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by: Dax Bosco


Dax Bosco
Texas A&M
GPA 3.99

George Cunningham

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About this Document

George Cunningham
Class Notes
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Popular in Smgt Sport Management

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dax Bosco on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPMT 336 at Texas A&M University taught by George Cunningham in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see /class/226189/spmt-336-texas-a-m-university in Smgt Sport Management at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
0 Diversity the presence of differences among members of a social unit that lead to perceptions of such differences and that impact work outcomes 0 Diversity Management a proactive strategic actions aimed at capitalizing on the benefits diversity can bring to an organization 0 Forms of Diversity and their relationship to one another 0 Surface Level Diversity differences among individuals based on readily observable characteristics such as age sex race and physical ability 0 Deep Level Diversity differences among individuals based on psychological characteristics I Information Diversity those differences based on knowledge and information oftentimes resulting from variations in education functional background training and organizational tenure I Value Diversity those differences in values attitudes beliefs and preferences 0 lnterdependence Peoples surface level characteristics may be representative of their deeplevel At the same time though surfacelevel differences are likely related to deep level dissimilarity 0 Reasons for the interest in Diversity 0 Changing Demographics 0 Changing attitudes toward work 0 Changes in the nature of work 0 Legal Mandates ex Title IX 0 Social Pressures 0 Potential Negative Effects of Diversity 0 Value in Diversity Hypothesis diversity can positively influence desired individual group and organizational outcomes 0 Different ways of studying diversity 0 Categorical I Basic premise compares experiences and behaviors of members of one social category to those of another I Example what is the level of job satisfaction of men compared to that of women 0 Compositional I Basic premise Examines the processes and outcomes of diverse social groups relative to those of homogeneous social groups I Example What is the level of conflict present in crossfunctional work groups relative to work groups with members from a single functional area 0 Relational I Basic premise Focuses on an individual s personal characteristics relative to the characteristics of the group I Example How well do people socially integrate into a group when they are demographically different from the majority of the group members 0 Diversity Management Strategy I Basic premise Examines organizational strategies that can be used to capitalize on the benefits of diversity while reducing the negative effects I Example What strategies do sport organizations use to attract and retain women and racial minorities 0 Basic components of theory and why theory is helpful in the study of diversity 0 Theory primarily consists of constructs and propositions I Constructs variable of interest I Propositions expected relationships among the constructs o Lets us figure out why when and how things happen Not just describing what 0 The basics of each theoretical perspective outlined o Managerial Theories the impact of diversity on grouporganizational processes and performance I Intervening Process Theory Manner in which various types of demographic diversity influence conflict within the group and subsequent outcomes Two forms of conflict 0 Affective represents those tensions raised as a result of emotional clashes among group members that are characterized by fear distrust and general negative affect o Substantive refers to differences in opinion among group members as to how to complete tasks the importance of certain goals and appropriate courses of action I nformationDecisionMakingTheory 0 Holds that diversity should impact the information and perspectives available in the group thereby allowing for greater decisionmaking capabilities I ResourceBased Theory 0 Firms have various resources including physical capital organizational capital and human capital To the extent that these resources are valuable rare and difficult to imitate the firm realizes a competitive advantage 0 Sociological Theories focus on issues such as power and conflict as they relate to diversity in society and organizations I Functionalism Theory 0 in this way sport is viewed as something that has the potential to unify people across racial boundaries I Conflict Theory 0 Focuses on social processes that result in disharmony social discord and conflict I Critical Theory seeks to understand power and explain how power operates within social entities o Hegemony Theory 0 Concentrates on the political economic and cultural patterns of power and dominance in a society 0 Feminist Theory 0 Two basic assumptions I People s experiences both within and outside the workplace are gendered in nature I Because women have been oppresses and devalued in many contexts there is a need to develop strategies to change those conditions 0 Critical Race Theory 0 Places the issue of race at the forefront in studies of organizational political educational and other social issues I Interactionist Theory a Aims to understand how people give meaning to their lives a People define their own reality based on their interactions with others and through cultural influences 0 Social Psychological Theories I Focus on the individual in relation to others I Focus on how being similar to or different from others in a social unit impacts subsequent affect and behaviors I Social Categorization Framework 0 People classify themselves and others into social groups I SimilarityAttraction Paradigm 0 People who are similar to one another also demonstrate high interpersonal attraction and liking toward one another Differences between traditional and implicit forms of prejudice o Prejudice I Traditional Explicit Racism Negative attitudes toward persons different from the self that people consciously and deliberately maintain I Aversive implicit Racism o Attitudes that operate in an unconscious fashion and are not necessarily the result of negative attitudes toward