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by: Miss Tom Turcotte
Miss Tom Turcotte
Texas A&M
GPA 3.57

Shelley Wachsmann

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Shelley Wachsmann
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Tom Turcotte on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELS 317 at Texas A&M University taught by Shelley Wachsmann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/226186/rels-317-texas-a-m-university in Religious Studies at Texas A&M University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Biblical Archaeology Exam 2 Review Chalcolithic Period 0 G assulian culture 0 Main culture of chalcolithic period I N er where it was first found Teleilat Ghassul o Teleilat Ghassul 0 Key typesite for the study of this period 50 acres in area 0 Located on a slope o Overlooks northeastem shore of Dead Sea 0 Overlooks southeastem end of Jordan Valley 0 Main administrative and economic center for the area 0 Possibly reveal the origins of the Chalcolithic culture 0 Settlement Pattern Wadi Nahal dry river bed 0 a i abi Nahal Hebrew I Broadhouses Large rectangular space sometimes accompanied by a side chamber 0 3 2 rn at Teleilat Ghassul o 6 X 15 rn at Golan Heights 0 Ossuary Burials I Ossu Special pottery containers for bones 0 bone box Second burial Placed in caves Sometimes human shaped elements ie noses found on outside and architectural design as well 0 Made of ceramic for the most part except for 2 found in Ben Shemen made of stone 0 Ben Shemen I 2 large stone ossuaries found in collapsed cave I Had multiple burials in each stone many bodies 0 Subcultures I Beer Sheva Culture ir o Bir Safadi o i at o Shi mim I Golan Culture I Judean Desert 0 En Gedi o Nahal Mishmar 0 Beer Sheva Culture I Subterranean dwellin s Bir Safadi underground dwelling I Bir Matar I Bir Safadi 0 An underground dwelling 0 Ivory statuettes 0 Male and female figures found no mouths large nose 0 Venus ofBeer Sheva I Represents naked pregnant female I Fertility statue I Gilat 0 Two sculptured vessels an with churn Represents a seated naked female holding a churn on her head and a vessel under her arm I Body and facial details are painted red I Vagina emphasized I Probably represented fertility goddess o churn 0 made of leather usually unique to this period one side at to stand up 0 Ram Carrying Comets I Male counterpart to woman with churn I Depicts a ram bearing three comets on his back 0 co 0 horn shaped vessels 0 may have had some cultic use related to mild products or may have been used for milking 0 Stone figurine o Violin shaped figure I Represents well figured body ofwoman I Depicting a schematized human torso Symbolize fertility god or goddess I Shiqmim o A dwelling comprising a rectangular courtyard and large rectangular room Largest of the Chalcolithic settlements in the northern Negev o Golan Cluture I Broad houses especially evident I Basalt Stone Vessel Indus o Basal high fenestrated pedestal bowls are especially common I House Gods long nose ears like poles no mouth and strange eyes I Pottery poorly fired o Judean Desert I En Gedi 0 May have served a community as a cultic center 0 Temple at En Gedi o Discovered about oasis of En Gedi on the western shore ofthe Dead Sea in Judean Desert 0 Represented the home of the god I Nahal Mishmar o emote cave on a cliff face in the Judean Desert he Cave of the Treasure discovered here I Copper found I Group of objects preserved in baskets Artifacts found figurines and standards Over 465 artifacts discovered a eads most common found 240 Scepters Crowns Cylindrical box elephant ivory Sickleshaped perforated hippo teeth Small amount of arsenic found in copper objectsiprobably to strengthen copper or could have occurred naturally Earliest example of the lost wax cire perdue casting process t ofwax then covered in mold poured hot metal inside and wax evaporates Treasure probably belonged to the Temple at En Gedi and was hidden in the remote cave by its priests ooooo Early Bronze Age EBA The Emergence of Cities 330072300 BC Ebla 0 Northern Syria 0 Used Sumerian scri t o Literate because they had in uence from Mesopotamia 0 Lower Egypt 0 North based on how the Nile ows 0 Upper Egypt 0 South based