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by: Kevon Green


Kevon Green
Texas A&M
GPA 3.52

Shane Hudson

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Shane Hudson
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kevon Green on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPMT 217 at Texas A&M University taught by Shane Hudson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/226188/spmt-217-texas-a-m-university in Smgt Sport Management at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
SPMT 217 Exam 4 Study Guide Bill Veeck and his role in sports Founder of sport promotion Sales 1 Purpose historically 2 Areas most important 3 Ways sports sales are different from other services 1 Organizations hired interns to sell their product or service with no presales training Sometimes staff did not even know what they were selling quothere is the phonebookstart dialing approach 2 Research database and customer satisfaction 3 Sport sales are unique because there is a presence of emotion Database Marketing Pooling of names addresses numbers and other demographic information Used to target potential customers to maximize sales efforts All other surveys you might fill out at a baseball game to win a free car autographed bat etc that ask for personal information contribute to this database Direct Mail Solicitations Used to reach only those people the organization wants to reach minimizing the expense of circulating sales offers to people that have little interest Personal Selling Facetoface selling usually targeted with the help of some kind of database More costlytime consuming Usually only personally selling to buyers of highpriced inventory larger season ticket holders suite holders and sponsorship companies More effective and precise Aftermarketing Process of retaining customers Encourages organizations to View season ticket holders not as a one time 3000 but based on a 10yr potential span a 30000 client Upselling Escalator concept strive to move customers up escalator from buying single game tickets to mini ticket plans to season ticket packages Effects of new leagues teams and events Calls for more trained professionals in the field because as more and more similar eventsteams are created the competition to sell to consumers also increases Targeted Sponsorships Enable corporate marketers to reach specific segments ofpeople like heavy users shareholders investors people with similar demographics psychographic or geographic commonalities Example from textbook a cereal company bought a sponsorship package with the SEC because it wanted to tap into the EMOTION of football in the south The cereal company wanted SEC fans to relate their brand as something ofvalue because they support the SEC Cross Promotion 2 companies joining together to capitalize on a sponsorship Enables weaker companies to piggyback on the strength ofa bigger company to gain advantage over its competitors More quotbang for their buck for 2 sponsors can generate more interest amp awareness among targeted sport consumers 1 Reasons for sport sponsorship growth 2 Pros and cons to sport sponsorship 3 Current reasons why companies purchase sport sponsorships 1 Increasing commercialization of sports amp 1984 LA Olympic GamesPeter 2 Pro Affiliation with a wellliked team could increase sales in that area etc Cons for teams if company sponsoring you has a scandal etc it could look bad on your team if the field is named after that company etc Cons for companies if team is unsuccessful has a scandal people could associate your company with that 3 Affiliation with a wellliked team could increase sales What did the 3984 LA Olympic games do for sponsorship Peter Ueberroth revolutionized the idea of sport sponsorship by setting an example that companies that sponsor popular sporting events can game tremendous popularity for that sponsorship InKind rights fee Payment in goodsservices rather money It is not paid in terms ofmonetary value 22 1 Plan Corporate sponsorship program created by Peter Ueberroth and the MLB that required companies to annually commit minimum of 2 million in advertising to support and promote MLB 2 million in promotional spending equally to every MLB team and 1 million in cash andor an quotinkindquot rights fee Return on Investment ROI Potential buyers proving to their CEO that investing in a sponsorship with your sport organization will meet their company39s specific marketing and sales objectives in some measurable way Pros and cons of quotinvenuequot promotions Most commonly used at MLB games Like free tshirts or bobble heads etc Pros It can increase the quotvalueaddedquot to actually coming to the game for fans Traditional giveawayssponsor underwrites cost ofitem in exchange for logo on it amp advertising support that promotes event Continuity promotionsrequire fans to attend multiple games to collect Cons Ifnot done correctly it can cost your franchise money Depends on time of season team record day ofpromo opponent you are playing Sport communication community relations Activities undertaken to have a positive impact on the community because it portrays the organization in a positive manner Video News Release VNR A prescripted press release that makes it easier for online news organizations to get your organizations message out Press Release Lets people interested know what an organization is doing and are sent out to editors and reporters in hopes of stimulating favorable stories about their organizations Inverted pyramid style of writing Used in press releases this style presents the most important facts in the leading paragraph Broll Raw footage not a finished segment which the organization selects and gives a news producer the proper equipment to support a written announcement Advertising Information placed in the media by an identified sponsor that pays for the time or space It is a controlled method ofplacing messages in the media Integrated marketing communications Symbiosis of advertising marketing and public relations Call to Action Ads Ads that want the consumer to go out and do something like buy season tickets or a new jersey from a rookie athlete etc InternalCommunications Distributing weekly memos from the CEO to employees ofyour organization to keep everyone in the loop Also good news about ticket sales or employee of the month type stuff Pros Boosts morale and therefore production Sport Communication All methods used by a sport organization to proactively deliver it key messages to a diverse universe ofpeoplecompanies Proper media responses Athletes and heads of organizations receive media training to help them through