dissimilar others Definitions of Prejudice and Discrimination and how they differ O Prejudice an unfavorable attitude toward another group involving both negative feelings and beliefs Discrimination behavior that comes about only when we deny to individuals or groups of people equality of treatment which they may wish Research concerning who discriminates against others 0 Access Discrimination denies people based on their characteristics the opportunity to obtain a particularjob enter an organization or pursue a career in a certain profession 0 Treatment Discrimination members of a specific social category have less positive work experiences and receive fewer opportunities and rewards than they legitimately deserve based on job related criteria Outcomes of facing discrimination in the workplace 0 Results in such negative outcomes as decreased training opportunities poorer job assignments a lack of work group integration and low supervisor support Definitions of key terms related to race ethnicity and minority 0 Race a social category regarded as distinct because the members supposedly share some genetically transmitted traits 0 Ethnicity refers to the cultural heritage of a particular group of people and as such moves away from attempting to classify people based on biological characteristics 0 Minority Group a collection of individuals who share common characteristics and face discrimination in society becau5e of their membership in that group Workplace implications of race and ethnicity including positions held performance ratings and salaries earned 0 Positions Held Whites are more likely to be employed in management and professional positions while African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to work in service positions 0 Earnings I Median income levels are lower for some racial minorities such as African Americans and Hispanics than for Whites 0 Performance Ratings I For White employees ratings by African American supervisors were the same as those given by White supervisors however they found that for African American employees White supervisors rated their performance significantly lower than did African American supervisors Definitions and key concepts related to gender sex and gender roles o Physical activity participation and health of men and women and the determinants thereof 0 White women are more physically active than African American women because of job demands family expectation and needs economic constraints and the lack of available facilities 0 Since the 1970 s physical activity participation increased for the women s race as a whole Discrimination against the aged obese and disabled and how that discrimination influences workplace decisions and experiences 0 Aged I ageism I Viewed as not capable of producing high quality work not understanding the current marketplace or not likely to remain in a position long enough to make a substantial impact I Though studies have found that most of these accusations are not true 0 Obesity I Sizeism I People who are overweight or perceived to be so have limited access to organizations or receive fewer rewards than they legitimately deserve based on their weight I This exists in the workplace as persons who are overweight or obese relative to employees of a normal weight are hired less often promoted less frequently and disciplined more harshly and fired more often 0 Disabled I Research shows that more and more people with disabilities are entering the workforce I Ableism I Some organizations do not hire persons with disabilities due to increased chances of absenteeism and increases in medical costs I Americans with Disabilities Act 0 Requires organizations with at least 15 employees to make reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability 0 The influence of age disability and weight on physical activity participation 0 Generally these minorities are less inclined to participate in physical activities This is also reflected in the workplace as these quotminoritiesquot fill the less than amazing job openings and in turn receive less pay 0 Definition of religion and spirituality 0 Religion I A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things that is to say things set apart and forbidden beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church all those who adhere to them 0 Spirituality I The basic feeling of being connected with one s complete self others and the entire universe 0 Ways in which religion is used in sport and in the workplace specifically 0 Past research shows that religious beliefs can influence a variety of work related outcomes including strategic decisions ethical behavior leadership and stress 0 In sport I Religion influences who participates in sport and their reasons for doing so I Some athletes rely on their religious beliefs while participating 0 Definition of sexual orientation o Exists on a continuum from completely heterosexual to completely homosexual with various gradients in between the two ends including bisexuality Methods of revealing one s sexual orientation at work and the outcomes thereof 0 Signaling I Send messages provide subtle hints or giving certain clues o Normalizing I Reveal their sexual orientation to others and then attempt to make their difference from the others seem commonplace or ordinary o Differentiating I Disclose their sexual orientation and highlight how it makes them different from others who do not share such preferences 0 People who choose to pass experience more of a negative outcome while people who reveal seem more pleased with their choice Definition of social class stratification and classism o Stratification I Classification of people into specific social groups with members of each group having similar life chances o Classism I Behaviors beliefs and negative attitudes that serve to oppress lowincome people Influence of class on aspirations and work experiences 0 Upper class workers usually hold a prejudicial stance towards workers of a lower class This is not so much true between middle and upper but more prevalent between upper and middle to the lower class Wealth distribution in the United States Social class and sport participation 0 Sport participation can raise up someone from low income beginnings But at the same time not everyone from those low income beginnings will have the opportunity to rise above


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