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by: Jerrod Ortiz


Jerrod Ortiz
Texas A&M
GPA 3.51

W. Smith

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W. Smith
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jerrod Ortiz on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RPTS 316 at Texas A&M University taught by W. Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/226169/rpts-316-texas-a-m-university in Rec, Park & Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
Nepal Sep 6 2005 RPTS 316 Lecture 2 Wildland Recreation Philosophy History Rationale Learning Objectives for this lecture include 9 Examine the history of wilderness movement in the US 9 Learn the context for Wilderness Act of 1964 9 Know some principal architects of quotWildemessquot movement O General Questions related to this theme Interests in recreating in the wildlands have today reached unprecedented levels Wildland recreation includes a variety and forms of activities Why do people recreate in wildland and remote places What motivates and inspires them to Visit these places In what ways wildland areas and wildland recreation contribute to the greater good for society and nature What are the different types of wildlands Why and how these areas are designated What is the history of wildland recreation and its management in North America and more specifically in America In this lecture we will be discussing some of the abovementioned questions You have been asked to read Chapter 1 Wilderness Management Philosophical Direction from Hendee and Dawson 2002 You should now be able to answer some of the questions mentioned above By the end of this lecture Video and the text readings you should be able to grasp the following concepts Wilderness as a social movement and a state of mind You will watch a Video Wild by Law This Video tells the story of three eminent individuals who have greatly in uenced mainstream Views of quotconservationquot in modem America Aldo Leopold39s classic quotThe Land Ethicquot Bob Marshall39s quotsocialistquot View of wilderness areas as public lands and Howard Zahniser s untiring efforts to save wildlands from various forms of human use and human impacts have in uenced the way we think about wildland What were other contemporary notions of wildland The text refers to quotanthropocentricquot and quotbiocentricquot approaches to wilderness management Meaning of Wildland or Wilderness But what exactly is a wildland or wilderness Are today39s national and state parks wildlands What is the distinction between a national park and wilderness areas The Video makes some distinctions what are these The Video refers also to quotwildernessquot and quotwilderness managementquot what is the implied interpretation here In general we refer to wildland areas where permanent human habitation may not be found Wildland is about pristine nature where the natural processes are at work Wilderness management refers to managing wildland areas for quotpreservationquot not quotusequot which is often associated with quotconservationquot The Wilderness Act 0f1964 which allows for setting aside pristine natural areas for preservation has today tremendously shaped Nepal Sep 6 2005 America39s natural landscape but it has also increased interests and the demand for outdoor recreation from the American public as a result of which many wilderness areas are being quotloved to deathquot A related issue is the interpretation of quotwildlandquot While national parks and similar other quotwildlandquot areas conceived as being devoid of human habitation has it really been so Did true wilderness really exist in North America What do you think about this issue How has different cultures de ned and rede ned quotwildemessquot What is your view of wildland or wilderness What values do you attach to wildland Wildland Ethics What do we mean when we say parks are quotloved to deathquot This brings us to the issue of ethics Leopold39s quotland ethicquot refers to the change of role for Homo sapiens from conqueror of the landnature to becoming a part of it But is this really possible A concept like this requires fundamental transformations in our thought processes and views about modernization quality of life and related issues Are we really prepared for this Wildland Recreation Interpretations of wildland recreation vary depending on whom you ask For the purpose of this course we identify three zoning system front country middle country and backcountry Use type user motivation use intensity type and intensity of management in these three zones are different The textbook Hammitt and Cole 1998 is mainly about backcountry or primitive recreation and this is what we are mostly concerned about We are concerned mostly about wildland recreation use resource impacts and management of impacts Disturbance to natural areas as a result of recreational use is defined as resource or ecological impact Hammitt amp Cole 1998 5 impact here is interpreted to mean undesirable changes in resource conditions Please participate in class discussions Let me know if you have any questions Further references Leopold Aldo 1949 A Sand C ountyAlmanac New York Oxford University Press Video Wild by Law The Rise of Environmentalism and the Creation of the Wilderness Act Copyright Direct Cinema Limited Santa Monica 1992 Nepal Oct 25 2005 RPTS 316 Wildland Recreation Factors In uencing Resource Impacts Lecture 10 Learning objectives for this lecture include 9 Determine how wildland recreation impacts are in uenced by various factors 9 Assess the spatial and temporal patterns of impacts 9 Distinguish the interrelationships between userelated environmental and managerial in uences on resource impacts General questions related to this theme What are the key factors which in uence the type amount extent and intensity of recreation resource impacts What are some distinct patterns of recreation impacts in backcountry settings How do impacts vary between different types of users and between activities How do environmental characteristics determine the type and extent of impacts How do management strategies and actions in uence the types of recreation impacts You have been asked to read chapters 6 8 and 9 from the textbook Wildlanal Recreation You should now be able to answer some of the questions mentioned above By the end of this lecture and the text readings you should be able to grasp the following concepts The nature of recreation resource impacts As discussed throughout the previous lectures most recreation resource impacts are caused not by a single factor but through a combination of factors This is why it is important to understand that the factors in uencing wildland recreation resource impacts are inter related too For example a high use area also demands fairly intensive management whereas sensitive ecological zones respond more rapidly to use requiring effective prevention methods from the management The bottom line is impact mitigation techniques should be multi prongeal one management action should help resolve more than one problem For example by putting a boardwalk over a sensitive tract of marshland we can prevent recreational trampling of sensitive wetland ora increase the aesthetic quality and increase visitor satisfaction Variability of recreation impacts All wildland recreation resource impacts eg impacts on soil vegetation water wildlife exhibit certain spatial anal temporal patterns It is critical to understand these patterns due to their variability over time and spatial locations Managers must be able to detect the variability in order to be able to manipulate and control the in uencing factors Typically most impacts exhibit four spatial features points or nodes lines concentric rings and haphazard Most impacts concentrate at a central point and tend to diffuse towards the edges For example at campsites impacts are easily noticed at its core usually central point and radiate outwards in different directions declining in extent and intensity in outlying areas Some types of impacts tend to level off after certain period of use Resistance anal resilience determine the temporal pattern of impacts for example a highly resistance ability to Nepal Oct 25 2005 tolerate pressure plant may withstand continued visitor use but may eventually give up if it is not resilient ability to recover or adapt to disturbances Factors in uencing impacts The amount type and severity of recreation impacts vary with the type timing and distribution of use It will also depend on users behaviors expectations and norms These are categorized as userelated factors Environmental settings include climate geology and topography which together can determine the levels of resistance and resilience of vegetation soil and water resources in different ecological zones These factors can be categorized as environmental factors Impacts vary also depending on the level of mitigating actions of the management Some management actions are direct while others are indirect Visitor education is an indirect management action enforcement of camping quotas is an example of a direct action Some management actions are remedial while others are preventive Overall a comprehensive understanding of the factors that in uence the type amount and intensity of recreation impacts is essential for researchers and managers to seek solutions to visitorinduced problems in the backcountry That resource impacts and in uencing factors both are interrelated provides a good starting point for park managers to find solutions that are capable of addressing more than just one problem at a given time Please participate in class discussions Let me know if you have any questions


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