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by: Janiya Baumbach


Janiya Baumbach
Texas A&M
GPA 3.93

Ronald Kaiser

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Ronald Kaiser
Class Notes
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This 72 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiya Baumbach on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RENR 375 at Texas A&M University taught by Ronald Kaiser in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see /class/226191/renr-375-texas-a-m-university in Renewable Natural Resources at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
ENERGY Prakash KHEDUN Dr Ronald KAISER W HS 13 ENERGY I Renewable energy Solar Wind Geothermal ncrg SourccxL m1vcr4u m5 and 3959 Biomass Hydro Ocean 39 N onrenewable energy Oil Natural gas Coal hilpOCWmHedU Nuclear AT TEXAS AampM uuuvnnwwv TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES 99 of energy that heats the earth comes from the sun 1 comes mostly from burning fossil fuel Solar capital Without the energy from the sun the earth s temperature would be 24hO C 400017 Indirect form of energy from the sun Wind hydropower biomass W1 l 13M NET ENERGY 39 The energy that really counts Amount of high quality usable energy available from a resource after subtracting the energy needed to make it available for use 39 Law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transformed from one source to another 39 Second law of thermodynamics Some of the high quality energy used in each step is wasted or degraded to lower quality energy W1 l 13M NET ENERGY I It takes Energy 1 0 get energy Oil must be found pumped from beneath the ground transferred to a re nery and converted into useful fuel Each step require high quality energy 39 Net energy total amount of energy energy used up in the process W1 l 13M COMMERCIAL ENERGY USE BY SOURCE r 1 W vr39v v va MK 1 Natural as 9 23 United States TEXAS AampM uvannwwv ENERGY USE Developed Counlries Developing Countries PLAY ANIMATION m TEXAS AampM uNxvnnzrwv OIL 39 Crude oil is a thick liquid containing hydrocarbons Underground deposits Contains hundreds of hydrocarbons Sulphur oxygen and nitrogen impurities Gasoline heating oil and asphalt 39 Natural gas normally found long With crude oil 39 Formed from the decaying remains of organisms living 100500 million years ago W1 l 13M OIL 39 3550 of oil is extracted from a deposit 39 Remaining heavy crude oil is too hard or expensive to recover 39 Depends on oils prices Higher the price the more economical it becomes to remove 10 25 of the remaining oil Flushing by steam or water Lowers net energy yield Improved drilling technology Microorganisms that can increase oil recovery by making heavy oil ow more freely W1 l 13M OIL 39 Based on boiling points components are removed at various layers in a giant distillation column The most volatile components With the lowest boiling points are removed at the top AT I EXAS AampM u l v a a s v 9 ZUDYThcmson Higher Educahorl NATURAL GAS 39 Mixture of gases 39 50 90 methane CH4 Conventional natural gas lies above most reservoirs of crude oil 39 Natural gas pipeline has to be built to be able to use deposits Natural gas found above oil reservoirs in deep sea and remote area is burned off Waste of energy Release of C02 in atmosphere W1 l 13M COAL 39 Solid fossil fuel 39 Formed in several stages Buried remains of plants that lived 300 400 million years ago Subjected to intense heat and pressure over millions of years AT TEXAS AampM uuuvnnwwv COAL Coal is mostly carbon Contain small amount of sulfur Released as sulfur dioxide upon combustion Release of toxic mercury and radioactive materials Coal generates 62 of world s electricity Used in making of world s steel United States Produces 50 of electricity Nuclear power 20 natural gas 17 renewable energy 10 and oil 3 Expected to dominate US electricity production for several decades W1 l 13M COAL BURNING POWER PLANT Waste heat quot Coolingtower Coal bunker Turbine 39 transfers waste 7 heat to atmosphere Boiler Toxic ash disposal he 4 TEXAS AampM uuuvnnwwv NUCLEAR ENERGY 39 When isotopes of uranium and plutonium undergo controlled nuclear ssion the resulting heat produces steam that spins turbines to generate electricity The uranium oxide consists of about 97 non ssionable uranium Q38 and 3 ssionable uranium Q35 The concentration of uranium Q35 is increased through an enrichment process W1 l 13M NUCLEAR POWER PLANT Small amounts of radioactive gases Con ol rods ontainment shell Heat exchanger Steam Turbine Generator r Electric power Waste heat I 4 39 Useful energy 2530 Coolant as sa e Shiedin Pressure p g vessel water Condenser