on how the Nile ows 0 Archaic Period 0 Dynasties 111 0 Old Kingdom 0 Dynasties IIIVI o Transitional period not well understood I asic concepts of Egyptian civilization created during this time expressed in art and architecture Pyramids EB Ir 330073050 BC 0 Alternative names for the EB I Late Chalcolithic period 0 ProtoUrban period I KM Kenyon I Classified by pottery groups 0 Agriculture 0 Emphasis on agriculture i occupation of the settled population 0 Grapes and figs 2 of most typical Mediterranean crops I May have been cultivated during this period for the first time 0 Architecture 0 Apsidal houses I Tendency to build curvilinear structures in northern part of the country I Curvilinear o Elliptical o sidal 0 Looks like a bullet 0 Round 0 Burial 0 Cemetery I Bab edhDhra Jordan east of Dead Sea 0 Phase I burials aft tomb I Caves approached through a vertical shaft I Several thousand I No more than 67 skeletons found in each cave 0 Phase II burials Chamel Houses I Circular burials I Made of mud bricks I Used for multiple burials o 0 members of the same family or clan Transition to permanent settlement No more secondary burial o Nawamis In southern Sinai amis mos uitos Rounded burial structures of late 43911 millennium Stonebuilt rounded structures with corbelled roofs Shows connections with Egypt 0 Pottery o Graybumished ware I Memories of Chalcolithic period I Northern pottery group I Open vessels onl I Large bowls and fenestrated pedestal bowls o Linepainted pottery Lots of brushes tied to a stick I 39 39 39 red thin lines I I I ll imitate weaving o Redbumished pottery I any unpainted vessels covered with red burnished slip o Arnphoriskos pl arnphoriskoi I S l 39ars with two handles intentionally prepared as burial gi s o Omphalos bowls I Omphalos means belly button I Raisted cone at center kind of like a doughnut I Small rounded bowls intentionally prepared as burial gifts 0 Teapot I Teapot shaped pottery shows Mesopotamian in uence 0 Origins of Cultures 0 Tel Erani I Site in Israel that shows Egyptian connections 0 Found Sherd with Serekh of Narmer o Nmm I First Pharoh of rst dynasty I Consolidated Upper Egypt amp Lower Egypt into 1 culture 0 Serekh I Egyptian signature used in earlier dynasties replaced by cartoosh I Narmer s cosmetic palette o Considered earliest document ever 0 evidence for claims that Egyptians invaded the region I Kites o R hes animals into hole to capture herding animals into a trap I Most accepted date for Narmer 0 ca 3100 BC EB IIIIII Urbanization 30502300 BC Cities wwalls and social structures 0 Bab edhDrah I East of Dead Sea Same type of culture on both sides of Jordan Major city located in surprisingly remote regions far from roads water sources and fertile land largest site among a group of 5 situated in dry riverbeds leading to the Dead Sea 0 Numeira I Major city found in the dry and desolate region east of the Dead Sea 0 Arad I Most ofwhat we know about Early Bronze Age comes from Arad nothing was built on top of it I Went from Arad to southern Sinai to mine copper 0 Connections with Sinai The search for copper o Sheikh Muhsein Site in southern Sinai used as base for collecting copper Houses were horseshoe shaped surrounding wagon o WadiMagharah I Cave where the Egyptians mined turquoise o Sekhemhet wall relief I Pharoh from 3rd Dynasty on wall wearing crown of upper Egypt in 1 scene and lower Egypt in next and wearing a tail 0 Fortifications o Glac39 I Found in bottom of fortification wa s Ramps going up to the wall to prevent people from tunneling mining battery ram 0 Yarmuth I Gigantic fortification wall 0 40 meters120 feet wide I Most important site for understanding EB 11 o 39 was built over it 25 acres I Horseshoe shaped towers I Only socle no wall 0 The Arad House I broad house I Roof is at amp raised on the edges to secure water I Entrance uses timbers structures like ostuaries o Megiddo Temples 3 temples each wopen porch entrance into broad room and side room to keep offeringsgifts to god I Each has 2 bases made out of earliest carved stone I round structure sacrificial alter located behind 1539 building I ria Male god female goddess andtheir child 0 Granary at Beit Yerah also called Khirbet Kerak A temple in the granary I