form of recreation is used to accomplish socially desirable goals amp objectives 0 Play spontaneity selfexpression and the creation of a nonserious realm of meaning I Not guided by conventional rules of interaction I Depends on the consent and participation of the players I Most difficult form of leisure to program 0 SM leisure that involves institutionalized competitive activity I Determined by the experience that the player has I Rules affect character of game requires participants to possess and showcase specific physical skills I Currently focus of programmers is to improve adults in the operations of youth sports 0 Touring individuals travel for opportunities to experience leisure I Restoration change of pace amp individual purposes I Travels 50 miles from home and stays 1 night I Retirees are a large group CHAP 2 o Sociological Theory 3 approaches 0 Structurefu nctionalist examines basic roles of society the roles amp functions of its institutions and how they affect individual amp collective action in society 0 Conflict examines to role of conflict in a society and how power struggles affect the order of a society 0 Symbolic lnteractionists examines the different dimensions of the construction of social reality through the seemingly autonomous activity of individuals I Relevant approach examines process of human behavior in facetoface interactions I Important for programmers for explaining how individuals structure their participation in leisure o Symbolic Interaction Theory 0 3 Basic Assumptions I Social reality is a production I Humans can engage in quotmindedquot selfreflexive behavior I Both have own standpoint and interact w one another 0 Meaning of objects lies in the actions that humans take toward them I Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meaning that the things have for them I Meaning of such things is derived from or arise out of the social interaction that one has with one s fellows I Meanineds are handled in and modified though and interpretive process used by the person in dealing with the things they encounter o 5 Points of the Theory for Rec Pro rammin o Phases of Leisure Experience I Anticipation discovermanipulate satisfactions I Participation I Reflection influenced by postprogram interventions selling souvenirs reunions 0 Nature of Leisure Objects I Physical balls bats crafts I Social other people leaders friends I Symbolic ideas philosophies doctrines o Deriving Meaning From Interaction in Leisure Occasions I With social objects I Meaning is situationally specific amp negotiated by participation 0 How interaction is Produced in Social Occasions I Individuals take account of each others actions interpret the meaning of each object and form a line of behavior 0 Experiencing Leisure I Occasions of interaction are emergent productions I Occasions of interaction are fragile I People always play a role in constructing leisure occasions I Programmer must help situate the event by providing some form and structure of the occasion I People participating must pay small price by abiding to conventions that come from relational history and rules of interaction CHAP 3 6 Key Elements of a Situated Activity System 0 Interacting People programmer anticipates who the individuals will be or recruit them 0 Physical Setting visual oral olfactory tactile taste 0 Programmers must understand uniqueness of setting 0 Must understand limits of a setting 0 Settings can be manipulated w decorations lighting 0 Leisure Objects physical social symbolic 0 Identify key objects in setting and interaction w them 0 Structure set of rules and program formats 0 Determines how interactions unfold o Programmers make sure there s enough rules to direct interactions 0 Relationships o Programmers can t assume that the best course of action is always to create relationship btw participants 0 Animation how a program is set into motion amp sustained o Programmer must structure in such a way that spontaneous natural movement is implemented 0 Too much direction can interfere 0 Can be done by providing a facetoface leader must anticipate how patron is moved The Service Continuu m 0 Where a program is located in continuum is the ratio of agencyprovided to participantprovided program elements 0 Two issues affect if an agency will operate in facilitator or direct provider role 0 Cost From facilitator 9 direct costs increase 0 Importance for the participator in playing a role in the development of the leisure servnce CHAP4 Outcome Based Programming 0 Addresses the overall effects benefits amp changes to individuals when in a rec program from both short amp long term perspectives 0 Uses to create programs that are beneficial to participants and society at large 0 Inputs items needed to run a program 0 Activities processes used to stage a program to meet participants programmatic needs 0 Outputs overall changes in behavior skill attitude experienced from program Repositioning the way which local officials amp citizens perceive the field of parks amp rec Considered nonessential 0 Challenge to programmers to change this view BenefitsBased Awareness communicating the benefits of parks and rec to all audiences o The personal social economic amp environmental benefits BenefitsBased Programming focus programmers efforts on producing identified benefits for participants as a result of their participation in specific rec programs How it s Done 0 Ultimate goal resiliency in participants 0 Principles page 57 The Model 3 basic concepts 0 Issues amp Target Goals identification of problemissues by stakeholders I Corresponds w inputs in outcomebased programming I Goal must validate the issue I Goal statements must be written to make protection 0 Activity Components specific programs amp activities addressing the target goals are assigned implemented