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by: Haskell McGlynn


Haskell McGlynn
Texas A&M
GPA 3.68

Leslie Winemiller

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About this Document

Leslie Winemiller
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haskell McGlynn on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107 at Texas A&M University taught by Leslie Winemiller in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/226180/biol-107-texas-a-m-university in Biology at Texas A&M University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
EXAM ll BIOLOGY 107 REVIEW CHP 1011151617 Lauren N Forde CLASS NOTES 1 Characteristics of Sexual Reproduction 0 Two parents 0 Each parent passes V2 of hisher genes 0 Offspring has unique combination 2 Characteristics of Asexual Reproduction 0 One parent 0 Single parent passes all genes 0 Offspring identical to parent s genes cloningexcept for random mutation 3 Life cycle 0 Sequence of organisms reproductive history 4 What is a somatic cell 0 Body cell Not eggsperm 0 Usually Zn or diploid 5 Polyploidy o More than two sets of chromosomes 3n common in flowering plants but rare in animals Insects leeches amphibians reptiles fish are polyploidy 6 Fertilization o SyngamyUnion of two gametes to form zygotes random 7 Mitosis 53 H H H N P H U39I 9 0 Cell duplication division Meiosis 0 Cell reduction division What is a Chiasma 0 Where crossover occurs pluralchiasmata in Prophase Germ cell 0 Forms gametes Products of Telophase 0 Four daughter haploid cells 1N2 per cell Three mechanisms of genetic variation 0 Independentassortment 0 Random fertilization o Crossing over Humans have 239 gamete possibilities o 2quot23 or 8388608 Genetic variation raw material for mutation 0 Evolution sex Gametogenesis 0 Formation of haploid gametes Spermatogenesis o Sperm produced in seminiferous tubules in testes Oogenesis 0 Production of eggs in follicles of ovary Polar body RD N 53 N N N N W N P N U39I N l Women 35 and older have a higher risk of having an o Nonfunctional quoteggquot with no cytoplasm If 2 oocyte is not fertilized it will not undergo o Meiosis Aneuploidy o llWithout true setquot monosomy 2n1 trisomy 2n1 Nondisjunction 0 Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis Three types of Nondisjunction o Trisomy 21 3 copies of chromosome 21 Down Syndrome o Trisomy 13 3 copies of chromosome 13 Spontaneous miscarriagedon t usually live 0 Trisomy 18 3 copies of chromosome 18 past infancy child 0 Aneuploidy Barr body 0 Inactivated llxquot chromosome Barr body test for what 0 Olympics Why was this test inaccurate o If people had turner syndrome they only had one x chromosome What are the four changesmutations in chromosome structure Deletiondelete a piece of chromosome Translocation piece breaks off and moves to another chromosome Duplication piece duplicates and attaches on another chromosome Inversion piece breaks off inverts then attaches in inverted order N 9 N RD 0 O W W N W 0 w 4 U3 U1 w 9 m N CriDuChat o llcry of the catquot a disease caused by deletion mutation Translocation mutation can cause a disease by having 0 Cancer of the blood cells Pallister Killian Syndrome o Duplication mutation disease live until 40 s intellectual disabilities Inversion usually happens with chromosomes and o 6 and 9 Genetics 0 The study of traits from one generation to the next and how these traits are expressed Blending Theory 0 Mixing traits Particulate theory 0 Discrete inheritable units quotgenesquot Gregor Mendel o Monk who conducted breeding experiments with pea plants Why did Mendel use pea plants 0 Easy to grow selfcross pollination short generation time and expressed distinct traits Monohybrid o A cross involving one charactergene The quotPquot generation is the o Truepurebred generation The F1 Generation is the o Filialgenerationhybrid F1 generation is the o 2quotd filial generation Mendel s law of segregation 0 Random fusion of gametes occurs at fertilization Mendel s law of Independent Assortment o Alleles of a gene for one trait segregate independently of alleles for a gene of another trait Gene Locus 0 Location of gene on a chromosome Dyhybrid cross 0 Can produce offspring phenotypically unlike either parent Multiple Alleles o More than two allelic forms for a gene AampB blood types are to each other 0 Codominant 0 blood type is the universal o donor AB is the universal o recipient Incomplete dominance 0 Interaction of two alleles neither allele is completely dominant produces intermediate phenotype Codominance o Heterozygote expresses phenotypes of both homozygotes Polygenic Inheritance shows a Polygenic Inheritance 0 Single trait controlled by more than one gene Traits vary in population along a continuum Polygenic is Qualitative or Quantitative 0 Quantitative distribution 0 Bell Shaped Environmental Influence on a gene r 39 vs 0 Nature vs Nurture Nature vs Nurture Phenotype Genotype 0 Environment An example of Environmental influences on gene expression would be a How 0 Siamese cat melanin expression f temp is above 33 C No black pigment Vice Versa 0 Caterpillar Morphology If they feed on oak flowers they look like the oak flower If they feed on the leaves they look like the stem In other insects males are and females are XX 0X0 and Males are Birds butterflies and moths Females are 0 ZW and 22 Bees and Ants are insects where the female develops from diploid eggs and the male develops from haploid eggs 0 Social 0 FertilizedUnfertilized Reptiles are dependent for sex determination TSD 0 Temperature Males are having only one X chromosome 0 Hemizygous Being Hemizygous makes males more susceptible to defects 0 Xlinked Females have two X chromosomes and must have what to have an xlinked defect 0 Two copies of any recessive allele Natural Theology 0 Believed earth was only a few thousand years old and had quotfixedquot species Plato and Aristotle Linnaeus 0 Father of Taxonomy developed hierarchy of classification order in diversity Cuvier o A French zoologist who explained the succession of life forms as catastrophism After each catastrophe or extinction a region s was repopulated by new species Erasmus Darwin 0 Charles grandfathernaturalist and physician life evolved from a common ancestor for forming llone living filament La Marck 0 Proposed one of the first theories stating a mechanism for evolutionary change inheritance of acquired characteristics lady bug tattoo His theory of course was not true but why was this important o It recognized that evolution involved origin of Darwin interaction of organisms with their environment 7 O 71 7 N 7 W 7 4 7 U1 7 0 Where did Darwin get his Ideas from o Lyell and Hutton o Fossils of extinct animal life 0 Galapagos islands findings Who were Lyell and Hutton o Geologists who developed the theory of Uniformitarianism which stated that geological changes occur slowly and gradually to produce change This helped Darwin realize how old the earth really was 455 Billion years old Darwin s Beagle voyage 0 Mapping expedition in the Southern Hemisphere What did Darwin findbring back from the Galapagos Islands 0 14 different species of finches compared their beaks Harriet the Tortoise Died at 176 years old Artificial Selection 0 Humans select for certain traits by breeding Thomas Malthus Essay 0 llPrinciples of populationquot Natural processes are similar to artificial selection When quot feel human I increase U 39 39 0 factors Two Facets of Darwinian view of life 0 Common descent descent with modification from ancestral species 0 Natural Selection Mechanism of Evolutionary change i lldifferential reproductive success ii More organisms are produced than will survive iii All organisms show genetic variation which is inheritable


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