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by: Jerrod Ortiz


Jerrod Ortiz
Texas A&M
GPA 3.51

Kimberly Free

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Kimberly Free
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jerrod Ortiz on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RPTS 304 at Texas A&M University taught by Kimberly Free in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/226165/rpts-304-texas-a-m-university in Rec, Park & Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
RPTS 304 Spring 2012 Exam 1 Study Guide What are the difference between rules policies standing plans and plans singleuse plans 0 rules I a rule is a formal written guide to action 0 ex requires any employee who receives from a supplier or customer a gift worth more than 20 to report the gift 0 policies I a policy is a general guide to action 0 ex all employees are expected to behave ethically in their dealings with suppliers and customers 0 standing plans I are used in situations in which programmed decision making is appropriate 0 singleuse plans I are developed to handle nonprogrammed decision making in unusual or one of akind situations Know intrapreneurship and the levels of learning 0 Intrapreneur I A manager scientist or researcher who works inside an organization and notices opportunities to develop new or improved products and better ways to make them 0 The higher the level of intrapreneurship the higher will be the level of learning and innovation 0 One way to promote intrapreneurship is to encourage individuals to assume the role of product champion a manager who takes quotownershipquot of a project and provides the leadership and vision that take a product from the idea stage to the final customer 0 Skunkworks I a group of intrapreneurs who are deliberately separated from the normal operation of an organization to encourage them to devote all their attention to developing new products 0 Rewards for innovation I linking performance to rewards I Organizations must reward intrapreneurs equitably if they wish to prevent them from leaving and becoming outside entrepreneurs who might form a competitive new venture Know group decision making such dialectical inquiry amp devil39s advocacy to blunt the effects of 0 Group Decision making 0 Advantages choices of alternatives are less likely to fall victim to the biases and errors of individual decision making able to draw on the combined skills competencies and accumulated knowledge of group members and there by improve their ability to generate feasible alternatives and make good decisions allows managers to process more information and to correct one another s errors when a group of managers makes a decision the probability that the decision will be implemented successfully increases 0 Disadvantages groups often take much longer than individual to make decisions managers interests and preferences are often different so getting to mangers to agree can be difficult group decision making can be undermined by biases o a major source of group bias is groupthink o Groupthink A pattern of faulty and biased decision making that occurs in groups whose members strive for agreement among themselves at the expense of accurately assessing information relevant to a decision 0 Devils Advocacy Critical analysis of a preferred alternative to ascertain its strengths and weaknesses before it is implemented One member of the group who acts as the devil s advocate by critiquing the way the group identified alternatives and pointing out problems with the alternative selection Critical analysis of a preferred alternative made in response to challenges raised by a group member who playing the role of devil s advocate defends unpopular or opposing alternatives for the sake of argument Present chosen alternative9 Critique chosen alternative 9 Reassess chosen alternativeaccept Modify Reject o Dialectical Inquiry Two different groups are assigned to the problem and each group is responsible for evaluating alternatives and selecting one of them Top managers then hear each group present their alternatives and each group can critique the other Critical analysis of two preferred alternatives in order to find an even better alternative for the organization to adopt I Present alternative 1 present alternative 2 9 Debate between alternatives 9 Reassess alternatives laccept 1 orl quot combine 1 and 27 biases and groupthink Know the classical model of decisionmaking and the Administrative Model and Scientific management the Five Forces Model 0 Classical Model Assumes all information about a alternatives is availa e to managers Assumes managers possess the 4 mental facility to process this information Assumes that managers know A what future course at action is best lorthe organization O meueri ion maker 39 39 rationally choosethe most appropriate course of action 0 Administrative Model 0 L y g tridlluptimum decisions 0 based on iimportant concepts I Bounded Rationality o Cognitive limitationsthat constrain one s abilityto interpret process and act on information I Incomplete information 0 information is incomplete because of risk and uncertainty ambiguous information and time constraints amp information costs I Satisticing o Searching for and choosing an acceptable or satisfactory responseto problems and opportunities ratherthan tryingto make the best decision o exploring a limited sample of all potential alternatives 0 Scienti c management 0 rue purpo e or redesigningthe work processto increase efficiency pg4249 0 Five Forces Model 0 Helps managers focus on the five most important competitive forces or potential threats in the external environment pg 260 I The level of rivalry among organizations in an industry I the potential for entry into an industry I the power of large suppliers I the power of large customers I the threat of substitute products What is an employer39s responsibility to ADA and educating their employees 0 Prohibits discrimination against disabled individuals in employment decisions and requires that employers make accommodations for disabled workers to enable them to perform their jobs 0 promote an environment in which employees needing accommodations feel comfortable disclosing their need ensuring that the accommodations not only enable those with disabilities to effectively perform their jobs but also are perceived to be fair by those not disabled 0 managers must educate both themselves and their employees about the disabilities as well as the real capabilities of those who are disabled What is a hostile work environment 0 hostile work environment sexual harassment O telling lewd jokes displaying pornography making sexually oriented remarks about someone s personal appearance and other sexrelated actions that make the work environment unpleasant Occurs when organizational members face an intimidating hostile or offensive work environment because of their sex 0 a hostile work environment interferes with organizational members ability to perform theirjobs effectively and has been deemed illegal by the courts Know about managing diversity 0 steps in managing