di moval and Perio c removal and storage of radioactive liquid wastes T TEXAS AampM quotNIVRRSVTY NUCLEAR ENERGY 39 After three or four years in a reactor spent fuel rods are removed and stored in a deep pool of water contained in a steellined concrete container 39 After spent fuel rods are cooled considerably they are sometimes moved to drystorage containers made of steel or concrete AT 39ll EXAS AampN INIVRRsVT RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable energy revolution Sustainable energy Green energy Bio energy Biofuels Energy conservation W1 l 13M ENERGY CONSERVATION I Energy conservation Reducing or eliminating unnecessary waste of energy 84 of commercial energy is wasted 41 is wasted automatically second law of thermodynamics 43 wasted unnecessarily Inef cient motors vehicles power plants furnaces industrial motors and other devices Leaky poorly insulated buildings AT IEXAS AampM uuvnnw ENERGY EFFICIENCY Energy ef ciency of the US improved since oil price shock of early 1980s Energy waste in the US 300 billion per year 570000 per minute Energy waste in the World 1 trillion per year Most developing countries are 3 times less ef cient than the US Japan Germany and France are 2 to 3 times more ef cient than the US W1 l 13M ENERGY EFFICIENCY Reducing energy waste is the quickest cheapest and cleanest way to provide more energy It reduces pollution and environmental degradation Incandescent bulb 5 of electricity drawn is converted into light and 95 into heat Internal combustion engine 94 of energy wasted in fuel Nuclear power plant 86 of nuclear fuel energy wasted 92 if dealing with radioactive waste included Coal burning plant 23 of energy wasted as heat W1 l 13M ENERGY EFFICIENCY 39 Electricity from nuclear power plant Electricity from NUclear Power Plant W1 l 13M IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY 39 Producing heat and electricity from one source and using more ef cient electric motors and lighting 39 Industry 42 of US energy consumption Production of metals 26 chemicals 19 petroleum and coal 14 and paper 8 39 Cogeneration combined heat and power CHP Steam used for electricity used as source of heat for the plant or nearby buildings Energy ef ciency is around 80 W1 l 13M IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY Transportation 14 of US energy consumption Average fuel efliciency rose sharply between 1973 and 1985 Between 1988 and 2006 average fuel efliciency decreased by 6 N 0 increase in Corporate Average Fuel Economy CAFE standards Gas guzzling SUVs do not meet W mileage standards as that of cars Poll in 2002 62 of Americans believed that average gas mileage of vehicle is going down Only 17 realized it is going up IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY 39 Saving energy in transportation Increase fuel ef ciency Making vehicles with lighter and stronger materials 39 Fuel ef cient vehicles Toyota Prius hybrid electric car Twice the gas mileage than the average new car sold in the US Represents only 1 of all new car sales W1 l 13M IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY 39 Cost of gasoline is relatively low 39 Hidden costs may be included as taxes Government subsidies Tax breaks for oil companies and road builders Pollution control and cleanup Military protection of oil supplies in the Middle East Increased medical bills and insurance premium Time wasted in traf c jams Increased death from air and water pollution 39 Hidden cost being passed to consumers future generations and the enVironment W1 l 13M IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY Another reason for low fuel ef ciency Over 12 of US consumers drive SUVs pickup tucks and other large vehicles In 1990 it was only 5 Not enough taX breaks rebates and low interests long term loans to encourage more fuelef cient vehicles Tax deduction of 25000 on a 50000 Hummer TaX deduction of 3100 on 22000 hybrid ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS 39 We can save energy in building by getting heat from the sun superinsulating them and using plant covered green roofs 39 We can save energy in existing buildings by insulating them plugging leaks and using energy ef cient heating and cooling systems appliances and lighting m l ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS 39 StraWbale House Hm am as 39 Strawbale 1s a superinsula or that 1s made from bales of low cost straw covered with plaster or adobe Depending on the thickness of the bales its strength exceeds standard construction ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS Insulate and plug leaks Use energy ef cient Windows Stop heating and cooling losses Heat houses more ef ciently Heat