potentially hostile interviews with the media This is done to protect the organization as a whole quotoff the recordquot comments are ill advised when talking to the media because even though you say quotoff the recordquot they could potentially still quote you saying it and whatever you said could damage your organization Best form of public relations outlet Community Relations Create a benevolent reputation for the organization in the eyes ofits fans and community leaders Website First commercial radio broadcast November 20th 1920 on the evening ofa presidential election from station KDKA in its studios at the Westinghouse electric plant in Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Pirates Situation In 1938 a local radio station broadcasted the Pirates game without their permission and the pirates sued them for it and won Established sport organizations holding rights over broadcasting etc Key Players in the growth of sport broadcasting 1 RooneArledge ABC exec that had the idea to bring the game to the viewers through multiple camera angles crowd noise 2 Alvin quotPetequot Rozelle NFL commissioner created revenue sharing in the NFL to keep a competitive balance between teams with varying market sizes Ioined forces in 1970 with RooneArledge to create Monday Night Football 3 Mark McCormack IMG Sports Broadcasting Act of 1961 Granted antitrust law immunity to the NFL MLB NHL and NBA regarding the pooled sale ofbroadcasting rights Annual television revenues for the NFL Annual TV revenues divided and distributed to all teams equally Idea set forth by Rozelle Who is Roone Arledge ABC exec that changed sports programming Provided mult angles ofplaying field crowd noise instant replay slow motion etc What agency regulates the communications industry The Federal Communications Commission an agency of the US Govt was established by the Communications Act of 1934 The FCC regulates the entire communications industry AM FM XM SAT TV CABLE etc Purpose of TV Rating Represents the ofhouseholds in the quotsurvey universequot YES Network 247 broadcasting station established for New York based sporting franchises Includes the NY Yankees amp Mets and the New York Devils hockey team currently the NY islanders the Devils moved to New Jersey The YES cable station is on a 24 year contract with all of these teams that started in 2000 Leading broadcast media research firm AC Nielsen Company Company monitors targeted homes throughout the US that give a good representation of the entire nation This company provides networks with TV Ratings and Shares New Media Emergence of digital computerized or networked information amp communication technologies in the later part of 20th century Internet is derived from what word Internetwork How much time is spent on social media Time spent on social media accounts for about 10 of total time spent online What demographic uses Facebook the most Ages ranging from 1834 which is a particularly difficult age range for sports marketers to target What is twitter best for Quick real time messages or updates and small press releases How did Nike begin Began as an offshoot from his original blue ribbon sports company Net sales in 2009 were 191 billion Competition trying to catch up Adidas bought Reebok for 38 billion in 2005 ORDAN and BO KNOWS campaigns separated Nike from all other apparel companies in terms of popularity and total revenues Albert G Spalding Sporting goods entrepreneur Official supplier status with baseball National League His selling point was that ifit was good enough for the pros then in it was good enough for you Federal Trademark Act of of 1946 Defines Trademark infringement as copying ofa registered mark and bars companies that don t pay for the right to use gives organizationsteams the power to license their colors logos etc for a royalty of the manufacturers revenue Collegiate Licensing Company renamed IMG College 1981 Articulates licensing agreements on behalf of approx 200 colleges and universities bowls conferences the Heisman trophy and the NCAA A properties component was first created by The NFL was the first league to create a properties component in 1963 Chapter 1 The history of Sport Management Roots of Sport Management Structures management structures include leagues clubs and professional tournaments The Club System a England birthplace of modern sport and sport management b 18111 Century development of sports clubs with limited membership c 19111 Century continued club evolution with standardizing rules settling disputes and organizing schedules Thoroughbred Racing rst spot transformed by the club management system 0 Races drew broad and diverse audience no admission charge for entertainment only 0 183039s railroad systems allowed horses to compete nationally 0 Owners desired to breed and train faster horses and gambling became more complex The Jockey Club The Birth of Club Governance 0 Settle disputes established rules determined eligibility designated of cials regulated breeding and punished unscrupulous participants 0 Organized sponsored and promoted local events Met the need for a strong national governing body to establish rules standards and a mechanism for resolving disputes o Served as model for cricket boxing and many other English sports The Modern Olympic Games International club events small resemblance to ancient Olympics 0 Ancient games were for greek men 0 First modern Olympics held in 1896 but the revival can be traced back to at least 1850 with club based Olympic festivals in England Present Day Club Structure commitment to serve broad membership and manage elite sport enterprise 0 Large builtin memberships and loyal fan bases ie European Football 0 Clubs organize youth teams and academics adult rec leagues and social events 0 Characterized by nonpro t status and exclusive membership I 1990first African American invited to join 0 Change from euro club system to US League system American Structures European club system did not suit the US 0 Lack of aristocratic tradition and prohibition against gambling Harness racing would become widely popular the sport of the common person Better spectator sports sprints horses Managed by track owners and race promoters League structure grew out of success and failure of harness racing 0 Issue of race xing and management lacking credibility lead to the demise of the sport Leagues Baseball was rst to adopt the league system a pro toriented league system 0 Cincinnati red stocking rst pro team 0 Some teams in the league were paid and some were not cause controversiy o 1871 The Creation of National Association of Professional Baseball