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by: Mrs. Nicolas Breitenberg


Mrs. Nicolas Breitenberg
Texas A&M
GPA 3.52

Richard Stadelmann

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Richard Stadelmann
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Nicolas Breitenberg on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELS 304 at Texas A&M University taught by Richard Stadelmann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/226187/rels-304-texas-a-m-university in Religious Studies at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
Indian and Oriental Religions Exam 2 Review Jainism Sikhism Buddhism Jainism 0 Different Opinions 0 Edward Hopkins I A religion in which the chief points insisted upon are that one should deny God worship man and nourish vermin has no right to exist The Religions ofIndia 0 Albert Schweitzer I J 39ns are true Christians If Jesus retumed He would be a Jain not a Christian o Radakrishnan I Jainism is a Hindu reform movement or heresy It was a protest against monism the Brahmin class and its castes and against animal sacrifice which was prevalent in Hinduism at this point in history 0 Origin of Jainism o It was a protest against monisrn the Brahmin class and its castes and against animal sacri ce which was prevalent in Hinduism at this point in history I Denied the authority of Hindu scripture speci cally the Upanishads ain scripture39 gas 0 Upangas o Mahavira I Honorific title meaning Great Man or Hero I Originally known as Nataputta Vardhamana o 0 23m Tirthankara of Jainism Child of petty king protective childhood had 5 nursemaids who gave him everything he ever asked for before he even asked arr39 e 0 Parents died when he was 30 by sallakhana Voluntary selfstarvation Jaina ritual suicide 0 on a bed of kusagrass they rejected all food and their bodies dried up by the last morti cation ofthe esh o Spent one more year in the palace and received his brother s consent to give up the princely life retired from the world andjoined the monks in the order of Parshva 0 Left the order because of two convictions That saving one s soul from evil is impossiblewithout practicing the severest asceticisrn 0 That maintaining the purity and integrity of one s own soul involves practicing ahisma Noninjury to abstain from killing and violence to any and all living things Became Hindu wanderer for 12 years 0 Abandoned all clothing 0 Set on re 0 Wintered in north 0 Summer in south 0 Did not bother mosquitoes Achieved Moksha and became a Jina Victor title ofthe one who conquers the desires binding souls to the world of matter and sin 0 Began to seek people out and teach them 0 People converted to his way of life 0 30 years of successful teaching and organizing o Sallakhana at a e 72 Now enjoying supreme bliss at the top of the universe to which the perfect ones go in a state no longer subject to rebirth 0 Philosophy of Jainism 0 Karma Actionconsequence The consequences of one s deeds are literally deposited in and on the soul 39 39 A f durin 39 l 39 39 he worn offby the process of living I At the end of each period of existence the soul caries the matter that vitiates its purity along with it o If it is full of matter it sinks lower in the scale of existence perhaps into hell 0 If it had only a little matter in it it will be light enough to rise perhaps into the heavens and find its embodiment there in the body of some god or rise higher still and become an etemally liberated being o Souls Mahavira and his followers were pluralists but they grouped all things into two distinct categories Aj39va o Lifeless things in the universe dead matter 0 etemal o evil 0 Jiva Living beings in the universe the in nite multitude of individual souls composing the realm of spirit 0 etemal 0 contains all good Souls are classi ed according to the number of senses they have Siddha o A perfect one a being who has obtained moksha 0 possesses infinite perception in nite knowledge infinite power and infinite bliss 0 when liberate they rise through the universe and come to dwell in an umbrellalike place I Isatpragbhara 0 Slightly convex I SiddhaIsila o The home ofthe perfect ones o The 5 Great Vows 1 imsa oo 0 Do not harm any living thing 2 Be absolutely truthful Do not steal 4 Chastity in thought and deed o x is engaged in thinking only loving thoughts not hostile or sel sh or lustful thoughts 5 Nonattachment to the world imit possessions 0 may be in the world but not of it No gods an atheistic religion Reincarnation I As free spiritsGiva human animals plants or even rocks Division ofthe World I Jiva w 0 Soul in matter I Ajiva 0 Dead matter Goal of life I Freeing yourjiva from your ajiva o Freeing