diversity effectively pg 164 0 0000000000 secure top management commitment increase the accuracy of perceptions increase diversity awareness increase diversity skills encourage flexibility pay close attention to how employees are evaluated consider the numbers Empower employees to challenge discriminatory behaviors actions and remarks Reward employees for effectively managing diversity Provide training utilizing a multipronged ongoing approach encourage mentoring of diverse employees o What a Diversity of Employees Provides o A variety of points of view and approaches to problems and opportunities can improve managerial decision making 0 Diverse employees can provide a wider range of creative ideas 0 Diverse employees are more attuned to the needs of diverse customers 0 Diversity can increase the retention of valued organizational members 0 Diversity is expectedrequired by other firms Know the manger39s process and what they mean such as organizing leading planning amp controlling 0 Management 0 The planning organizing leading and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively 0 Planning 0 Choosing appropriate organizational goals and courses of action to best achieve those goals 0 organizing 0 Establish task and authority relationships that allow people to work together to achieve organization goals 0 structuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve organizational goals leading o motivate coordinate and energize individuals and groups to work together to achieve organizational goals 0 articulating a clear vision and energizing and enabling organizational members so they understand the part they play in achieving organizational goals controlling 0 Establish accurate measuring and monitoring systems to evaluate how well the organization has achieved its goals 0 evaluating how well an organization is achieving its goal and taking action to maintain or improve performance Know about managing of goals strategy efficiency and effectiveness and empowerment through difference performance styles 0 goals 0 one of the most important goals that organizations try to achieve is to provide some kind of good or service that customers value or desire o strategy 0 a cluster of decisions about what goals to pursue what actions to take and how to use resources to achieve goals 0 efficiency o a measure of how well or how productively resources are used to achieve a goal 0 organizations are efficient when managers minimize the amount of input resourceslabor raw materials component parts etc orthe amount oftime needed to produce a given output of goods orservices effectiven as o a measure ofthe appropriateness ofthe goas an organization is pursuing and the degree to which the organization achieves those goals 0 organizations are effective when managers choose appropriate goals and then achieve them empowerment o the expansion of employees knowledge tasks and decisionrmaking responsibilities EFFECTIVENESS EFFICIENCY Low emcieney High effectiveness Manager chooses the right ursue but does a bu for them to buy Low emciency Low effectiveness Manager chooses wrong goals to pursue and makes poor use of resources Hesu A lowquality produci that customers do not want man High emeieney High effectiveness Manager chooses the rigm goals to pursue and makes R customers want a a quality and price that they can anord High efficiency Low eueahveness Manager chooses Result that ustomers do not w n Highperiormrng organizauons are afficieril ande eclive What are the effects of pressure to perform miuw 39 39 39 and how the fitin Qnripfnl ethics othirc individual W 39 39 P 39lil39c ethics lunar elm 0 ethics 0 39 39 39 39 39 Illa 39 to analyze or 39 39 ay i Societal ethics iyhuiddai quot quot in mallersinvolving issuessuch asfaimess justice poverty and the rights orthe individual I L L 39 V 39 39 39 39 beliefs and norms occupational ethics them selveswhen performing workarelaled act 0 Medical amp legal ethics individual ethics p p i ineii other people and groups ya ma 39 organizational ethics o Guiding practices and beliefs through which a particular company and its managers view their responsibility toward their stakeholders 0 Top managers play a crucial role in determining a company s ethics 0 Governmental ethics Know what creates a hostile work environment Quid pro quo sexual harassment The salience effect The glass ceiling o Quid pro quo sexual harassment o asking for or forcing an employee to perform sexual favors in exchange for receiving some reward or avoiding negative consequence o the salience effect 0 is the tendency to focus attention on individuals who are conspicuously different from us 0 being the only guy in a crowd o the Glass ceiling o alludes to the invisible barriers that prevents minorities and women from being promoted to top corporate positions Be able to recognize the definition and difference of o Programmed Nonprogrammed Intuition Groupthink Bounded rationality o Programmed I Routine virtually automatic decision making that follows established rules or guidelines 0 nonprogrammed I non routine decision making that occurs in response to unusual unpredictable opportunities and threats 216 o Intuition I feelings beliefs and hunches that come readily to mind require little effort and information gathering and result in onthespot decisions 216 o groupthink I a pattern of faulty and biased decision making that occurs in groups whose members strive for agreement among themselves at the expense of accurately assessing information relevant to a decision 0 Bounded rationality I Cognitive limitations that constrain ones ability to interpret process and act on information 219 o Certainty Risk Bounded rationality Uncertainty Dialectical inquiry Heuristics o Certainty 0 Risk I the degree of probability that the possible outcomes of a particular course of action will occur 219 o Uncertainty I unpredictability 219 o Dialectical inquiry I Critical analysis of two preferred alternatives in order to find an even better alternative for the organization to adopt o Heuristics I rules of thumb that simplify decision making Know the major corporatelevel strategies that managers can use to help their organization increase its sales and profits 0 a plan that indicates in which industries and national markets an organization intends to compete 0 Concentration on a single industry 0 reinvesting a company s profits to strengthen its competitive position in its current industry 0 vertical integration 0 expanding a companys operations either backward into an industry that produces inputs for its products or forward into an industry that uses distributes or sells its products 0 diversification o expanding a company s business operations into a new industry in order to produce new kinds of valuable goods or services 0 related diversification o entering a new business or industry to create a competitive advantage in one or more of an organizations existing divisions or businesses 0 synergy 0 performance gains that result when individual and departments coordinate their actions


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