Players I league split off from the current club system I the league lacked stability and leadership William Hulbert czar of baseball 0 1876 took over management of Nation League of Professional Baseball Players 0 Believed stability achieved only if teams were run like business 0 Teams should compete against each other and not collude I Understood that without rules honest competition would not exsist 0 Believe owners must take nancial risks I Such as abandoning seasons early to prevent loss in faith from public 0 Owners must eld competitive teams to be pro table Integrity of baseball was suspect as long as the payers honesty was questionable I Gambling prohibited and ticket prices raise Success of League 0 Excitement of pennant race media attention loyal and prideful fans revenue rules that distributed talent O O O O O O 0 League today 0 Successful contemporary commercial sport leagues still depend on consolidated league play with strong centralized control and regulation 0 Audience has changed public perception of honest effort resides more with the players than with ownership structure 0 Singleentity structures MLS WNBA each team is owned and operated by the league 0 Professional Sport Tournaments 0 Golf many people had no interest but this came when prize money was at stake o Corcoran39s Tournament Fre CorcoranArchitect of golf tourneys I Gold was a medium through which celebrity politicians manufacturers charity ect gained exposure 0 Gold tournys today have evolved into corporate celebrations of golf products 0 Academic Field continuing growth of sport industry and its importance to numerous sponsors and institutions created demand for the study of sports management 0 1966 James Mason first master39s program at ohio 0 More than 2 10 programs nationwide 0 North American society for sport management 0 Globalization sports management throughout Europe Australia and new Zealand 0 Sport Management Timeline 0 BC 776 First Ancient Olympic Games 1892 basketball invented 1903 Tour De France 1917 National Hockey League Est 1947 Jackie Robinson integrates MLB 1959 First Daytona 500 1967 First Super Bowl Chapter 2Management Principles Applied to Sport Management 0 Goal of Sport Managers to get workers to do what manager wants in an ef cient and cost effective manner 0 Management theory evolved though 2 phases 0 1Scienti c management 0 2 Human relations movement 0 Today Use of organizational behavior 0 Study and application of the human side of management and organizations 0 Scienti c Management 0 Taylorism 0 Workers should not be doing the same job different ways by instead in the best way 0 Manager can get workers to perform in the best way by enticing them with economic rewards 0 Human relations 0 Hawthorne studies conducted at western electrics Chicago plant I Examined how changes in working conditions affected the workers output I Concluded that job satisfaction and output depended more on cooperation and a feeling of worth than on physical working conditions I Today there is a combination between scienti c management and human relations called org behavior 0 Functional Areas sport managers must perform in a number of functional areas and execute various activities in ful lling the demands of their jobs 0 Areas include planning organizing leading and evaluating 0 Flaming de ning organizational goals and determining appropriate means by which to achieve these desired goals I Setting course of action for a sport organization I Organization plans should chane and evolve not set in stone I Managers must participate in both short and long term planning 0 Organizing putting plans into action OOOOOO I Managers determine what types of jobs need to be performed and who will be responsible for doing these jobs I Develop charts position descriptions and qualifications I Teach the staff orientation training development of staff members 0 Leading Action part of the management process I Delegation involves assigning responsibility and accountability for results to employees I Managers must manage any differences or changes that may take place in organization I Managers handle con icts work problems or communication dif culties stimulate creativity and motivate employees 0 Evaluating Measuring and ensuring progress toward organizational objectives I Progress is accomplished by the employees effectively carrying out their duties I Establish reporting systems develop performance standards compare employee performance to set standards and design reward systems 0 Key Skills 0 People skills sports management is a a people industry I Interation with unique clientele be able to treat people fair ethically and with respect 0 Communication knowing how to say something and what to say I Answering questions professionally I Treat people equally respectful I Give speeches and write in various styles 0 Manage Diversity Differences between individuals race gender sexual orientation disability education and social background I Women and minorities till underrepresented in managerial positions in the sport industry I Rooney rule required teams to interview at least one minority candidate before a hiring a head coach or general manager 0 Managing Technology I Use in sports industry Data collection ticket systems I Use in the workplace videoconferencing and multimedia presentations I Computerize ticketing systems Paciolan and prologue 0 Decision Making you need comprehensive understanding of the opportunity or problem and engage in a decision making process that will lead to an effective decision I Participative decision making employees or members of the organization participate in the actual decisionmaking process I Group decision making should be used when More ideas need to be generated there is a reat deal of info to share alternative perspectives are needed 0 Organizational Politics I Use ofpower or some other resource outside ofthe formal de nition ofa persons job to get a preferred outcome I Sport organizations have formal athletic directors and informal coaches leaders I Learning who the informal leaders are in an organization can help with sport managers understanding politics in an organization 0 Managing Change I Managers should appreciate employees resistance to change 0 Plan for resistance involve employees and provide additional training and communication 0 Managers should select priorities for change deliver tangible results publicize successes to build momentum and support 0 Managers must make sure top management sponsors are fully committed in implementation 0 Motivation I Critical for everyone to be on the same page when it comes to working to accomplish