water more efficiently tankless instant water heater Use energy ef cient appliances Use energy ef cient lighting W1 l 13M SOLAR ENERGY 39 We can heat buildings by orienting them toward the sun or by pumping a liquid such as water through rooftop collectors PASSIVE ACTIVE 1W NM SOLAR ENERGY 39 Passive solar heating system Absorbs and store heat from the sun directly Within structure No needs for pumps or fans 0 distribute the heat 39 Active solar heating system Absorbs energy from the sun by pumping a heat absorbing uid eg water through collectors usually mounted on rooftop W1 l 13M Energy IS free Need access to sun Net energy is 60 of me mo era e active to high Sun blocked by other passive 39 structures QUIck Installation Need hem Siorage system No CO emISSIons 2 lVloderaje net Low efficiency nergy 39 Very low aIr and water pollution High cost active High C0515 39lUdGran enwonme39ital r Needs backup or impact storage system Very l w land Wk 5 Active system needs difturbafnce bUIlt maintenance and No CD emlSSIOnS f Ee e if csfs to Inoroo or WW v d quotr V repa39r Fast construction tl e lime WIn ow r 172 years High la39ic use Costa reduced 7 Moderate cost ActIve collectors with name gas May disturb passive unattractlve turbine backup cesert areas TEXAS AampM iivaERsr1 SOLAR ENERGY 39 Solar thermal systems Collect and transform energy from the sun into high temperature thermal energy heat Used directly or converted to electricity Used in desert areas ample sunliht 7 ATM l TEXAS AampM 7 U N I V P R S V T Y 7 39 39 l 0 IE DESERT CAL FDR IA wormngcomlmogesbolorlowerrvlojoveDeserMpg SOLAR ENERGY 39 Photovoltaic PV cells Single solar cell Solarcell roof AT TEXAS AampM quotNivkntv39rv SOLAR ENERGY 39 Solar cells can be used in rural Villages With ample sunlight Who are not connected to an electrical grid TEXAS AampM UNIVERSVTY Fairly high net Need access to sun energy Low efficiency Work on cloudy ays Quick installation Tom Easily expanded or Need electricity Costs moved storage system or backup Electricity Environmental Source Costs 0103 3 L73 No CO2 emissions 71 l J l N w H High land use solar T UL 25 g C q J A 2 low enVIronmental A r cell power plums 14 J x Impact 39 could disrupt desert Ezeolliunnal J i H E 2 4 Last 20 40 years 39 areas 10 27 l4 7 High costs but shou d b Wiml l lvdmpnwui 1 1 if Biomass Nucleav swat wells 8 2 7728 7 Low land use if on v WW3 w roof or built into walls I e quot or windows com petitive in 5 1 5 years Reduces dependence on fossil fuels DC current must be converted to AC 20m mama nghcr Enumuun TEXAS A8114 livaERsr39r ELECTRICITY FROM THE WATER CYCLE Hydropower Dams to control ow Water ows through pipe at controlled rates Spins turbines producing electricity Leading renewable energy source Second cheapest when including operating and environmental costs There is little room for expansion in the US Dams and reservoirs have been created on 98 of suitable rivers W1 l 13M Moderafe 10 high nef energy High efficiency 80 Large unfapped pofenfial Low cosf elecfricify Long life span No CO2 emissions during operafion in femperafe areas May provide flood confrol below dam Provides wafer for yearround irrigafion of cropland Reservoir is useful for fishing and recreafion 6 2w Ynamson Higher E umlvon ELECTRICITY FROM THE WATER CYCLE High consfrucfion cosfs High environmenfal impacf from flooding land 10 form a reservoir High CO2 emissions from biomass decay in shallow fropical reservoirs Floods nafural areas behind dam Converfs land habifaf fo lake habifaf Danger of collapse Uproofs people Decreases fish harvesf below dam Decreases flow of nafural ferlilizer sill 10 land below dam ELECTRICITY FROM THE WATER CYCLE 39 Ocean tides and waves and temperature differences between surface and bottom waters in tropical waters are not eXpected to provide much of the world s electrical needs 39 Only two large tidal energy dams are currently operating one in La Rance France and Nova Scotia s bay of Fundy where the tidal amplitude can be as high as 16 meters 63 feet W1 l 13M ELECTRICITY FROM WIND 39 Wind power is the world s most promising energy resource because it is abundant inexhaustible Widely distributed cheap clean and emits no greenhouse gases Much of the world s potential for Wind power remains untapped Capturing only 20 of the Wind energy at the world s best energy sites could meet all the world s energy demands W1 l 13M ELECTRICITY FROM WIND 39 Wind turbines can be used individually to produce electricity Also used interconnected in arrays on Wind farms 391 L In amp W W i n d farm 4 l 13 M ELECTRICITY FROM WIND 39 The United States once led the wind power industry but Europe now leads this rapidly growing