amp monitored I Corresponds w activities in outcomebased programming I Activity component implemented by 1 Performance Objectives 2 Daily Activites amp Procedures 3Processing of Activities and 4 Monitoring 0 Benefit Outcomes programmers evaluate he benefit outcomes as related to the issue and target goals I Corresponds w outputs in outcomebased programming I Comprehensive evaluation plan must be in place 0 BenefitsBased Awareness communicate success to public 0 Corresponds w outcomes in outcomebased programming 0 Will legitimize importance of rec amp parks field amp their improvement of communities CHAP 5 Developing Leisure Products in the Experience Economy 0 Moving towards Experience Economy 9 goods amp services are most successfully sold when they are marketed as contributing to experiences Principal Economic Activity Economic Value Created Extracting Commodities Manufacturing Goods tangible Delivering Services intangible Staging Experiences 0 Leisure experiences are no a category of economic activity 0 A revenue stream is the income generated by a product that can be brought and sold at marketplace 0 Leisure Products 0 Six Methods of Selling Activities to create revenue Streams Product Type Tennis Shooting Goods Supplies Balls rosin Gun powder bullets Goods Equipment Raquets clothes Guns eye guards Services Stringing raquets scheduling court time Loading shells selling time at range Experiences Tournaments Camp Hunting trip 0 Selling instruction in the activity 0 Renting equipment 0 Charging admission 0 Selling equipment 0 Charging for organizing participation 0 Selling needed ancillary supplies 0 Events collection of activities organized around a themepurpose CHAP 6 Using Goals amp Ob39ectives in Program Development 0 lnvolves writing statements that define and delimit an intended accomplishment 0 Goal is broad statement about what is to be accomplished 0 Objectives are the specific statements that describe how goal will be accomplished 0 Written in Form 0 Infinitive infinitive marker quottoquot and a verb of the action taken 0 Subject must have a subject that conveys what is going to be accomplished 0 Measurement Device makes clear how the accomplishment is going to be measured 0 Hiearachial Arrangement relationship btw an agency s mission statement and its subsequent goals 0 Procedure goals originate from top of organization amp each managerial level pass them to employees below 311 Test 2 Notes Chap 7 0 Mission statement defines the agency s purpose and what it intends to accomplish for the individual community or organizations needs 0 Will influence every program in operation 0 Analysis answers the following questions I Individual Who Service wants What services can we provide them I Organizational What are strengthsweakness of our organization What activities events services amp facilities can we offer I Community What are the threatsopportunities in our environ Where can we make a difference 0 Assessing Individual Needs If there s restrictions on the type of services the agency provides it should also be reflected in the mission statement 0 Assessing the Macro Environment needs of a population are influenced by social forces that can be local regional or national in origin I Gathering info about agency s environ on an ongoing basis is important I lnfo available from media gov t issued technical reports political dvlpmts amp entertainment industry Programmers must keep track of national trends amp media happenings in order to seize O on ideas amp develop timely programs Should track what s happening in I Demographics I Social will emerging lifestyles customs or habits affect programs Community O needs are created by social forces Technological internet email Economic entering a new era of the Experience Economy Necessary to ask questions regarding local economies diversification amp stability I Political what is the local political orientation 0 Assessing Organization Needs needs must be met to keep them operating most important being to continue its existence Needs competitive advantage in market 0 Resource Dependency survival depends on successfully acquiring resources needed to deliver services I Is an issue at both organization amp community levels I Organizations compete and depend on each other for resources I Organizations success partly determined by its external environ 0 Organization Rationale offers specific types of recreation programming 8 types of organizations exist that offer rec service I Public recreation amp park agencies voluntary nonprofit organizations commercial recreation clchlplibcb private L ugtlllp oiganizatiuns armed forces rec campus rec corporate rec therapeutic rec I Each group has specific social needs I Individual needs should be central driving force in organizations 0 Assessing the Organization can determine how well it s doing by assessing its strengths and limitations I Commission for Accreditation of Park amp Rec Agencies CAPRA sets 150 standards for park amp rec organizations 0 Marketing Approach to Organizational Assessment to gain a good view of an organizations strengths amp weaknesses they should obtain the key public s image I Image is the sum of beliefs ideas and impressions I It s not possible for an organization to operate all programs to meet every need I Successful programming is measured by how well the services contribute to the mission wi the resource limitations 0 Assessing Community Needs set of common ideas amp shared beliefs that serve as binding force for a group of people Identifying threats amp opportunities in the environ that will affect an agency s delivery of leisure services 0 Community needs by examining organization s external environ market public competitive and macro environ organization will establish it s functional role in a community