organizational goals and objectives I How to raise the level of employee motivation 0 Appropriate motives and values attractive and consistent jobs de ned work goals appropriate resources and supportive environments performance reinforced 0 Taking Initiative quotWhat else needs to be donequot I Initiative enables you to learn different aspects of sport organization I Allows you to meet and interact with people outside of of ce you work in this increasing your network I Shows your employer your commitment to working in sports industry 0 Current Issues 0 Managing Tech understand how explanding tech will imrove customer relations and service 0 International sport management differences in language culture etiquette ect 0 New Management theries empowerment to make decisions with in your are and emotional intelligence Chapter 3 Marketing Principles Applied to Sport Management 0 What is Sport Marketing 0 Obtains the best possible understanding of what consumers want 0 Includes markting of I Products equipment apparel services lesions entities leagues teams 0 Evolution of Sport Broadcasting 0 From pure factual reporting aimed at sport fans to sport entertainment aimed at masses 0 Roone arledge ABC Monday night football combined entertainment and sports 0 Success in prime time espn esan 0 Sport Sponsorship o Sponsorship the acquisition of rights to af liate or directly associate with a product or event for purpose of deriving with a product or even for purpose of deriving bene ts related to that af liation 0 Albert G Spalding first marketer to capatalize on the word of cial 0 Mark McCormack built IMG through golfer Arnold Palmer 0 Nike and Air Jordan packaging of nike advertising 0 Product Extension and Promotion 0 Bill Veeck team must provide reasons other than the game itself for people to attend and support franchise I Creates the greatest joy for the greatest number of people I Ensure a pleasurable attending experience I Create conversation 0 Research in Sport Marketing 0 Matt Levine creditied with formalizing customer research in sport industry 0 The Marketing Mix controllable variable that company puts together to satisfy a target group 0 4 P39s I Product actual event experience I Price depends on value or perceived value I Place pre selling and exceptional locations I Promotion advertising personal selling publicity and sales promotion 0 Segmentation identifying subgroups of overall marketplace based on age income level ethnicity geography and or lifestyle 0 Fan Identi cation the personal commitment and emotional involvement customers have with sport organization 0 Enhanced longterm loyalty in sport fans 0 Sponsorship opportunities resulting from ability to tap into strong emotional connection between a fan and his or her sport team Relationship Marketing aids in fostering identi cation with sport teams 0 Begins with customer and encourages integration of the customer into company 0 Builds relationships through communication satisfaction and service 0 Service Quality ability to provide consistent highquality service becomes source of competitive advantage for rms 0 Aftermarketing customer retention activities for customer after purchase 0 Current issues 0 Cost ofAttendance inclease in games causes sports fans not able to pay lose value in going to see games I Need to make fans happy but need to increase revenue Database Marketing creating a database that includes consumer names addresses and other demographic information I Managing database by developing and delivering integrated marketing programs including promotions and sales offers to targeted consumer segments I Database marketing is often an integral factor in a company39s decision to sponsor an event Cluttered Marketplace numerous and varied entertainment options are available to a consumer with leisure time I Added technological options for the next generations of sport fans Marketplace cluttered for sponsors rise in number of athletes and events increase in number of advertising opportunities Future heightened focus on marking mainstream sports to youth increase challenge for sport entity to demonstrate how sponsor will bene t from a sponsorship Image I Development and cultivation of a positive image is becoming very important 0 Cluttered marketplace imperative to corporations identify sports events or athletes that have unique images 0 Corporate and athlete ethical scandals I Results corporations are more discerning in ways that they spend their sponsorship and endorsement dollars they may now spend more on nonpro t organizations and causes Chapter 4 Financial and Economic Principles Applied to Sport management 0 Introduction nancial aspects of sport world show in the emdia can seem staggering to the average person Is a major North American business What is Finance 0 Refers to 2 primary activities of an organization I How an organization generates the funds that ow into that organization I How these funds are allocated and spent once they are in the organization Financial Flows in Sport Organizations 0 Pro ts Income difference between infow revenue and out ow expenses 0 Assets anything an organization owns that can be used to generate future revenue 0 Teams can fund or nance assets in many ways I Owners Equity the amount of their own money owners have invested in the firm I Debt amount of money an organization borrows 0 College sports are nonpro t Use budgetary transfers from the university and other innovative methods Some Typical Financial Decisions nancial info revolves around the management of assets 0 Return of Investment expected dollar value on each alternative investment 0 Risk I Future bene ts of investment cannot be known at time of investment I Owners must decide how much they will nance with their own money and how much with borrowed money 0 Debt carries more risk than equity does The Economics of Sports spectator sport industry is organized much differently from no spectator industry from the rest of American business 0 The existence of one franchise bene ts the other 0 Sport Leagues considered monopolies I They face no direct competition I Gives them bargaining power when dealing with stakeholders corporate sponsors and local governments And allows them to charge higher prices Allows them to earn much higher pro ts than would otherwise be the case as well as enact financial policies that would be possible with direct competition I Only legal monopolies in united states 0 Can Growth Continue 0 O O 0 There has been an explosion of spending on recreation and tness activities the population has aged overall af uence has increased and societal concerns about heath