EDUC PSYCHOLOGY INST 301
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mertie Bayer on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INST 301 at Texas A&M University taught by Robert Woodward in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/226194/inst-301-texas-a-m-university in Interdisciplinary Studies at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
INST 301 i INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES amp INTELLIGENCE l r lntroduetien to Intelligence a In ell emee Three themes Capacity to learn Ability t0 adapt Total knowledge acquired a Intell gemee in a Classreem Cemex Labeling 9 Exceptional Smdents 0 Diserder 0 Disability 9 Handicap Introduction to Intelligence Early Intelligence Theories Galton 1822 General Mental Ability 39 SensoryMotor based conceptualization Developed term mental test Binet amp Simon 1904 Higher Mental Process Judgment amp Reasoning based Developed rst practical intelligence tests Scores expressed in terms of mental age Terman 1915 Revised Binet tests while at Stanford for use in America Concept of IQ MACAx 100 IQ Normreferenced comparison Flynn Effect Introduction to Intelligence Early Intelligence Theories Galton amp Cattell 18221911 General Mental Ability 39 SensoryMotor based conceptualization Developed term mental test Binet amp Simon 1904 Higher Mental Process Judgment amp Reasoning based Developed rst practical intelligence tests Scores expressed in terms of mental age Terman 1915 Revised Binet tests while at Stanford for use in America Concept of IQ MACAx 100 IQ Normreferenced comparison Flynn Effect Emu Wrcm Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Wrcm Dmmmz Emu Wrcm Emu Wrcm Wrcm Emu Dmmmz Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Dmmmz Emu Wrcm Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Dmmmz Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Wrcm Dmmmz Wrcm Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Dmmmz Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Emu Dmmmz Wrcm Dmmmz Wrcm Emu NmU Wrcm Emu ONmmz Wrcm WmU wrcm Dwmmz NmU Wrcm NmU Wrcm wrcm WmU OWmmz WmU ONmmZ Wrcm OWmmz Emu Wrcm ONmmz Wrcm Emu Emu ONmmz Wrcm Emu ONmmZ WmU ONmmZ Wrcm Emu Wrcm ONmmZ Wrcm ONmmz Wrcm Emu ONmmz wrcm Dwmmz Wrcm Emu OWmmz Wrcm NmU Dwmmz wrcm Emu OWmmz WmU ONmmZ Wrcm NmU ONmmz Wrcm Dwmmz wrcm Emu Introduction to Intelligence Early Intelligence Theories Galton amp Cattell 18221911 General Mental Ability 39 SensoryMotor based conceptualization Developed term mental test Binet amp Simon 1904 Higher Mental Process Judgment amp Reasoning based Developed rst practical intelligence tests Scores expressed in terms of mental age Terman 1915 Revised Binet tests while at Stanford for use in America Concept of IQ MACAx 100 IQ Normreferenced comparison Flynn Effect Introduction to Intelligence Global Theory of Intelligence Spearman 1927 Notion of general mental ability Twofactor theory of intelligence General Factor g Mental energy Speci c Factor 8 introduction to Intelligence Multiple Factor Theories of Intelligence Thurstone 1941 Metaanalysis yielded seven factors Primary Mental Abilities L s J H 71 t T First theory to measure separate factors of ability vs global g Cattell 1960 Crystallized Intelligence go 39 w quotquot1quot 1 3quot V w Hm Fluid Intelligence gfi Z j 39 1 Introduction to Intelligence Hierarchical View of Intelligence Carroll 1996 Three Stratum Theory Stratum III Stratum II Stratum I g r factors Abilitys introduction to Intelligence Multiple Intelligence Theory Gardner 1983 Intelligence as seen through different domains Linguistic Logical Mathematical Visual Spatial Bodily Kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist introduction to Intelligence Process Theory of Intelligence Sternberg 2004 Triarchic Theory of Intelligence E ei iential Compenential Contextual Emotional Intelligence Goleman 1995 Four EQ abilities INST 301 Exam 3 Review Modules 16 17 18 19 20 27 28 Module 16 I Behavioral Views of Learning 0 Classical Conditioning Pavlov I Learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses I Involuntary response can t be controlled SPCA commercials I Stimulus elicitsa response I Unconditioned stimulus presenting food I Conditioned stimulus a stimulus that was previously neutral bell ringing I ResponseRespondents I Unconditioned response naturally occurring salivating I Conditioned response learned response salivating after bell rings I Have to pair US and CS together enough to train 0 Operant Conditioning Skinner Any learning in which a voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents Operant deliberate action people engage in I Antecedent before behavior I Consequences after behavior I Antecedent Behavior Consequences I Skinner thought Pavlov s theory was too narrow because people are more operants than respondants 0 Consequences Anything that occurs after the behavior 39 any I that g 39 the behavior it follows increases likelihood of behavior being repeated I Positive reinforcement behavior is good stimulus is good stickers I Negative reinforcement take away something you don t want behavior eliminates negative stimulus buckling seat belt to get rid of dinging noise I Punishment process that weakens or suppresses behavior I Presentation punishment behavior brings forth undesired stimulus anything you get spanking timeouts running Removal punishment negative behavior that results in something being takenaway grounding losing recess o ReinforcementScheduling I Continuous behavior is reinforced every time its presented easiest way to learn something and fastest to disappear once behavior is learned Intermittent reinforce sometimes but not every time keeps person performing the behavior Extinction behavior will exist after reinforcement schedule is terminated Module 19 I Cognitive Views of Learning 0 Information Processing Theory I Principles of organization I Encoding process the information writing notes I Storage storing the information I Retrieval bring back information to use taking a test I Structures I Sensory memory encoding I Working memory storage I LongTerm memory retrieval I Information Processing Model 0 Sensory Memory I Initial place where we take everything in I Perception process of detecting a stimulus and assigning meaning to it I Gestaltism tendency of individuals to organize their perceptions into patterns I Processing how we encode information 0 Bottom Up I Feature Analysis I Decoding everything in exact detail 0 Top Down I Use prior knowledge and expectations to process information I Neuristics experience based technique for problem solving and