business The US government lacked subsidies tax breaks and other nancial incentives 39 European companies manufacture 80 of the wind turbines sold in the global market The success has been aided by strong government subsidies W1 l 13M Moderdle lo high nel energy Sleddy winds needed High efficiency Bd ckup syslems needed Moderdle capildl cosl when winds are low Low eleclricily cosl and falling High land use for wind farm Very low environmenldl impdcl No CO2 emissions Visual pollulion Quick conslruclion Noise when localed nedr Edsin expanded populdled dreds Can be localed ql sed qu inlerfere in flighls of Land below lurbines can be used lo migrdlory birds and kill birds of grow crops or grdze liveslock prey livaKR 1v 1 TEXA zM EDD Thvmsun Haguer Educanon ENERGY FROM BIOMASS 39 Plant materials and animal wastes can be burned to provide heat or electricity or converted into gaseous or liquid biofuels AT IEXAS AampM uuvnnw Solid Biomass Fuels W000 logs and pellets Charcoal Agncullural wasle stalks and olher plan debnsl Timbean wasles branches treetops and wood chips Animal wastes dung Aquatic plants kelp and waler hyaclnlhs Urban wastes gaapel cardboard and oxher cum usllble malenals Conversion lo gaseous and Ilqnld bloluels Gaseous Bloluels Liquid Bioluels Synthellc natural gas Elhanol blogas Wood as g Biodiesel E 2007 Thomson Higher Educath ENERGY FROM BIOMASS 39 The scarcity of fuelwood causes people to make fuel briquettes from cow dung in India This deprives soil of plant nutrients AT ENERGY FROM BIOMASS Nonrenevvable if harvested unsustainably Moderate to high environmental impact C02 emissions if harvested and burned unsustainably Low photosynthetic efficiency Soil erosion water pollution and loss of Wildlife habitat Plantations could compete With cropland Often burned in inefficient and polluting open fires and stoves W1 l 13M LIQUID BIOFUELS 39 Motor vehicles can run on ethanol biodiesel and methanol produced from plants and plant vvastes 39 The major advantages of biofuels are Crops used for production can be grown almost anywhere There is no net increase in CO2 emissions Widely available and easy to store and transport W1 l 13M LIQUID BIOFUELS 39 Crops such as sugarcane corn and switchgrass and agricultural forestry and municipal wastes can be converted to ethanol 39 Switchgrass can remove CO2 from the troposphere and store it in the soil AT 39ll EXAS AampM nuvvznsv rv gross Mpg THANK YOU TW Tii sn w ENERGY Prakash KHEDUN Dr Ronald KAISER W HS 13 OBAMABIDEN PLAN I New Energy for America plan Help create ve million new jobs by strategically investing 150 billion over the next ten years to catalyze private efforts to build a clean energy future Within 10 years save more oil than we currently import from the Middle East and Venezuela combined Put 1 million PlugIn Hybrid cars cars that can get up to 150 miles per gallon on the road by 2015 cars that we will work to make sure are built here in America Ensure 10 percent of our electricity comes from renewable sources by 2012 and 25 percent by 2025 Implement an economywide cap and trade program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent by 2050 AT IEXAS AampM uuvnnw39rv http change govagendaenergyiandienvironment agenda ENERGY PLAN OVERVIEW 39 Provide Short term Relief to American Families Crack Down on Excessive Energy Speculation Swap Oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to Cut Prices W1 l 13M http change govagendaenergyianclienvironment agenda ENERGY PLAN OVERVIEW 39 Eliminate Our Current Imports from the Middle East and Venezuela Within 10 Years Increase Fuel Economy Standards Get 1 Million Plug In Hybrid Cars on the Road by 2015 Create a New 7000 Tax Credit for Purchasing Advanced Vehicles Establish a National Low Carbon Fuel Standard A Use it or Lose It Approach to Existing Oil and Gas Leases Promote the Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Natural Gas W1 l 13M http change govagendaenergy39iandienvironment agenda ENERGY PLAN OVERVIEW 39 Create Millions of New Green Jobs Ensure 10 percent of Our Electricity Comes from Renewable Sources by 2012 and 25 percent by 2025 Deploy the Cheapest Cleanest Fastest Energy Source Energy Ef ciency Weatherize One Million Homes Annually Develop and Deploy Clean Coal Technology Prioritize the Construction of the Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline W1 l 13M http39 change govagendaenergyianclienvironment agenda ENERGY PLAN OVERVIEW 39 Reduce our Greenhouse Gas Emissions 80 Percent by 2050 Implement an economy Wide cap and trade program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent by 2050 Make the US a Leader on Climate Change AT 13M http change