Outer walls 10 meters across 0 9 grain silos o Silo circular things that hold grain Surplus of grain allows people to do other things trade I Beit Yerah House ofthe Moon oon god was primarily worshiped here 0 Pottery Wavy ledge handles I A hallmark of EB jars o metallic ware I Ceramic pottery but called metallic because it s so well fired that when you hit is it sounds like metal 0 Platters I Suggest that people ate their meals together instead of having a plate for each person everyone ate from the platter o Khirbet Kerak Ware I Khirbet Kerak is Arabic for Beit Yerah I Bumished I black on the outside amp red on the insidebottom I horseshoe supports to sit on o Anthropomorphic stand ends Metallurgy o T e Kfar Monash Hoard Biggest collection ofBronze artifacts I Found in a farmer s field I No stratigraphy have to date them according to their typology EB II or III 0 Epsilonshaped axe I Bump used to prevent axe from going too far into body and getting stuck 0 Cult 0 Arad The living and dying god I merian Dumuzi o Fertility god that represents living and dying god Figure lying on abed hands amphead look like grain Cylinder seal impressions o h ds w these cylinder rolled across clay to print pictures people dancing etc I Rolled across pottery while still wet to Put your seal on ottery 0 First time an object from a different culture is used for something original culture did not use it for to decorate pottery From Mesopotamia Burial customs o abe dhDrah chamel house Collapse amp End of the Early Bronze Age 0 Egyptian attacks on Asia conquer of Asiatic city Mazaar pg144 I Uni s attack around 2300 BC invasion of the land of the sand dwellers came from sea and could be the reference on the review to seabom assult I Seaborn assult I Antelopes nose geographic reference in Uni s record 7 Bay of Hypha says he landed his troops behind the Antelope s Nose Ship of Sahure returns with Asiatic o Sahure pharaoh Egyptian o The Amorites I vasion by West Semitic Amorite tribes from Syria who were considered to have been responsible for the nomadic culture of the following period 0 Environmental considerations I Drought but doesn t make sense because they existed in Dead Sea driest area 0 The Early Bronze Age amp the Bible Ebla Tell Mardikh Scholars try to relate this period to the biblical background especially in connection with the traditions in the Book of Genesis Discovery of the chive of Ebla raised premature expectations in this re ard o The 5 Cities of the Plain Genesis 14 to the 5 early bronze age sites close to the eastern shores of the Dead Sea Sodom Gomorrah Admeah Zeboim I Zoar o Bab edhDrah and Numeira I Both are forti ed sites I their destruction which followed by total abandonment for centuries was presented by some as real archaeological evidence for the story in Genesis 0 Etiology I The explanation of causes 0 Biblical Rephaim 39ants may be explained by a reaction to the huge EB forti cations 0 Giants to describe the ancient indigenous population of the country 0 Like the Greek cyclopean walls Early Bronze Age IVMiddle Bronze Age I EB IVMB I 0 es for the perio 0 Middle Bronze I 0 Early Bronze IV o The Caliciform Culture o The Intermediate Early Bronze IVMiddle Bronze I Age 0 Age Intermediate Bronze IVJB I 0 EV IV 0 Settlement Pattem oice of arid regions They like to life in dry climates not easier places 0 Settlement Plan Sites Beer Resisim EB IVMB I vs Sheikh Muhsein EB II I EB II o Settlements found in small numbers throughout the Negev 0 Economy based on trade of copper 0 House broad room amp rounded arranged in groups around an inner courtyard 0 EB IVMB I 0 Limited to the central Negev and northern Sinai 0 Economy not related to any outside economic system 39 did not H A 0 Beer Resisim Don t seem to be trying to protect themselves 0 Negev pop estimated at 75 Har Tsayad I one of largest sites in this region 0 Ein Ziq dwellings I I o Transhumance O n Nahal Zin I Small round structures 0 avg oor space of10 sq meters s 0 stone pillar at center to support roof made of large slabs or stone 0 Clustered in groups or small chains each chain prob represents dwellings of families I Animal pens houses with larger square rooms burials in form of stone Tumuli Movement with the herds