your soul from being weighed down with dead matter Mahavira s Followers 0 o ankaras I Ford Finders savior beings 1 Rishabha Bull 0 2 shrines I 1 at Mt Satrunjay I 1 at Mt Abu o 2 Ajita o elephant o 3 Sarnbhava o rse o 7 Suparsva o swastika o 15 Dharma o thunderbolt o 20 Suvarata o Tortoise I World rests on tortoise o 21 Narni or Nemi Blue lotus 0 Has a great temple upon a cliff under Mt Gimar o 22 Aristanemi o Conch shell 0 23 Parsva or Parshva 0 Ser t pen 0 Has a great temple on Mt Parasnath o c 750 o 24 Mahavira 0 Lion o c 599527 bc e or c 540 bce birth Statues I are always standing naked men 0 because it s harder to meditate standing Mahavira always didwhat was harder Three Sects I Shvetarnbara the white clad 0 Wear at least one garment Admit women I Digarnb sky cla 0 Go n e nly men Tolerate no idols and have no temples 0 They worship everywhere Mainly through meditation and introspection Buddhism in Its First Phase Moderation in World Renunciation D ar The norm that which is true Term Buddhists use when referring to what the west calls Buddhism 0 Origin of Buddhism 0 movement looking toward liberation of the self from the suffering entailed in living in the world 0 A step toward independence of thought and action springing from the Kshatriya caste and appealing to all classes and conditions of men 0 autama annd l quot A ofthe 39 I 4 their leilll 39 The gotra or family name of Prince Siddhartha the founder of Buddhism He tested every way of salvation offered by the teachers and spiritual leaders of his time o Siddhartha Gautama o Siddharthawas the name given at birth 0 Gautama was the family name of the founder of Buddhism I Born in Northern Indiabetween560BC and487BC Grew up wealth Married a princess Had one son Soothsayers forewamed his father that Siddhartha might give up the household life and become a houseless monk but if he was kept from leaving he d a might become the emperor ofall In 1 I Father sheltered him so that he would never experience the severities and sorrows of life nor the fact that human life is cut short by old age disease and death because he didn t want him to turn to religion I Gods sent one of their number down to earth to assume the shapes that would awaken the young prince to his true destiny I At 26 years old he made up his mind to go out from the household life into the homeless state a er viewing The Four Passing Sights 0 An old man 0 A diseased man 0 A dead man 0 A calm monk o The Great Going Forth ode away on great white horse with charioteer to a far place beyond a river I Shaved his hair and bear I Exchanged rich garments for coarse yellow robe I Sent back his charioteer I Plunged into the forest to seek deliverance from the cares of mortal existence 0 6 year Period of Intensive Struggle for the Realization of Salvation I Attempted 2 roads to salvation o Philosophic meditation like Hindu monks o 1 e Y o Became disciple of2 ascetic teachers living in hillside caves ne taught him the realm of nothingness The other taught him the state of neitherideationnornonideation o Bodily asceticism like Jainism 0 ye s ar 0 5 asceticsjoined him but le him when he accepted food and milk from a young village girl 0 Concluded that the way of selfmortification had failed that his body could not support his intellect and that he would eat and drink to strengthen it I Sat down at the foot of a Botree and entered upon a process of meditation that was to affect the thinking of millions of people a er him Though skin nerves and bone shall waste away and lifeblood itself be dried up here sit I tillI attain Enlightenment I He let his mind wander back over his previous experience and realized His inability to experience release from his sufferings was due to desire constantly and pain illy thwarted He connected desire with frustration and pain and focused on tha o If one s desires attach one to this world one will return repeatedly a er death in other forms Until one has eliminated earthly desires by desiring only BrahmanAtman then one will go forever to Nirvana I Experienced the earthly foretaste of Nirvana and became the Buddha the Enlightened One I Decided to postpone his nal entrance into Nirvana and become a teaching Buddha He taught others the way to enlightenment for 45 years 0 The Teachings of the Buddha o T Sermon in the Deer Park at Benares Found the 5 ascetics who had deserted him at Uruvela when he decided to eat and drink 0 Taught them to avoid two extremes A life given to pleasure or selfindulgence I 39 is degrading sensual vulgar ignoble andprofitless o A life given to mortifications 39 is pain il ignoble and profitless o By avoiding these two extremes the Truthfinder has gained the