I Fear that community service that is usually public funded is starting to turn into a service that charges a fee I Recreation is provided to meet a greater community and traditional needs 0 Recreation amp Public Interest leisure is basic to selffulfillment amp life enrichment I By providing recreation resources a community is contributing to the physical mental amp social health of its residents I Local Gov t is the best suited to maintain leisure spaces provided for the public s interest 0 Assessing Leisure Opportunities need to assess the existing range of leisure options in community understanding of the leisure service system role of each provider in community amp understanding of macro environment SEE EXHIBIT 73 amp 74 pg 118 I Overall leisure service delivery system should ensure that its comprehensive services include the following 0 Wide variety of activity types 0 Variety of programming organizational formats available 0 Service opportunities for all age groups 0 Service is available to all residents 0 Community Partnerships adequacy of cooperation amp coordination among providers in a community should be assessed o Focusing on the Individual A sales orientation places community or organizational needs first amp they convince patrons to consume their products Market orientation places consumer needs amp wants first 0 Determine needs wants and interests of target markets to more effectively satisfy 0 Restructure the organization as needed to respond to clients wants amp needs 0 Relationship of the Three Entities to Mission 0 Agency mission must encompass individual needs community needs amp organizational strengths amp limitations 0 Agency s mission should be feasible wl the limitations imposed on the agency by its own resource limits community needs amp by individual wants I Should motivate staff members by giving them clear direction about what they are to accomplish 0 Mission should be distinctive to separate them from other organizations who offer similar services 0 Writing the Mission Statement 0 Its purpose is to announce to external parties the unique role and function of the agency in the community amp provide direction for employees 0 All have an underlying philosophy that serves as the foundation for action in the agency 0 Should state the purpose of agency amp the population it will serve 0 Based on analysis of the threats amp opportunities facing the agency CHAP 8 Developing Strategic Directions Writing Program Mgmt Goals 0 Series of goals amp objectives must be developed to measure an organization s mission statement 0 35 year planning goals followed w 1 year llmgmt by objective type goals 0 ShortRange Planning Goals 0 Goals don t have measurements objectives must be made to make it so 0 Objectives are actionoriented specifying what managerial action is going to be taken to accomplish a task and how it will be judged on success 0 Networking Goals amp Obj Further in the Organization provides further direction amp focus to program mgmt 0 Can further add measurement devices should be developed to provide operational clarity amp to help organization achieve amp document its accomplishments 0 Using Goals amp Obj to Establish Programming Standards goals amp obj can also be used to establish operational standards Used as quality assurance 0 A Systems Approach I Numbers assigned to each succeeding level of goal amp obj development I Puts it in a hierarchical arrangement 0 Helps interpret the organizations mission into desired programs for dvlpmt o Gives direction amp focus through an orderly process 0 Employee effort is networked throughout organization understand their roles CHAP 9 Obtaining Participant Input 0 Practitioners have been admonished to seek input from those they service in developing parks facilities experiences amp program services 0 Several mechanisms for obtaining input from participants and other stakeholders input from citizen board members needs assessment strategies market assessment methods 0 Needs assessment 0 performs 2 major functions generation of program ideas and the facilitations of input from constituents and response to constituents by service providers 0 Two objectives of needs assessment I Help the agency determine the direction it will take in developing program services I Incorporating citizen input in decisionmaking process 0 Social policy literature sought to justify the services provided by citizens by sugeesting that services fulfill identifiable needs 0 Body of literature stemming from political science citizen participation in decision making is the essence of needs assessment 0 How do we incorporate citizen input when making value judgments about what needs actually exist and which should be served 0 Operational principles that explains its limitations and role I Needs are not objective entities they are value judgment I Any needs assessment will identify more needs than an agency can fulfill I Because of the municipality of needs needs analysis is not a maximizing strategy I Is an ongoing process Can fulfill 3 roles 0 provide data to better understand individuals 0 Asses patron response to new program proposals 0 Establish priorities 0 Need Concepts 0 Need one of several constructs used to investigate motivation for participating in leisure I Is a state of deprivation from innate biological characteristics in humans I Exists apart from and prior to society 0 Interest awareness or feeling about what one would like to do or acquire I Learned amp influenced by social forces I An individuals selfconcept can also precipitate an interest 0 M culturally learned behavior pattern for satisfying specific needs I Constantly being altered by social forces o Intention commitment to acquire specific satisfiers of wants under given market conditions at a given time location amp