govagendaenergyiandienvironment agenda WORLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF QUADRILLION BRITISH THERMAL UNITS History m TEXAS AampM nurvnnzrwv NationaI Research CouncII 2008 America s Energy Future ENERGY AND WATER 39 Energy is one of the biggest consumer of water 39 Water use ef ciency Virginia Tech Study 2008 Natural gas 3 gallons million BTU Coal 41 to 464 gallons million BTU Liquid natural gas 145 gallons million BTU Nuclear 2400 to 5600 gallons million BTU Ethanol 2500 to 29 I 00 gallonsmillion BTU Biodiesel I 4 000 to 75000 gallonsmillion BTU 39 Biofuels an irony When it comes to water Currently 2 irrigated water used for energy crops AT 13M PER CAPITA CARBON EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL BURNING 2003 r o 0 CU o B I C 9 9 2 Q E China Japan TM NM OIL 39 Oil supplies 13 of world s energy needs 39 Demand increasing Rapidly developing countries China India 39 World is not yet running out of oil but the age of Cheap oil is over Look for more oil Use or waste less Use something else W1 l 13M OIL US is the largest oil user Lifestyle and economy based on access to ample oil supply 29 of proven oil reserve US supply along the Gulf Risks of hurricanes increasing intensity Middle East Most of world s discovered and undiscovered reserves 14 of world s oil is controlled by states that sponsor or condone terrorism US is ghting a war on terrorism Funding the enemy by buying oil W1 l 13M US ARTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Alaska Geologist argue that it contains a very small fraction of US oil needs 1 in 5 chance of nding oil there Alaska support the exploration State uses oil revenue to nance its budget Degradation of a pristine and ecologically vulnerable ecosystem Improving ef ciency is a much faster cheaper cleaner and more secure way to increase future oil supplies W1 l 13M OIL Burning oil generates CO2 Gasoline accounts to 43 of global CO2 emissions Global warming Effect of climate change Health Ecology and biodiversity Water availability NATURAL GAS 39 Russia and Iran have almost half of world s reserves 62 125 years 39 US has only 3 of world s proven reserve 39 Natural gas pipelines can distribute between countries Do not cross oceans Converting gas to liquid form reduces net energy Clean burning fuel Produces COQ when burned Produces methane if leaked 39 Greenhouse gases W1 l 13M COAL Coal generate 62 of world s electricity Supplies may last 2171125 years US has 27 of proven coal reserves In 2005 China and US accounted for 53 of global consumption A new coal burning plant open every 10 days in China China has 300 years of reserves Half of India s energy is from coal W1 l 13M COAL Not as versatile as oil and natural gas Much higher environmental impact Releases much more C02 Single biggest air polluter in the US China and lndla Air pollution kills 23500 people in the US 39 38200 non fatal heart attacks 39 5540100 asthma attacks Several billion of property damage every year Responsible for 14 of atmospheric pollution W1 l 13M COAL 39 Synfuel Synthetic natural gal from coal gasi cation Requires 50 more coal 2 50 more CO2 39 CO2 removal from plant emissions Produces hydrogen as byproduct Can be used to fuel nonpolluting cars 39 Cost of such technology is high 39 Little incentive to build such plant CO2 is not regulated as an air pollutant NUCLEAR ENERGY Accounts for 20 of energy in the US Relatively low environmental impact High cost Facilities vulnerable to terrorist attack No nuclear power plant constructed in the US in the last 30 years 39 Will increasing the number of nuclear power plants lessen our dependence on imported oil W1 l 13M NUCLEAR ENERGY 39 Challenges Not technology but policy and nancing 39 Radioactive waste must be stored safely for thousands of years Yucca Mountain nuclear repository 39 Rejected in 2009 39 Does this threaten the expansion of nuclear projects I If nuclear power is to provide a considerable portion of the future US electrical power we would have to have eight Yucca Mountains by the end of this century in order to store the spent fuel AT IEXAS AampM uuvnnwrv National Research Council 2008 America s Energy Future WHY RENEWABLE ENERGY The world is not running out of energy resources but there are accumulating risks to continuing expansion of oil and natural gas production from the conventional sources relied upon historically These risks create significant challenges to meeting projected energy demand National Research Council 2008 America s Energy Future National Petroleum Council 2007 AT IEXAS AampM uuvnnw WHAT ARE YOUR VIEWS CLASS DISCUSSION THANK YOU TW Tii sn w


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