related issues have grown o Spectator sport industries have gone under tremendous revenue growths 0 Challenges increasingly large capital investment is needed to be able to continue to generate revenue 0 College athletics continues to be unpro table revenue generated at football or basketball games is insuf cient to compensate for de cits of other sports 0 Competitive Balance I Entertainment value connected to uncertainty of outcomequot I Differences in market sizes cause differences in revenue potentian which cause differences in ability to pay players which causes differences in on eld performance Chapter 5 Legal Principles Applied to Sport Management 0 Sport Law application of existing laws to the sport setting A few laws speci c to sport industry regulation of boxing and sport agent industries Title IX 0 When a dispute arises over interpretation of a rule or regulaion sport lawyers often represent both the governing body and the participants 0 Involvement of sport lawyers occurs because sport organizations hire lawyers to draft their rules and regulations this lawyers to interpret them 0 0 History 0 Tort law cases involving participation in sports and games date from early evolution of tort law 0 Many of the earliest US lawsuits in sport industry involve professional baseball I Players challenged owners on reserve systems that prevented players fom free agency I 0wnders challenged each other on the business of sport 0 First sport law course was offered in 1972 at Boston College Law School 0 Considerable growth over last 30 years caused by I Legal profession more specialized I Amount of litigation and diversity of cases in the sport industry have increased as more people rely on the courts to resolve disputes I Many athletic associations have adopted their own governance systems with rules regulations and procedures based on the US legal system 0 Skills in legal education are bene cial to many positions in the sport industry 0 Key Concepts 0 Risk Management Developing a management strategy to maintain greater control over legal uncertainty I Prevention keeping problems from arising I Intervention Having an action plan to follow when problems do occur 0 DIM Develop Implement and Manage risk I Include all employees in the 3stage process 0 judicial Review Occurs when plaintiff challenges a rule in a sport organization and the court determines whether it should review the sport organizations decision I Historically courts decline to overturn the rules of voluntary athletic organizations unless certain conditions exist I Plaintiffs interest is to keep rule from applying or to force athletic association to apply it differently I Plaintiffs seek injunction 0 An order from the court to do or not do particular action I Court will intervene if the athletic organization 0 Violates misapplies its own rule a statute public policy constitutional law and its state actor acts as arbitrator or in a capricious manner exceeds the scope of its authority 0 Tort Liability I Tort an injury or wrong suffered as the result of anothers improper conduct 0 Tort law provides monetary damages to compensate an injured person 0 Intentional torts occur when a person purposely causes harm to another or engages in activity that is certain to cause harm o Negligence is an unintentional tort and is the most common tort that sport managers encounter I Negligence 0 Sport managers are negligent when 0 They commit an act omission causing injury to a person to whom they owe a duty of care 0 Negligence imposes a duty to refrain from careless acts 0 Plaintiff must show the sport manager owed the plaintiff a duty of care and breac e o A duty of care arises from relationship between plaintiff and defendant 0 When a duty is breached and that breach is the cause of an injury for which there are monetary damages I Vicarious Liability 0 Allows a plaintiff to sue superior for the negligent acts of a subordinate o This happens when an employee commits a tort and a plaintiff seeks to hold the employer liable o 3 Defenses available 0 Employee was not negligent 0 Employee was not acting within scope of employment 0 Employee was an independent contractor I Agency Law 0 Agency describes a relationship in which one party the agent agrees to act for under the direction of another the principal 0 Purpose of agency law is to establish duties that principals and agents owe each other 0 Agency law is an important component of player representation industry 0 Fiduciary duties inherent in principal agent relationship 0 Principals duciary duties I To comply with a contract if one exists I To compensate the agent for his or her service I To reimburse the agent for any expenses incurred while acting on the principal s behalf 0 Agents Fiduciary Duties To obey remain loyal exercise reasonable care notify account I Contract Law 0 Contract Written or oral agreement between two or more parties creates legal obligations to ful ll the promises 0 Sport managers negotiate and enter into contracts regularly with or without legal advice 0 A Valid contract must have the following elements 0 Offer and acceptance mutual assent 0 Consideration value 0 Capacity 0 Legality subject matter legal and not against public policy I Constitutional Law 0 Developed from precedents established by courts applying language of the US Constitution and state constitutions to actions and policies of governmental entities 0 Four constitutional challenges arise in sports 0 Due process 0 Equal protection 0 The right to be free from unreasonable search and seizure o Invasion of privacy 0 US Constitution and state constitutions do not apply to private entities 0 Exception I Title IX I Antitru O o In some cases a private entity is so enmeshed with the public that courts apply constitution to private entity When a private entity meets this standard it is called a state actor Due Process 5111 and 14th Amendments the right to notice and a hearing before life liberty or property may be taken away Equal Protection 14 Amendment 0 No person shall be discriminated against unless a constitutionally permissible reason for discrimination exists 0 Standards of review for discrimination Strict scrutiny on the basis of race religion or national origin Legitimate interest on the basis of gender discrimination can occur only if legitimate interest for doing so exists Reasonable basis Discrimination on any other status or classi cation Search and Seizure 4th Amendment 0 People have the right to be secure in their persons houses papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures the act of takin the athletes urine or blood for drug testing 0 Several