from high to low based on time of year for food I Highlands serve winder needs I Lowlands serve needs in summer 0 Urban sites in Jordan 0 grarian sedentary settlements retained EB III cultural traditions more than other sites in the country I Ik u tan Khirbet Iskander A o Burial customs culture best known for its burial O o o 0 Pottery o Metallurgy o E o o Megalithic dolmens big stone covered by tumuli I ablelike structures composed of two or more vertical basalt blocks roofed by large rock slabs o D lmens covered by a heap of stones which creates a tumulus I Generally secondary interment for one person Shaft tombs I Rockcut vertical sha s leading to underground burial chambers I Can be primary or secondary burial site Tumulus pl tumuli I tone Circular cairns with an inner central cell where the body was placed with some i s I many found empty meaning perhaps used for primary burial and bones later removed to a secondary burial site 3 regional pottery families I ansjordanian grou o Burnished red slip is common I Northem group 0 2 subgroups 0 Upper Galilee o Jezreel Valley 0 Northern vessels Squat globularjars wpinched mouth and large mugs o envelope shaped ledge handles I Southem group 0 Main features 0 Light buff clay 0 lack of redslip ofpainted decoration o incised decorations horizontal and wavy stripes created by a 5tooth comb 0 common vessels 0 at bowls o arnphoriskoi I smalljars with 2 handles 0 teapots o Gobles 0 Cups 0 Tall handlelessjars o 4spouted lam s o or 1539 time while clay still soft they pinch andmake comers o Lamps are important because they are very easy to date they change o en yeaxe I Developed from Epsilonshaped crescentic axes Now equipped wsha for wooden han le I less for slashing more for breaking through armor First use of bronze I ronze alloy appears for 1 time in one cemetery in the Upper Galilee ndicating Syrian in uence in this region 0 Need tin to make bronze tin is far away Beni Hassan I Wall painting in atomb at Beni Hasan in Egypt I Represents a family of Semitic metalsmiths arriving in Egypt o The Ain Samiya Goblet I Single most important find from this time period only art object from time period I Small silver goblet decorated in rouse technique I Found in a shaft tomb near Ain Samiya I Manufactured in northern S ia not Meso otamia I Yigael Yardin suggested that decoration illustrate scenes from Enuma Elish o The Enuma Elish o Mesopotamian Creation Myth 0 when on high 0 Characters I Tiamat 0 Mother creator goddess I Apsu o Consort of tiamat I Mummu 0 Evil vizier to Tiamat amp Apsu I Ea 0 Head god father of Marduk I Marduk 0 New hero leader ofthe gods 0 Who were the EB IVMB I people of Palestine Country invaded by West Semitic seminomadic tribes from Syria nown by Mesopotamian documents as Amurru Sumerian I Westemers known by modern scholars as Amorites o Beni Hasan wall painting depects a typically West Semitic Amorite name I Ab sha 0 Period of the Hebrew patriarchs I A raharn Jacob amp Isaac o Intruders from far outside the Near East graves in Ras Sharnra contained copper torques I Porteurs de Torques or orquebearers o Nomadic people who lived in the country throughout the 3m millennium BCE beside the urban system and were suppressed by it thrive in the vacuum created by the collapse of the cities take over Autochthonous pastoral nomads Middle Bronze Age B 11 A 0 Dates 0 200018001750 BC 0 Egypt 0 XII Dynasty 12m 0 Middle Kingdom 19911786 bce Settlement pattem ppearance of coastal settlements o Jezreel Valley I Moving from the North inland toward Jezreel Valley I Connect to Jordan Valley Origins of the MB IIA culture 0 Canaan Canaanites Fortifications o Freestanding ramparts at Yaweh Yam I remendous artificial earthworks which changed the morphology ofthe site suggest strong central organized government 0 Gates I Acre Acco 0 Direct entrance through a long corridor and gate chamber I Megiddo 0 Indirect entrance through a long stepped corridor and gate chamber 0 Bent axis I Both different in style meaning they hadn t figured out a single style yet 0 Metallurgy 0 Where did tin come from rsource of tin I Mari texts tell where tin comes from Canaanites traded for tin in Mari tin probably coming from east Afghanistan 0 Duckbilled axe I Can