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by: Miss Tom Turcotte
Miss Tom Turcotte
Texas A&M
GPA 3.57

Shelley Wachsmann

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About this Document

Shelley Wachsmann
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Tom Turcotte on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELS 317 at Texas A&M University taught by Shelley Wachsmann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/226186/rels-317-texas-a-m-university in Religious Studies at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
B al Archaeology Exam 1 Re w erms Introduction 0 Archaeology 0 Formed from 2 Greek words 39 Archeo quotancientquot gos quotknowledgequot or quotstudyquot 0 St dy fthe past 0 Deals with the quotnuts and boltsquot of the past 39 Arch itectu re tools wea pons cu tic objects ect 0 Studies physical remains of humanity39s past 0 Deductive Reasoning o Deducing things from evidence we have 39 Lo 0 Artifacts o The building blocksofarchaeology 0 Any item 39 Made by humans 0 Ex architecture shipwrecks tombs funeraw artifacts ceramicspottew weapons cult items statues ivory jewelw Used by humans 0 Ex amphora 0 Used to hold wine 39 That teaches about past surroundings Physical anthropology 0 Deals with bones 39 We can tedifthings from bones 0 Age 0 Gender 0 Diseases Paleobotany paleoethnobotony 0 Ancient plants foods and human remains 39 ecantelldifthings from feces 0 Foods they ate 0 Diseases Paleoenvironment paleoclimatology 0 Old environment 0 The environmentthey lives in and how it affected them 39 Climates 39 Land forms 39 Coast lines 39 Width of rivers Archaeometm o Archeos quotancientquot o Metron quotmeasurequot 39 quotMeasurement of the pastquot 0 What we can do with archaeometry 39 Date the past radiocarbon dating 39 Determine source of materials 0 Metals o Ceramics o Obsidian o Volcanic glass smokey color 0 bsid ia n from Fra nchthi Cave 0 NAA neutron activation anal sis 39 Process that identifies where obsidian comes from Obsidian from Uluburun Wreck 0 HA lead isotope analysis 39 Method offinding out where obsidian comesfrom o Tellltel 0 Tell Arabic 0 Tel Hebrew o Tes situated near 39 Water 39 Defensible position 39 Arable land 39 Near trade routes 0 Virgin soilbedrock o Deeper is older m 0 Stone base below mud brick Prevents rain moisture from coming up keeps ground dw Stratigraphy tratum quotlevelquot 0 Graphos quotwritingquot 39 e recording of levelsquot We label things The deeperyou go the older it is 39 Not alwaystrue earthquakes faults pits wells 0 oo In Situ o In site 0 Remove artifacts as found on39t move it 39 Don t clean t 39 Don t alter in any way The WheelerKenyon Method 0 Named after Sir Mortimer Wheeler and Professor Kathleen Kenyon o Diga trench 0 Benefits 39 Can see stratigraphy 0 Problem Only seeing a narrow section 39 Missing the big picture Sir Mortimer Wheeler Invented WheelerKenyon Method Dame Kathleen Kenyon o Excavated in Jericho and Jerusalem Baulks 0 Areas between where you are diggin o 1 meter of baqu between each square section Grid ystem 0 Square sections of 5x5 with 1 meter of baqu in between each section Locus 0 Location ofan artifact Ostracon 0 Written or carved inscription on a sherd Epigrapher o Decipherer of ancient inscriptions 0 To study a tel send artifacts with inscriptionsto an expert on ancient writing Sune s 0 Examination of what39s going on in an area 0 Walkfields around site and lookforstuff on the surface RegionalArchaeology o Adaptation ofsurveys o Apartfrom survey excavate a smallertel in the area Reading pottem 0 Identify different types of handles rims ect and lookforwriting to date them Typology 0 Study oftypes 0 Used to categorize 0 