courts determined the private athletic associations or public high school drug testing programs do not violate state constitutional rights 0 Invasion of Privacy there is no speci c amendment for invasion of privacy court has implied one form the constitution Sport cases usually deal with drug testing Comprehensive statute aimed at eliminating sex discrimination in educational institutions that receive federal funding In athletics cases focus on three areas 0 Proportionate scholarship distribution 0 Equal treatment bene ts and opportunities given in speci c programs areas 0 Degrees to which educational institution has equally and effectively a accommodated the interest and abilities of male and female students st Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 goal promote competiion in the free market break up business trusts and monopolies and prohibit anticompetitive activity by businesses There is just one major professional league for each sport thus their domination of the market gets challenged as monopolies violating Sherman Act Antitrust Exemptions 0 MLB is exempt from antitrust laws as a result of a 1922 Supreme Court Federal Baseball decision All professional sport leagues and tours are subject to antitrust rules Curt Flood Act Legislative response to Federal Baseball and dozens of unsuccessful congressional acts allows MLB palyers to sue their employers under the Sherman Act but exempts the business of baseball including the minor leagues franchise expansion licensed properties 0 Sport Broadcasting act of 1961 exempts leagues from antitrust laws when pooling rights to enter into national broadcasting rights 0 Labor exemption restrictive practices are exempt from antitrust law when those practices have been negotiated in a collective bargaining agreement by labor and management I Labor and Employment Laws National Labor Relations Act 1935 establishes procedures for union certi cation and decerti cation and rights and obligations of union and management once a union is in place 0 Areas of the sport industry where unions occur are facility management and professional sport 0 Unions can be found in interscholastic athletics but state labor laws apply 0 Players associate differ from union in other industries 0 Turnover rate for sport union members is high because of short careers of athletes o Forces player associations to constantly spread their message to new members throughout north America 0 Unions struggle to keep superstars and players on the bench equally satis e 0 Management in professional sport favors unions to achieve the labor exemption for restrictive practices 0 Equal Pay Act 1963 Prohibits employers from paying one employee less than another on the basis of sex when performing jobs of equal skill effort and responsibility 0 EPA only applies to sex discrimination on the basis of compensation 0 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Federal law prohibiting discrimination in many settings including housing education and public accommodations o Protects all classes of people from dissimilar treatment 0 Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967 Prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of age 0 Applies to employers engaged in commerce who hire more than 20 workers for 20 or more calendar weeks as well as labor unions and state and federal governments 0 Employer can defend a claim by proving decision was made because of reasonable factors other than age 0 Americans with Disabilities act 1990 prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability Applicant or employee must be able to perform all essentian functions of the job 0 Employer must asses responsibility required fro job and assess an individuals ability to do them 0 ADA extends beyond employment to places of public accommodation common in sport I Places of public accommodations stadiums arenas course I Intellectual Property 0 Trademark word name or symbol used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify and distinguish its goods from those manufactures and sold by others 0 Lanham Act governs trademarks gives protection to the owner a name or logo keeps other from selling good as the goods ofthe original source 0 Current Issues Olympics I Growing number of challenges over rules and regulations imposed on participants 0 Drug testing is a growing legal battle eld I Ambush marketing occurs when an organization misappropriates trademarks logos and goodwill of events or organization I Other issues 0 The rights of individuals athletes to makrt themselves 0 Imposition of codes of conduct for athletes 0 Future Issues Collegiate Sports I Challenges arise regarding NCAA amateurism rules Key legal issues 0 Restrictions on athletes involvement with sports agents abilities to market themselves 0 Protection and licensing of collegiate trademarks and logos 0 Gender equality Chapter 6 Ethical Principles Applied to Sport Management 0 Ethics o The systematic study of the values guiding our decision making Re ects how we believe people should behave and how we want the world to operate Ethical Dilemma practical con ict involving equally compelling values or social obligations solved when we articulate which commonly help values we admire most Morality the list of those actions people out to do or refrain from doing Ethical Considerations 0 Decisions that affect diverse groups of people with con icting interests athletes fans media community businesses 0 Sport managers39 decisions about ethical dilemmas tend to fall under greatly public scrutiny Ethical analysis involves a systematic process of reasoning I Weighing the pro39s and cons of two or more seemingly valid choices that re ects equally cherished values 0 Codes of Conduct I Need exists for establishing solid ethical climates in corporations I Code of conduct outlines and explains the principles under which an organization or profession operates I Codes of conduct should be clear and straightforward and encourage employees to understand the goals they are trying to accomplish O o Morality I Some ethical dilemmas are about choosing between right and wrong ro two opposing c oices I Social practices depend on people upholding certain baseline values I Many moral values in society are codi ed in laws but moral behavior cannot always be legislated and people cannot be forced to act morally I Morality in the Work World 0 Absolutism moral precepts are universal applicable to all circumstances 0 Relativism what is moral depends on the situations 0 Commercial moral rules rules of the marketplace guide activities such as sales and marketing 0 Noncommercial moral rules