cut through armor 2 Holes that are memories of original epsilon axe 0 Relations with Egypt Tale of Sinuhe ca 20001950 BC I Egyptian high official Sinuhe I Fled to Asia and found Shelter in Syria I Described e coun o Settled in encarnpments not cities or villiages Seminomadic pastoralists in transision to sedentary life 0 The Execration Texts ca 19001800 BC I ps of short inscriptions on pottery bowls or figurines which include curses against people and places considered hostile to Egypt Contain earliest known lists of cities regions and govemors in Palestine and southern Syria MB 11 BC 0 Dates 0 180017501550 BC 0 Egypt 0 13 717 Dynasties 0 Second Intermediate Period 0 1786 1567 bce o 153911 Dynasty foreign rule in Lower Egypt by the Hyksos I Canaanites conquer part of Egypt Hyksos 7 meaning foreign rulers o The Hyksos Hekau khasut 2 Egyptian words meaning I Foreign rulers o Avaris Hyksos capitol found at 0 Tell el Daba o In Nile Delta 0 MB IIC XVth Hyksos Dynasty The Hurrians A people group known in northern Mesopotamia since 3m millennium bce 0 They increased in and became an important factor there and in northern Syria 0 Mitanni I Their land The Hittites 0 An indoeuropean people who were strong enough to devastate the kingdom of Yamhad including Alalakh and Babylon Settlement Pattern o Hazor was the head of all those kingdoms Joshua 1110 I azar becomes largestmost important city in Israel I First concept of upper and lower cit o ower city where lower class lived 0 Upper city temples and palaces located here Fortifications 0 Ram arts I Free standing I Huge earth ramparts erected by dumping large quantities of earth I Tel Batashi o ramparts built in geometric shapes 0 Glacis I An artificial slope laid against an existing tel re pisee o Compacted earth 0 Gezer o Glacis with interlocking levels 0 Tel Gerisa o Layers of bricks covering the glacis used to stabilize the slope 0 Shape of most tells is the result ofthese MB II fortifications I ity gat One uniform way of building a gate ong narrow caste o 3 gates to get in city 0 Arched gate not invented by Romans I Tel Dan 0 2 pairs of pilasters creating one guard charnber I Ashkelon 0 Urban architecture pen cult center at Gezer I Contained 10 large upright stones 0 tones represented deities or human figures ancestors or kings o Cerarnics o Carinated I Has angles I ottery shapes derived from metal prototypes 0 Tell elYehudiah Ware Holes in pottery filled with white stuff looks like white dots 0 Face looks like bad case of acne I In Jericho o Bichrome Ware I Two colored Red amp black 0 Weapons 0 Chiselshaped axe I Narrow goes through shields and armor 0 Art 0 Metal figurines I T e manufacture of metal figurines of male and female deities o Statuettes cut from sheets I Female figurines made of sheet gold found at gezer 0 Writing 0 Akkadian I Cuneiform written on clay tablets I Lingua franca or the entire ancient Near East 0 ProtoCanaanite I Alphabetic system I Begins in latebronze age o Patriarchal Narratives amp the Middle Bronze Age 0 The tradition of Abraham s migration I Wandering of Abraham from Ur to Haran and from there to Canaan can be explained as part of the general movement of clans and people in the Fertile rescen o The Deconstructionist School KA Kitchen The Memeptah Stele I The Israel Stele 0 campaign of Canaan mention conquests of cities and mentions Israel by name 7 1539 amp ONLY time Israel as a name of tribe appears in Egyptian Sources 00 o The price of slaves I done in silver stays close in price for most of time o Treaties and covenants clear pattems arise all formal for similar purposes some have intros describing king himself and his accomplishments before making statements Late Bronze Age 39me o 155 01200 BC 0 XVIIIth Dynasty 0 39Ihutmose 111 1479 1425 BC I Consolidated Egyptian rule over that country in the battle of megiddo I Defeated the leage of Canaanite rulers and established direct rule over Palestine and southern Syria Battle of Megiddo 1482 BC u 0 I trnose III vs troops from many Canaanite citystates in Syria and Palestine I Troops stopped to take stuff from Canaanites I People got behindWalls before they Were done I Took 7 months to break into city 0 Thutrnose III s geographical list I largest