price I Each has diff degree of motivation so requires varying promotional efforts Interest has lowest level of motivation to participate Wants has a stronger motivation O O o Intends is the strongest 0 Many needs assessments instruments just simply find general interests or wants rather than specific market conditions about specific activities I Not specific enough to be reliable 0 Needs From a Social Policy Viewpoint o Normative needs objective standards defined by various organizations and groups that are qualified to do so because of their training or position I The need documented is the diff btw what a community may have amp what normative standard suggests they should have I How much need exists can be manipulated by supply 0 Felt needs perceptions about what an individual believes he or she would like to do I Analogous to the wants interests amp intentions I Latent demands that could be turned into actual consumption I Shaped by social forces 0 Expressed needs fulfilled through actual participation 0 Comparative needs actual variations in services provided or variations in access to leisure opportunities experienced by diff groups 0 Approaches to Needs Assessment 0 Either through group approaches or surveys 0 Citizen Advisory Committees their responsibility is to advise the agency staff or board 0 Public Meetings amp Workshops used to solicit citizen input on policy dvpmt planning issues budget allocation or leisure needs amp preferences I Agency establishes 2way communication w its publics amp facilitates dialogue by offering an outlet for expressing emotion about an issue 0 Interviews a meeting in which info is obtained 0 Unscheduled Interviews facetoface unfacilitated comments amp telephone calls made by constituents to programmers Public comes with complaints comments 0 Focus Groups scheduled interviews arrange amp structured I 3 phases prep for interview conduct interview analyze interview I Can be used for one or more of the following Develop hypothesis Provide info for structuring questionnaires Provide overall background info on programs Solicit patron impressions about new program concepts Stimulate new ideas about older programs Generate ideas for new programs o Interpret previously quantitative results I Keep group small enough to facilitate open communication I Groups should have both homogeneity and contrast I Agood location 0 Interview can be given in I nondirective style interviewer is a facilitator who introduces prearranged questions get the group discussing them amp intervene only to keep the discussion fruitful I Directive style interviewer provides more structure and controls the flow of discussion 0 Analyzing Results results should be organized around the principal questions asked during the interview Should reflect participant views including distribution of views strength of convictionamp new viewpoints elicited during the interview 0 Surveys poor at given info to public but excellent for gathering info I Method of choice to ensure most representative view of all citizens I Expensive should conduct annually no less often than every 3 years 0 Needs Assessment Questions 0 What do constituents believe the agency should be doing Setting objectives 0 What needswants to citizens have What are their characteristics How many are affected Identifying target markets 0 How do target markets react to various service alternatives Product dvlpmt o What should the price be Pricing o How to we communicate Promotion 0 What time and locations should it be offered Distribution 0 Marketing Leisure Experiences 0 Marketing is moving from a focus on features and benefits to on how products contribute to customer experiences amp lifestyles o Focuses on customer experiences 0 Marketing research and tools must be eclectic 0 Marketing is the process of planning amp executing the conception pricing promotion amp distribution of ideas goods and services to create exchanges that will satisfy individual amp organizational objectives 0 Marketing is a social amp managerial process by which individuals obtains what they need and want through creating amp exchanging products and values w others I Set of activities aimed at facilitating and expediting exchanges focused on meeting indentified patron needs 0 Exchange occurs when 2 parties satisfy their needs through the interchange of something of value 0 4 conditions that exchange condition assumes I 2 parties I Each can offer something that the other sees as a benefit I Each is capable of communication amp delivery I Each is free to acceptreject offer 0 A market is the set of actual and potential buyers of a product 0 Segmenting Markets process or portioning markets into segments of potential customers w similar characteristics amp purchase behavior Helps agencies be more effiecient I 5 variables to segment leisure markets 0 Leisure needs and interests 0 Geographic characteristics 0 Sociodemographics o Behavioral area 0 Synchographics I 4 criteria to be met before segmentation is justified 0 Segment must be measurable 0 Market must be accessible 0 Segment must be substantial enough 0 Segment must be actionable 0 Target Marketing Market segments with whom the agency desires to have exchanges I Homogenous group of ppl that have similar service preferences I lnfluence target market through the marketing mix Product Price Promotion Place 0 Target Marketing Strategies 3 different types I Undifferentiated assumes that the entire market will be handled as a single entity I Differentiated agency will operate in 2 segments and design different mixes for each set I Concentrated 2 market segments but devotes agency s major marketing effort to only one 0 Comparing Marketing and Programming 0 Marketing provides methods for identifying needs to develop into programs amp knowledge of how to