occupations demand loyalty to an oath of of ce or professional standards to guard against selling out I Morality and Corruption 0 Immoral behavior violates our basic assumptions and corrupst our social institutions 0 An immoral decision can lead to systematic corruption that can destroy a sport enterprise 0 Corruption usually occurs when people hop from one set of moral precepts to another 0 One feature of corruption is that it is systemic I Moral Reasoning and Work 0 Contemporary society is characterized by innovation which continually presents new ethical dilemmas o Periodically we need to assess whether our current practices are in keeping with values that underlie a just society 0 Moral and ethical principles evolve over time 0 Ensuring Morality in the Workplace I Rules designed to protect integrity of sports operate uncomfortable alongside business stricture underwriting sports I Organization can help individual make moral choices by establishing standards encouraging selfexaminations providing support structures enforcing codes 0 Self Examination I An effective tool to remind people of ethical actions and express institutional concern for ethical issues I Ask employees to think about hypothetical ethical dilemmas 0 Forum of Moral Discourse I Communication is critical to decrease corruption and resolve ethical dilemmas I Employees should be encouraged to get together to discuss where and how they face speci c problems I The process takes pressure off individuals and clari es issues at stake I Decisions should be reviewed only after they have been made 0 Consequences I Employees need to know there are consequences for immoral behavior I If people understand that corruption comes with risks they wont do it I Discipline must be meaningful and enforceable Chapter 7 High School and Youth Sports High numbers of children participate in youth school sports Athletics provide positive in uences on adolescents at a crucial juncture of their lives Participation in HS activities are a better predictor of success than the ACT or SAT School and youth sports are the most in uential sport programs in the US re ects directly on the importance Americans place on involving youth in sport activities History 0 School Sports youth athletic participation predates formation of US and signing of US Constitution I Schools and other agencies promoted sports participation to aid in solving broad social problems such as ill health and juvenile delinquenc I Public schools were slow to embrace value of exercise and play but private schools recognized value much earlier I Students organized games at the college level 0 Twentieth Century I Progressive movement educators touted athletics as a tool to prepare for rigors of modern life democracy and to assimilate immigrants into the American culture I Promoted child welfare by advocating for increased playground space I Promoted formalized public school athletics as an antidote to regimented physical education curricula I Period during and just after World War I 0 School sports for males were promoted as a source of physical training for armed forces 0 Sports also boosted student retention and graduation rates 0 Nonschool I YMCA Most prominent private agency to promote youth athletics I 1930 195039s YMCA branches were opened in suburban areas that allowed female members I Financial calamities of the Great Depression launched an unprecedented governmental involvement in recreation 0 Governance 0 National Federation of State High School Associations I National coordinator for high school sports plus activities such as music debate theater and student council I Encompasses all 50 state high school athletic activity associations I Issues playing rules holds national conferences and competitions acts as advocatelobbying agent 0 State Associations I Organize state championships and competitions in athletics and activities I Final authority in determining athlete eligibility I The scope of activities the size of fulltime administrative and support staff and the number of schools representedvary from state to state 0 National Youth League Organizations I Focus administrative efforts on promoting participation in a particular sports among children 0 Little league 2006 200000 teams all 50 states plus 80 other countries participate I Require strict adherence to administrative guidelines Standardized eld size use of uniforms and a draft system promote adult supervision and safe play 0 Career Opportunities 0 School Athletic DirectorYouth League Director I Hiring supervising and evaluating coaches I Coordinating facets of contest management including hiring and paying off of cials and event sta I Departmentalleague training and disciplinary policies 0 School AthleticYouth League Director I Responsibilities 0 Determining departmentalleague budgets o Overseeing all associated fundraising 0 Determining a verifying game scheduling and athlete eligibility o Transmitting relevant publicity and handling public relations 0 Of cialsJudges I Employed by schools and leagues but are considered independent contractors because school or league exhibits no supervisory capacity over the of cial I May require certi cation from national state and local sanctioning organizations I Ue of unprofessional personnel volunteers can leave a league liable for litigation for the actions of these individuals 0 Management 0 Personnel who operate school and youth sport program are the organizations most valuable assets and most dif cult resources to attract and retain 0 Because of budgetary and staf ng limitations more and more schools and virtually all youth leagues are forced to rely on athletic personnel who are not fulltime employees of the organization 0 Financial 0 Admin and coached work together to present a detailed prediction of how funds will be spent an accurate accounting of actual expenditures 0 Although school and youth sport organizations are notfor pro t enterprises this does not mean that associated programs are not concerned with controlling costs and maintaining balanced budgets 0 Marketing 0 As schools and leagues become more nancially strained coaches and admin are often expected to be fundraisers 0 Such methods may include direct sponsorships donated by local businesses and individuals the sale of items such as candy bars or other novelties or selling advertising space in school publications or facilities 0 Ethics 0 Administrators are responsible for ensuring that athletic programs treat boys and girls equally and ethically o 1990 Americans with Disabilities act enacted and has led to increased opportunities for athletes with disabilities 