knowledge of the Path which leads to insight which leads to wisdom which conduces calm to knowledge to Enlightenment to Nirvana o Told the 5 ascetics about his own experience challenged them to believe his testimony and to admit that he was an arahat and to try the middle way a monk who had experienced enlightenment o the 5 ascetics were converted and the Sangha came into being The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma the Buddhist monastic order 0 The Middle Path I The cause of suffering is desire I Must eliminate all desire including the desire to eliminate desire o o The Moral Rules for Monks L Karma I 1 o Rebirth Without Transmigrati o The Four The Essential Rules 53 wearing ofthe yellow robe The adoption of the shaven head The carrying of the begging bowl The habit of daily meditation Subscription to the initiate s confession o I take re ige in Buddha I take refuge in the Dharma the Law or Truth I take refuge in the Sangha the Order 10 Precepts monks obey all ten laity obey the first 5 1 Refr k ling ain from 1 2 Refrain from taking what is not given 3 Refrain from wrong il indulgence of passion 4 Refrain from 1 in 5 Abstain from intoxicants 6 Eat moderately and not after noon 7 Do not look on at dancing singing or dramatic spectacles 8 Do not affect the use of garlands scents unguents or ornaments 9 Do not use high or broad beds Do not accept gold or silver esser Moralities Killing living things Do not use a stick or knife Compassion for welfare of all living things No thieving Chastity Speak the truth do not break promise No slander No harsh language No frivolous language clear and to the point at on time do not see dancing give up garlands perfume high beds gold silver buying and selling Moralities Destroy no seedlin s Do not store up food or possessions Do not see spectacles No animal fighting euvers S a a E No cosmetics No shampooing No religious arguments 0 Do not serve the king as a messenger or in any capacity Great Moralities No interpretation of signs of body portents or dreams No foretelling of astronomical events famines epidemics or luck days No use of spe s The goal is withdrawal from desires good andbad 0 se who are not emancipated from the the willtoliveandhave will be reborn A person of any caste or class could experience such a complete change ofheart or disposition as to escape the full consequence of sins committed in previous existences The arahats who by steadfast mind have become exempt from evil desire may feel assured that their old karma is exhausted no new karma is being produced their hearts are fee from the longing a er a iture life 39sa Gotarni finds true meaning of karma on Rebirth takes place without actual soul substance passing over from one impermanent state to another 0 ere is no ego atman here to be found Skandhas o A composite of5 constantly changing states ofbeing The body Perception Feelings pa lIldJJlL in this andprevious existences ooooo eation or reasonin In rebirth no soul is transferred only the karmaladen character structure of the previous life Nobel Truths Problem In what way should one live to obtain surcease of pain and suffering bring to an end the unwise will to live and have and finally attain the illness of thejoy of liberation er the 4 Nobel Truths The Nobel Truth of Suffering o Bodily conditions which result from attachments are painful Birth is pain Decay is pain il Union with the unpleasant is painful Separation from the pleasant is pain il I Crav1ngs that are unsatisfied are painful o Crav1ng for pleasur o Crav1ng for a itu o Craving for happiness in this life o The Nobel Truth of the Cessation of Suffering o A doning the desire 0 Do awaywith desire o Deliverance from desire o Destruction of desire o The Nobel Truth of the Path which leads to the cessation of sufferings The Holy Eightfold Path I Right Belief o Belief in the Four Nobel Truths and the view of life implied in them Right Aspiration 0 To have the right love of others to harm no living being and to suppress all miseryproducing desires Right Speech 0 No indulgence in loose or hurtful talk Right Behavior 0 No indulgence in ill will Right Livelihood 0 Proper occupation of one s time amp energies Right Effort Untiring and unremitting intellectual alertness in discriminating between wise and unwise desires and attachments Right Thoughts 0 Welldisciplined thought habits during long hours spent in attention to helpful topics Right Meditation The climax of all the other processes 0 Spiritualizing Hindu Practices I Wo shiping the 6 quarters NSEW Nadir and Zenith o r o Devotion to friends 0 South 0 Duties to teachers 0 East 0 Mother and Father I will cherish them and do them service