learning I Attention giving attention to certain stimuli and ignoring others I For something to be encoded you have to give attention to it I Automaticity performing learned tasks without much menta effort driving 0 Best ideas come from Bedroom Bathroom and Behind the wheel because all of these actions that occur here are automatic 0 Working Memory I Duration 5 20 seconds I Structure where new information is held briefly and combined with working knowledge I Components I Phonological loop verbal and acoustical I Visuospatial sketchpad visual and spatial I Central executive controls both of above our attention and mental resources I quotPVCquot pipeline I Duration Retention I Maintenance Rehearsal keeping information in active memory by repeating it I Elaborative Rehearsal keeping information in working memory by associating it with something you already know I Capacity I S 9 bits of information at a time I Harder for kids to remember phone numbers now because they have 10 bits I Chunking group things together to help you remember more breaking up phone number Module 20 I Long Term Memory 0 Types of Knowledge I Declarative objects and facts I Procedural how to do things I Selfregulatory how to manage your learning how and when to use your declarative and procedural knowledge 0 Kinds of Knowledge I General information that is useful in many different tasks I Domainspecific information that helps in a specific area 0 Categories of Memory Explicit memories knowledge form longterm memory that can be recalled I Semantic memories from meaning declarative knowledge 0 Propositions true or false 0 Images representations based on physical appearances 0 Concepts categories used to group things schema I Episodic information tied to a particular time and place 0 Flashbulb memory vivid memories ofemotionally important events mpicit memories something that s been learned and is guided by productions I Procedural longterm memory for how to do things 0 Script sequence or plan of action stored in memory 0 Production contents of procedural memory rules about what actions to take Module 18 27 28 I Social Learning Theory 0 Emphasizes learning through the observation of others 0 Enactive learning learning by the results of our own actions 0 Vicarious learning learning from the actions of other people I Socia Cognitive Theories o Reciprocal Determinism theory that explains behavior based of the influence of the following effects emphasizes individual and environment I Selfinfluences goals and motivations anything unique to the self Socia influences whowhat you re learning from and the feedback you get Achievement outcomes the behaviors themselves how you map your progress I All of the above influence each other 0 SelfEfficacy Selfconcept what you actually are I Selfesteem how you feel about the traits you are Selfefficacy people s beliefs about their capabilities specific to a given task sense of whether we are going to succeed or fail I Selfefficacy affects our motivation I Athletes have high selfesteem and selfefficacy when it comes to their sport If they mess up their selfesteem is lowered Someone who has high selfesteem but low selfefficacy in softball will not lose self esteem by striking out because they know they aren t good Mastery experiences direct successes increase efficacy and failures decrease it Vicarious experiences someone else models accomplishments I Modeling the more closely we identify with the person the more they influence efficacy Socia persuasion specific feedback temporarily increases efficacy peptalk o SelfRegulated Learning I Our specific process that we use to accumulate and activate knowledge and behaviors I Influences I Knowledge 0 Four S s I Strategiesnotecards I Selfhow you learn best I Subject facts and principles I Situation study differently for each class 0 Metacognition thinking about thinking I Motivation 0 Volition will power selfdiscipline ability to say no 0 Value how much do I care about this test Module 17 Premack principle principle stating that a morepreferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less preferred activity Shaping reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior Successive approximation small components that make up a complex behavior Positive practice practicing correct responses immediately after errors Satiation Response cost punishment by loss of reinforcers Module 20 Spreading activiation retrieval of pieces of information based on their relatedness to one another remembering one bit of information activates recall of associated information Reconstruction recreating information by using memories expectations logic and existing knowledge Metacognition knowledge about our own thinking processes Serial position effect tendency to remember the beginning and the end but not the middle of a list Mneumonics techniques for remembering the art of memory 0 Loci technique ofassociating items with specific places Chain associate one element in a series with the next element 0 Keyword associating new words or concepts with similarsounding cue words and images 0 NAMES EDUCATIONAL ISSUE SUPERHERO NAME ORGAN ZA ON Paper is well organized and reads well Writing style is consistent and ows together Grammatical ampspelling errors eliminated If a partnership does it appear it came from one author rather than from a cut and paste assembly line BACKGROUND RESEARCH How well did the group include and integrate current outside sources that depict and detail the existence of this problem in schools today Was interview information compiled amp discussed to provide evidence of how current teachers handle these specific issues in their classrooms ALL SOURCES PROPERLYREFERENCEDAND CITED ATTENTION TO DETAIL Is the designed character elaborated and discussed in an in depth manner What are their powers and why specifically were they chosen to deal with the issue The integration of any relevant textbook definitions educational psychology theories and other related material is included to provide a well rounded and thorough description of the character you have created EFFECTIVENESS Was it apparent that the students put work into designing their superhero Was the nal product completely thought through and of high quality Did it look visually appealing Indicators of time and e ort were obvious Presentation was creative and went beyond bare minimum in displaying this MARVE ous teacher Not Slightly Moderately Highly Extremely Evident 1 Evident 2 Evident 3 Evident 4 Evident 7 Not Slightly Moderately Highly Extremely Evident 2 Evident 4 Evident 6 Evident 8 Evident 10 COIVIIVIENTS Total