0 Legal 0 Primary responsibility for an administrator is to inform staff of risks and dangers ingerent in their profession 0 Coaches are principal supervisors of the athletic activities of their teams and must provide a reasonably safe environment for participants Chapter 8 Collegiate Sports 0 Introduction to College Athletics 0 Business aspect has grown immensely I Budgeting finding revenue sources controlling expense items participating in development activities 0 Internationalization has grown tremendously through participation of nonresident alien student atheletes 0 History 0 1852 Crew Race between Harvard and yale was rst commericial intercollegiate athletic even in the US 00000 Initian collegiate athletic contests that took place in the 180039s were studentrun events As the pressure to win increased students began to realize they needed help 1864 William Wood rst coach was hired by yale crew team 1969 First collegiate football game Rutgers V Princeton Dangerous nature of football pushed faculty and administrators to get involved in governing intercollegiate athletics I 1895 Big Ten Conference was formed to create student eligibility rules I 1905 Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States IAAUS was formed to make football safer to play I 1912 IAAUS changed its name to National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA o 01929 Carnegie Reports painted bleak picture of intercollegiate athletics identifying many academic and recruiting abuses payments to studentathletes and commercialization of athletics o oNCAA pressured to change to an organization that would oversee academic standards for student athletes monitor recruiting activities of coaches and administrators and establish principles governing amateurism o 01989 Harris poll found that 78 of Americans thought collegiate athletics were out of hand 0 1989 Knight Commission formed prompting NCAA membership to pass numerous rules and regulations regarding recruiting activities academic standards and nancial practices 0 1990 The University of Notre Dame breaks ranks with the College Football Association and sells rights for its regularseason home football games to NBC 0 SMU Death Penalty 0 01987 SMU receives the only death penalty from the NCAA The NCAA forced SMU to cancel the 1987 season and the school itself called off the 1988 season because offailure to field a team SMU still hasn39t recovered 0 Women in Collegiate Athletics 0 oInitial intercollegiate sport competitions were run by men for men 01896 First sport contest for women was a basketball game UC Berkeley vs Stanford Predominant theme of women39s involvement in athletics was participation 01966 Creation of the Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women 01971 Became Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women AIAW o oEndorsed an alternative athletic model for women emphasizing educational needs of students 0 Engaged in a power struggle with NCAA over governance of women39s athletics o 01981 NCAA membership voted to add championships for women in Division I o 01982 AIAW executive board voted to dissolve its association 0 oVoluntary association 0 More than 1200 institutions conferences organizations and individual members 0 o1973 The current three division system Divisions I II and III was created to increase exibility of the NCAA in addressing needs and interests of schools of varying size 0 Two of the more prominent NCAA administrative areas are legislative services and enforcement I Divisions oSupports philosophy of competitiveness generating revenue through athletics and national success 326 member institutions oDivision IA is for institutions that are somewhat larger footballplaying schools which must maintain certain attendance requirements 118 member institutions in IA 116 member institutions in IAA 72 members in I oDivision II Awards athletic scholarships but on a more modest basis than Division I Usually nanced in the institution39s budget like other academic departments o 282 member institutions oDivision 111 Does not allow athletic scholarships o Emphasizes participation placing primary emphasis on regional inseason and conference competition 0 419 member institutions 0 NCAA Conferences 0 oMember conferences must have a minimum of six institutions in a single division to be recognized as a voting member conference 0 oHave their own compliance director and run seminars regarding NCAA rules and regulations 0 oRun championships in sports sponsored by member institutions in the conference 0 oMay also provide a revenuesharing program to their member institutions 0 Conference realignment 2003 20 DivI schools changed conferences 0 Career 0ppurtunities o CoachesAthletic Directors I oDivision III Coaches are usually parttime orif fulltime have other athletic dept responsibilities I Division II Athletic directors may sometimes also coach or hold an academic appointment I Division 1 Athletic departments usually employ a large number of associate and assistant athletic directors with specialized responsibilities 0 AssistantAssociate Directors I Responsibilities in specialized areas I Business manager media relations director ticket sales manager fund development coordinator director of marketing sport programs administrator facilities and events coordinator academic affairs director or compliance coordinator 0 NCAA I National of ce as well as other collegiate associations such as the NICAA and NAI NCAA Member Conferences 0 Employment opportunities in compliance conference championships marketing and sponsorship areas 0 Current Issues I Title IX Gender Equity 0 How to comply with Title IX given institutional financial limitations is a challenge 0 Numerous institutions are choosing to eliminate sport programs and funding for the overrepresented sex usually men39s teams 0 Increasing participation and funding opportunities for female studentathletes is another method 0 Roster management Capping roster sizes for men39s teams I Hiring Practices of Minorities W omen o o2003 2004 72 ofathletic directors 88 ofhead coaches ofmen39s teams and 82 of coaches of women39s teams were 0 02003 2004 Women held 78 of Division I 167 of Division II and 27 of Division III athletic director positions 0 oIssue continues to demand attention in the hiring of college athletic directors and coaches I Academic Reform 0 oAcademic Progress Rate calculated by a combination of points per student and those on the team 0 Team penalized if they are below 950 total I Other Current Issues include Gambling Drug Testing Internet communications new tech


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