and maintain offerings to departed spirits 0 West 0 Cherishing and being faithful to wife 0 Nadir o Caring for friends and servants o Zeni o Caring for ascetics and Brahmins 0 Four Stages of implementing the four tru s I 1 Sta e o Destroy 3 bonds 0 Dou t 0 Trust in good works and ceremonies o Belief in permanent self problem I W at is reincarnated In Hinduism is the soul in a new body In Buddhism it is the karma the metaphysical entity the good and evil actions of previous lives I 2 Stage 0 Having Destroyed the 3 bonds you now 0 Reduce passion including hatred malice 0 Reduce confusion of mind 0 If you die in this state you will return but once more I 3m Stage 0 All 5 lower bonds are destroyed o Doubt 0 Trust in good works 0 Belief in permanent self 0 Sensuality passion o Malice o If you die in this state you are reborn in higher existence than a man and obtain Nirvana there I 43911 Stage 0 Ifyou are still on earth you are not a layman 0 Eliminate the 5 higher bon s Desire for aworld of form Desire for a formless world ooooo Pri e Haughtiness Ignorance o 2 Types of Nirvana I 1 5 elimination of desires ParaNirvana o nder the botree I 2 at death Complete extinction ultimate goalNirvana unknown state at death aka Religious Development of Buddhism 0 Tripit three baskets early Buddhist scripture I Vi aya 39tak o Monastic Rules I Sutta Pitaka Discourses 0 Voice of Buddha himself I Abhidhamma Pitaka 0 Sup lement to the Doctrines The Second Council Lead to Formal Division into Two Groups 0 Theravada Hinayana I dherents ofthe Teaching ofthe Elders o Mahasanghika Mahayana Members ofthe Great Sangha Asoka 0 One of the greatest emperors in Indian history 0 Publicly embraced Buddhism as his faith and became intensely interested in its propagation 0 Wanted his people to be united and practice piety and a commo o Realized that a divided Buddhism would be weakened in its home territory I Issued edicts discouraging schism I recommended in ddhistharmon I and called together the Third Council which Hinayana Theravada Buddhism 0 Smal wa 0 Several SubGroups 0 Usually live in I Indonesia I Burma I Thailand I Cambodia I L L renr ani ed order ao s Viet Nam Stresses Individual Enlightenment Conservative Stress on Letter of Law Scholastic Nirvana is negative concepts are negative Formally Monastic Spiritualistic Individualistic dha Human obtained enlightenment Mahayana Buddhism 0 Great way 100 SubSchools Found in 0000000 00 39 3P I Korea Viet Nam Stresses Universal Enlightenment Progressive Stress on spirit write new scripture when needed More devotional and emotional Nirvana is positive and personal More stress on household life Help others obtain Nirvana Bodhisattvas Buddha has 3 personalities I God Head 0 The Buddha Nature 0 wisdom and compassion I Son oooooooo Gautama Buddha and all other Buddhas and Bodhisatvas 0 Holy Spirit 0 e Law Dharma o ho sees me sees the Dharma the Law 0 Reality of Buddha always enlightened o Manushi Budd I H o o Gods of Mahayana Buddhism 0 Dhyani Buddhas Contemplative Buddhas Bodhisattvas I Buddhas who have not achieved full Buddhahood Lamas Buddhas with DharmaKaya 0 Absolute bodies They have entered Nirvana forever Majority of Buddhist laymen in J 0 has and other countries look to Dhyani Buddhas especially Amitabha for aid Amitabha India Amida Korea and Japan Daibutsu Japan 0 Masculine 0 Name means measureless life 0 Called the Great Buddha of Japan I When Japanese speak of The Buddha they usually mean Amida 0 Was once a Bodhisattva but became a Dhyani Buddha without entering nirvana I The only Dhyani Buddha not in Nirvana forever 0 He rules Heaven Sukhavati The Pure Land and greets you when you get there 0 He hears the prayers of the faithful To die while speaking in faith the name Amitabha assures salvation Vairocana Masculine 0 Originally an oriental Sun God 0 Linked with Amaterasu I Feminine Shinto sun goddess to be an avatar of Vairocana Bhaimjyaguru o Masculine o The Buddha of Healing uman Buddhas with nirvana kaya A body of transformation Have lived among men Once a M o anushi Buddha has performed his allotted task he enters Nirvana and is then beyond the power of men Siddhartha Gautama India S amam39 J er of Buddhism Major human manifestation of the Buddha Nature Was a Bodhisattva before he came to earth With the exception of Japan when The Buddha is mentioned Buddhists are referring to the Gautama Buddha oooo Postponing Dhyani Buddhahod in order to aid men to achieve nirvana They have a Sambhoga Haya body ofBliss They reside in paradise but can aid men in o man s everyday affairs and in reaching nirvana Avalokitexhvara or the Lord Avalokita India Kuan Ym or Kwan YmChina KwarmonCapan Masculine in India