Without typology we couldn39t understand artifacts 0 Have to be careful to be objective Typesites 0 When you find a new culture the first site it is found in is the typesite Three Age System 0 CJThomsen Danish archaeologist 0 Original 39 Stone Age 39 Bronze age 39 ron age 0 Changes to 3age system used in Biblical Archaeology 39 Chalcolothic o Xlkos quotcopperquot o Lithos quotstonequot 0 quotThe CopperStone Age l 0 Problems in periodization 39 Transition from the Chalcolithic tothe Early Bronze Age 39 Transition from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle Bronze Age 0 Defining periods afterthe Iron Age 39 Persian 39 Hellenistic I oman 39 Byzantine Chronology o Xro os quottime o Logos quotstudy 39 quotstudy of the past39l Relative Chronology o Defines earlierfrom later 0 Does not give absolute date Seguence Dating Divided predynastic period into phases 0 Began at SD 3 o Len of each phase unknown 0 Assigned each artifact type an SD number 39 Based on typology of pottery in Egypt Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie as working on predynastic artifacts in Egypt 0 PreDynastic Period Time before unification of Egypt into pharaonic civilization 4m millennium Terminus ad guem Time before which 0 Artifact must have been deposited before the event 39 Masada o Fellto Romans in AD73 o Scrolls found in destruction level 0 Must date before AD 3 o ThusAD 73 isthe TAQ Terminus post guem ime afterwhich o Artifacts found above destruction level would postdate it o Thusthese artifacts would haveaTPD ofAD 73 39 post quem artifact does not have to be made before the ad quem 0 Not when it was madewhen it was deposited Absolute Chronology o Exact date of item or event 39 Ex cornerstone of modern building Historical Chronology Based on historical sources such as I 0 Egypt and Mesopotamia o Veardivided into 12 months of30 days each Vears not listed in a single linear system as today 39 King lists 39 Annals o Kin ears 0 Dynastic lists 39 Problems with king lists When king and son rule together Annals 0 Record book ofthe kings 39 Kings ofJudea and Samaria We don t have them but there are references to them in the Bible Book of the Annals ofthe Kings of Israel Book of the Annals ofthe Kings ofJudea 0 Egyptian dynastic lists Palermo Stone List ofthe lings in chronological order Manetho 3 centum BC 0 Egyptian priest who lives in Hellenistic period 0 Made most detailed list of Egyptian Dynasty Included 31 dynasties Synchronization of celestial events ingsthat happen in the skythat are recorded o Coregency 0 When kingto father and kingthe son rule together Not always clearon numbering reigns Carbon 14 dating 0 Radiocarbon dating 0 o 0 An atomic clock 0 How is works 39 C14 isotope formed by cosmic radiation 39 Carries 14 ratherthan normal 12 neutrons in a carbon atom 39 Additional neutrons cause instability 39 Resulting in radioactive dec 39 A ms revertto C12 0 Need to know 3 things forC14 dating to work 39 Amount ofC14 in the atmosphere 39 The percentage of C14 to C12 39 The half life ofC14 0 Problems with C14 dating 39 an only be used with organic materials 39 Limited time range to about 35000 ybp 39 Production of C14 not constant through time o WF Libby 1949 Inventeddiscovered carbon 14 dating 0 Halflife 0 Measures radioactive decay 0 Time lequileu nu 39 39 39 39 39 nair o Halflife of C14 5730 years California Bristlecone Pines AD 1100 Corrected or Calibrated Dates 0 Akkadian o Diplomatic language Bronze Age written in cuneiform on a tablet of soft clay Cuneiform Written language 0 Written on soft clay Biblical Archaeology 0 Purpose is not to prove ordisprove Bible 0 Illuminates the Bible ticNeolithic Periods Neolithic revolution gricultural