list of geographical historylists I found at Temple of Amun at Kam 0 Egypt vs Mitanni 15 century BC I Mittani A Hurrian state Which during the 15 century bce ruled northem Syria and northern Mesopotamia aanakh o Canaan in the 14 century BC I Tell el Amama 0 City built by renegat I Amarna Letters Diplomatic correspondence found in Egypt 300450 0 39 ten in Arcadaman lingua franca 0 Egyptian rule in Akhenaton I Amenhotep III 0 expels Hyskos creates new cultic religion With the center being Amunra the sun Was Aten a tribute factor to Amunra still a polytheism religion I Aten godsun I Amenhotep IVAkhenaten o disputes W priests of AmunRa so he tried to change Egypt to a monotheistic God Aten the universal diety that Was once the Solar disc sun that Was a minor factor to AmunRa XIXth Dynasty Canaan in the 13 century BC 0 Seti I 1249 1279 BC 0 Battle of Kadesh I Hittites vs Ramses II 12791213 BC 0 Memeptah 12131203 BC I es s son Egyptian hegemony over Canaan 0 Milk taking kids to Egypt taxing them 0 O o Beit Shean Canaan under Egyptian ruler o annu Chariotbased aristocracy o The Habiru amp Shasu o Habiru Homeless I Could impose rules 0 Shasu Egyptian term semi nomadic I Invaders Deterioration of Canaanite Culture 0 ian competition 0 Invas o Other rivalries o Ugarit 0 Arabic Ras Shamra Highly literate group considered most important of Canaanite culture I Language Was a Canaanite dialect I Some scripts Written in Ugarit and Akkadian o Ugaritic o Akkadian symbols Maritime trade Fortifications lack of 0 LB Megiddo lacks a defensive wall but has a gate 0 Temples o Orthostats I Hazor Area H temple I Lion orthostats o 3 temples built on eachother Irregular Canaanite Shrines o Stelae Mazzeboth 0 Standing stones 0 Ex Area C shrine Hazor o Fosse Temple Lachish I e example oftemple 0 Many Ivories found here Amman airport temple 0 Pottery o Bichrome ware I Distinctive redblack painted pottery o Sculpture in stone I 39Ih Beit Shean Relief 39g cm 0 Ivories I Megiddo Ivories over 300 pieces v ryplaque 0 Ivory cosmetic box I Lachish Ivories Ivory oil ask o Metallurgy 0 Copper mining at Timna 0 Egyptian temple at Timna I Built small temple near inscription of Ramses III 0 Sickle sword I Use outer edge to cut 0 Alphabetic Writing 0 Ugar39t39c 24 signs written on tablets o Protocanaanite I In Canaan properone variation of alphabet o ProtoSinaitic at Serabit el Kha em I Found in Sinai Egyptians working with Canaanites o Burial customs Built tomb with corbelled roof I e i o o Anthropoid coffins Egyptians I Primarily found in Gazastrip o Couple burial I Dier elBalah Uluburun Shipwreck Oldest known shipwreck reveals bronze age splendors o Ulubum 0 Grand Cape 0 Raw Materials 0 Oxhide Ingots I head of an ox like painted on with orangeish color I ms 0 Bun Ingots o Pillow ingots o Tin ingots I earliest dateable tin ingots in the world 0 Origin 7 Afaghanistan e I Thomy burnet I plant used to pad cargo to protect it during voyage like packing peanuts to cushin the goods 0 Canaanite jars I found two handles with a narrow bottom ties ship to Canaanite trading 0 Pistacia Terebinth resin pistachio tree resin sometimes used as healing or used to make turpentine 0 Glass ingots I well preserved I earliest trading of Glass ingots raw material glass 0 Miscellaneous Cargo Blackwood I Egyptian ebony Ties ship to Egyptian trade 0 Cypriot Pottery I Pithos pl pithoi I Large storagejars o Amphora I Used to transport Wine 0 Canaanite jar o Faience drinking cups I Rhyton pl rhyta Greek for drinking cup I decorated drinking cups often With shape of goatsrams head as design 0 Egyptian Gold Objects 0 Gold Nefertiti Scarab I shows Egyptians connections in trade I scarb means dung beetle o en a symbol ofrebirth 0 Weapons and tools 0 Panbalance Weights I shows ship prob Canaanite this Was a personal object o Domed and sphendonoid Weights yrocanaanite orgins 0 Hull Remains Skeletonbased construction I laid outline of ship first like a skeleton ofWood or like a frame 0 Shellbased construction I ma e outside of ship first completely filled Wood then added frame inside of shell to reinforce the shell 0 Mortiseandtenonjoinery I pegs and naillike objects to hold pieces together


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