Feminine in other countries The Lord who looks down on this world from above Goddess of Mercy A kind of Virgin Mary to Buddhist She helps woman to bear and conceive children She guides the faithful to Heaven Sukhavati The Pure Land of Amitabha She helps in many other practical ways differing from village to village She has come to earth over 300 times as ahuman and once as a horse Manjuxri India Monju Japan 0 Masculine 0 00000000 0 Represents personified wisdom The Buddha ofLogic knowledge and meditation Krhitigarbha India Jiso Japan 0 Usually masculine but has appeared several times as awoman 0 He can divide himself into 6 persons one for each stage of existence He can and does descend into Hell upon request and rescues one s ancestors from torment taking them to Heaven 0 In Japan he is o en identified with the Shinto War God Hachiman Maitreya o Masculine 0 He is a god who has not yet come 0 Similar to the 2 coming of Jesus in Christianity or the messiah in Judaism 0 When he comes he will usher in an earthly kingdom of prosperity health wisdom and virtue One of the 2 Buddhas recognized also by Hinayana Buddhism Samantabhadra o Masculine o e who brings happiness to his followers and fosters in them his own universal kindness o A companion to Manjum39 George Washington 0 asculine o Bodhisattva of truth he could not tell a lie 0 Bodhisattva of courage Valley Forge 0 Bodhisattva of modesty He re ised a kingship o Temples located in Dallas TX San Jose CA amp Tulsa OK I Considered to be bodhisattvas by some scholars others make them a separate class of heavenlyearthly beings a139 ama 0 An individual in a series of Human Gods who are ordained by the BuddhaNature to have absolute ruling power over Tibet o Mahayana Parables o The tiger the crocodile and the strawberry Zen I Monk enjoyed the strawberry with tiger above and crocodile below Carrying the girl across the river I You 0 ng monk criticizes old monk for carrying female 0 The prodigal son I Son has to take variousjobs to work for his father and earn his way back 0 The rain cloud I The law falls equally on all the law bringsjoy o The burning house I Father tells the son that there will be lots of toys outside to get them out of the burning house 0 Z o 53911 largest in Japan 0 2 largest in US 0 Goal is immediate insight meditation or dhyana I special oral transmission from master to disciple outside ofthe scriptures I No dependence upon authority of words or letters I Direct pointing to the soul of man eeing into one s own nature and attaining Buddhahood O Founder is Bodhidharrna I Bodhidharrna came to South China at the end of the 53911 century ce I No merit from imperial donations and translations of sacred books I No merit from good works I You gain Buddhahood nirvana Satori by meditation 0 Japanese word for nirvana I You gain meditation by simple living strict selfdiscipline and concentration I In uenced b Dao I Developed 7 sects 2 survived 0 Goal ofboth sects 0 You must actualize nonduality I De ment of the koan the goal is satori ase a verbal puzzle used especially in Rinzai Zen to tempt and frustrate rational thought and force learners into nondual apprehension of reality I Development of the Haiku I Meditate on the sound made by clapping one hand 0 The Goose in the bottle 0 LinJi Rinzai o More popular 0 Abrupt procedures and difficult problems leading to sudden enlightenment o Caodung Soto o Broad development of the understanding through book learning and instruction leading to gradual enlightenment o The Laman Chan 0 P ang Yun born in China approximately 740 ce died 808 ce o How he handled hiswealth o The story ofhis death and ofhis son daughter and wife Sikhis 0 Origin of Sikhism Founded in 153911 century Emerged in northwest India where Hindus and Muslims had lived side by side for four centuries in uneasy tension Openly drew upon the resources of both the Hindu and Muslim communities and managed to develop a character of its own Eclectic combination of Hinduism and Islam Followers believe it to have been authenticated by a new divine revelation to the founder Nanak I Godi the True Name iappeared to Nanak and charged him with a redemptive mission to a divided world 00000 0 Before Nanak o Rarnananada c 1400 ce I Established a Vaishnavite bhakti sect that sought to purge itself of certain Hindu beliefs and practices 0 Founded an order to worship Rama an Sita o Admitted all castes o Ate meat 0 Developed leaders including A Brahmin A Muslim A Jat A Shudra 000000 A woman An outcaste Harijan o Kabir 14401518 Disciple of Rarnananada Had Hindu mother and Muslim father Worshiped SAT Nam Hated idols God is one there is no other Declared that the love of God was