revolution Changed from huntergatherers to farmers Cultivation of plants Domestication of animals Growth of settlements Larger populations Cultures became more complex Beginning of civilization Epipaleolithic 0 From Greek 39 Epi quotafter l oooooooo 39 Paleo quotancientquot 39 Lithos quotstonequot quotAfterthe old stone age l Natufia n Cu ltu re ain culture of EpiPaleolithic period Sedentam o Settled life 0 Typesite Wadi enNatuf o Typesite for Natufian culture Carmel Caves o Pierced stone mortars in burials o Symbolized a conduit between the living and the dead Upper part ofthe stones protruded above the surface while their base was level with the corpse Flint tools and bone and stone implements Hunting and gathering o evidence of plant cultivation o No evidence ofanimal domestication except fordogs 0 Wild grains gathering evidenced by flint sickle blades mortars and grain grindingtools 0 Hunting toolkit harpoons hooks net sinkers Spread ofthe Natufian culture 0 reads North into Syria and Iran Natufian quotfirsts 0 Permanent settlements 0 Houses 39 Roughly circular upto 24ftdiameter 0 High level of culture urials 39 Evidence ofafterlife 39 Primary and secondaw burial o Natufian Spiritual Life 0 o u tIc Installations o Burial practices 39 Established burial customs Dead wearjewelry 39 Indicate social hierarch 39 Buried singly in small groups or communally 39 Many died under 16 yrs old 39 Most deaths 2030 year range 39 Few aged to 50 0 Personal ornaments 39 Necklace caned bone and dentalium shells 0 Art objects 39 Crouching gazelle 39 Pebble he d 39 Human representation 0 Embracing couple 39 Animal caning 39 Pebble figure 0 Jericho Tell esSultan o PPNA Dwellings 39 Circular houses 39 Upto 24 ft diameter 39 Made out of hog backed mud bricks 39 Dome shaped upper ha 0 Nahal Oren 39 Burial site on Mount Carmel 39 Pierced stone mortars in burials 39 Symbolized a conduit between the living and the dead 39 Upper part ofthe stones protruded above the surface while their base was level with the corpse o PPNA wall 0 PPNA tower o PPNB is widespread Obsidian Trade 0 A volcanic glass which originated in Anatolia has been found at PPNA sites in Palestine and Syria 0 Obsidian Trade with 39 Turkey Anatolia 39 Syria 0 Tell Ramad 39 Upper Euphrates 0 Tell Bouqras o TellAbu Hureyra Tell Mureybet o Anatolia Turke Catal Hu uk 0 Shrines of the Vultures 0 Size of Sites Ain Ghazal 39 30 acres 0 Beisamun 39 10 acres 0 Jericho 39 6 acres 0 Husbandm of goats sheep and cattle o omesticate animals 0 Beisamun PPNB o Plastered skull o Nahal Hermar PPNB ave inJudean desert Skull with applied asphalt decoration Limestone mas Ritual stone mask Textiles made offlax Ropes made from palm fibers 0 ShaarHagolan Varmukian Culture PNA Dwellings in shallow pits Flint took kits Pottew decorated with horizontal bands and zigzag patterns Fertility figures Hunat MinhalMunhata 39 Founded in level 232 above PPN levels and below later PN phases 39 Only complete fertilityfigurine found here 0 Shown seated holding her breasts with exaggerated hips 000000 00000 0 Wadi Rabah Culture PNB Rectangular structures with stone foundations were built forthe firsttime 0 Flint toolsforagricultural nee s 39 Ar heads became rare decline in hunting 0 Burnished pottery o Obsidian mirror 0 Removal of skulls o Plasterclay statues tatues atAin Ghazal 39 Doubleheaded figure 39 Singleheaded figure 0 Flooding ofthe Black Sea 0 oah39s Flood 0 Breakthrough at the Bosporus ca 5500 BC Chronology o EpiPaleolithic period GOO8500 BC PrePottew NeolithicA PPNA i 0397 PrePottew Neolithic B PPNB 0 7500 6000 BC Pottew NeolithicA PNA 60005000 BC Potter Neolithic B PNB 50004300 BC


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