successfully exchange the services developed by target markets 0 Need to understand the marketing mix 0 Marketing depends on continuing stream of relevant data CHAP 10 Writing Program Design Goals 0 Program design goals are the final stratum of goals in the hierarchy of goals amp objectives 0 Evolve from planning amp mgmt goals that were developed earlier in the cycle 0 Functions to provide definition to a program amp provide direction to design staging amp implementing decisions 0 Describe in detail what is supposed to happen to ppl as a result of their participation 0 Developed w varying roles of specificity should define program design role well 0 Goals are not exhaustive 0 Ex Easter Egg Hunt Design Goals Key Experiences to be Staged I Facilitate each kid finding an Easter Egg I Provide opportunities to visit the Easter Bunny I Keep parents from hunting eggs amp enjoy watching their children Program Design Standards 0 Program design dictated by program standards 0 Agency develops a list of goals amp obj for a specific type of program and standards provide a generic design Terminal Performance Objectives most specific type of program design statement 0 States an observable behavior from participant 0 Always the last strata of hierarchy of goals and obj 0 Must include I Condition under which the performance will be demonstrated I Observable behavior that will be performed I An obj criterion that will measure successful accomplishment of the obj 0 Putting Outcome Based Programming BBP Into Action I Phase 1 Target issues may be developed I Phase 2 activity components requires the programmer to develop several program subcomponents 0 Writing performance obj 0 Identifying specific daily activities amp procedures that will facilitate the achievement of the target goals 0 Process the daily activities 0 Monitor the achievement of activity obj amp formal evaluation I Phase 3 Benefit Outcomes achievement of target goals is evaluated amp summarized CHAP 11 Program Design A transitional step that plans the details of how a program will actually be staged to facilitate a leisure experience A process that plans the staging of a program to facilitate this notion of a managed experience pattern Program Design is planning the stepbystep action scenarios and configurations of 6 key elements of a situated activity system that will stage the program amp guide participants through the social interactions necessary to further facilitate the leisure experience intended by the designer 0 Imaging is a primary technique that is used Program Design Model 3 major components 0 Design Goals the outcome I Leisure Experience Freedom lntrinsic Satisfaction Positive Affect Fun Relaxing I Instrumental Goals Agency Goals Individual Goals 0 Design Components 6 key elements of a situated activity system that may be manipulated I People Physical Setting Leisure Objects Structure Relationships Animation 0 Design Tactics actions that must be implemented when the program is staged to rech the design goals specified I Candidate Plans with Imagined Interactions of Frames Transitions Sequences I Multiple Forecasts Combine Them 0 Techniques for Implementing Program Design 0 Design tactics are developed through imagined interactions ability of humans to carry on an internalized conversation w themselves and can test the consequences I Allow for the rehearsal and discovery of situationdependent behaviors 0 Using visualization the programmer develops candidate plans alternate design tactics that could be used to stage program implementation Should be developed until it s a feasible solution to the design problem 0 Imagine multipleforecasts of candidate plans so that alternate stagings of a program may be developed 0 Candidate plans compete w each other and may be altered o Projective Imaging Techniques 0 Forecasting amp modeling candidate plans is accomplished through visualization of imagined interactions how the interaction might be staged 0 External Visualization you become an object to yourself you see yourself 0 Internal Visualization you attempt to actually be at a program and experience it vicariously 0 Using Projective Imagine to Animate the Program Design I Visualize program as a series of frames amp transitions btw frames I Each frame is an interactional episode made up of 6 key situating elements I Story boarding I Transitions spaces btw frames time when 6 program elements are being reconfigured and conscious or participant is shifting I Animation of the overall experience is created because of the following design changes 0 Key situating elements in each frame are changed 0 Temporal order of frames is rearranged Interventions for essential transitions are directed o the succession of changes amp need for patrons to interpret them produced interaction amp thereby animates the program 0 5 Preplanned Forecasts used in formulating candidate plans for each program 0 Use external imaging to visualize the entire operation of a program 0 Use internal imaging to experience program from patron s perspective 0 Use internal imaging to experience the program from the perspective of each of the other participants who may be there spectators parents 0 Use external imaging amp again visualize entire operation from program managers perspective 0 Use external amp internal imaging to visualize final program with imagined interactions changing roles from observer to participant 0 Criteria for Evaluating Candidate Plans 0 How well it facilitates a leisure experience for the participant 0 Creating choices facilitates intrinsic satisfaction provides opportunities for positive affect makes program fun relaxing amp entertaining 0 That best contribute to accomplishing specific patron agency or community goals will be adopted


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