sufficient to free anyone of any class or race from the Law of Karma The simple complete love of God that absorbs the soul into the Absolute is suf cient to end reincarnation o Nanak the first Guru Born in 1469 ce at the village of Talwandi Born into Kshatriya class Quiet o en sick small boy Married and had two sons Left home renounced farnil At age 36 he had a mystical experience I Disappeared in the forest I Taken in avision to God s presence I Drank sacred nectar Sikh communion o nectar was in fact the thrilling revelation of God as True Name I Under the stress of his feelings Nanak is said to have then uttered the preamble ofthe Japji o A composition that is silently repeated as a morning devotional rite by every devout Sikh to this day I A er 3 days Nanak emerged from the forest and the next day announced new doctrine I ere is no Hindu and no Muslim o Traveled through India with Muslim musician friend Mardana o Attracted many followers in the Punjab Bengal and Ceylon Mecca and Kaba o Nanak s Teachings 0 God 000000 I One sovereign Creator God Sat NameTrue Name or HariLord or Guru I God has no avatars and cannot and may not be represented by images I God is all powerful I God has made the rich and poor equal all men and women are created equal 0 Humans I I 39 A 39 the hi he 1 of creatures the human being be served by the lower creations o Kismet predestination God dwells within the human heart Human nature is essentially part of Sat Nam Humans have the absolute duty to obey Sat Nam Sin is the cause ofhuman misery We are all sinners 0 Act of sensually emphasized 0 Later Gurus emphasized acts ofwill 0 Salvation I Obedience to the will of God leads to salvation I Doctrine ofgood works I However God may act with grace to save those who respond to him in faith I umans must have love for Go and other humans I Obey your guru to find God s will I Repeat the divine name as mantra 0 Conduct I You may eat meat Oppose asceticism and removing self from the world Be involved in politics andworldly affairs Exercise and train Good health A good Sikh is Pure in motive and in act Prefers the virtuous Accepts others without regard to caste Craves the guru s word and all divine knowledge as a creature craves food Loves one spouse and renounces all others Avoids quarrelsome topics Not arrogant Does not trample on others Forsakes evil company 0 Associates with only the holy I No tobacco I No alcohol I all humankind later militarism o Destiny I Rebirth for the unworth I Reunion with God is the ultimate goal I The reunion is a merger with God I Some Sikhs today have more of a reunion in heaven o Gurus 1 an o 2Anga o 3Amar o 5Arjun o 10GobindRai 39 16 14691538 Founder There is no Hindu There is no Muslim 15401552 Chosen by Nanak Leader ofthe Hindu Durga Sect Enlarged the Gurdwaras Opened it to all races castes ect Created an alphabet for Sikhs D s a 155 21574 Chosen by Angad Devoted to social and religious reforms Condemned Sati buming ofwife on husband s funeral Wrote poetry that criticized 0 Hindu scriptures lytheism o o Idolatry o Brahmins Praised virtue and piety 15811606 Son of fourth guru Ram Das Compiled Adi Granth o Sikh Bible Made Amritsar the home of the Sikhs Wrote hymns and sacred scripture Expanded public kitchen Imposed the tithe to support the kitchen and his office and the temple Supported Khursraw in a plot to overthrow his grandfather the Mughal emperor and replace his father Salim Jahangir Plot failed Became first Sikh mart Instructed his son to add to the scripture Maintain an army 51708 Took the name of Gobind Singh The Lion Son of 93911 guru Teg Bahadur Organized the Khalsa United the Sikh church and the state Developed initiation by a combined baptism and communion with sugar water stirred with a sword and drank and sprinkled over communicants Appointed a committee to form policies Adopted the 5 K s for members Admitted people for all four castes including women and outcastes Attacked the Mughals 0 After small victories he was defeated by overwhelming forces and driven into the desert and mountain 0 Developed guerilla tactics Revised Adi Granth Composed new additional scripture Died in 1708 leaving instructions for committee to carry on rather than anew guru o The Adi Granth Sikh Bible 0 Khalsa the Order of Singhs o The Khalsa the Pure through the Khanda diPahul or Baptism of the Sword 0 Brotherhood of the Pure e pure are of God and the victory is to God 0 Charged to wear ever after the five K s I Kesh 0 Long uncut hair or head and chin Kangha o Comb Kachh o Sh ort trou sers Kara or Kartha 0 Steel bracelet Kirpan o Sword or dagger 0 Golden Temple in Amritsar


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