FUND OF CHEMISTRY II
FUND OF CHEMISTRY II CHEM 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bret Mills on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 102 at Texas A&M University taught by Vickie Williamson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/226225/chem-102-texas-a-m-university in Chemistry at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Voltaic Cells Electrolytic Cells E EO AG AG Spontaneous Non spontaneous Reaction happens Reaction does not happen Balancing Redox Basic Solution 1 Balance central atom Find charge difference on each bracket and then balance electrons Push whatever number you multiply each bracket by to end of each bracket Balance 0 by adding water Balance H by adding H 6 For every H add OH39 to both sides Weak salts have Ksp strong salts don t 0 The larger the KSp the more soluble stronger 0 Salt with the smallest KSp precipitates rst Elk59 Salt that has molarity is a strong salt Ksp solubility precipitate and saturated mean original is solid AG RT1nK gt AG nFEO gtRTan nFEO STANDARD ONLY E E 3909210gK gt AG AGO RTan gt AG nFE NONSTANDARD ONLY E potential E0 standard potential AG potential energy 0 AG0 standard potential energy 000 If solving for time or amp divide by electro de ciency for everything else multiply by ef ciency electrolytic cells Solid mass Aqueous concentration No charge metal Collision Theory 0 TTemp TVelocity TKinetic Energy TFrequency of collision o Treactants TFrequency of collision Rate Laws rate kAxBy 0 larger rates on top 0 0 Zero Order I rate kA0 0 First Order I rate k1nA 0 Second Order 1 rate 7 km Rate Mechanisms o No relationship between molar coefficient are rate of reaction of overall equation 0 Intermediates are both produced and used 0 Catalysts are put in and taken out in a later step I Catalysts lower activation energy I Add a catalyst TT add reactants Treactants TSurface areagt all increase rate of reaction 0 Slow step is the rate determining step Kp mammals 0 Do not include solids o Rhas to be 0832 NOT 8314 Exothermic Add to products Endothermic Add to reactants Equilibrium constant is ONLY affected by temperature ABP ime o i l I nonelectrolyte I nonvolatile I organic I polymer large MW 0 BPmiX BPpure solvent ABP AFP ime O FPmix FPpure solvent 39 APP Bina Acids 0 Increase in acidity from left to right and from top to bottom Ternary Acids o More 0 more acidic o More H more acidic o More electronegative of central atom o Electronegativity increases from left to right and bottom to top Boron aluminum titanium and other transition metals are lewis acids Lithium sodium potassium rubidium cesium barium calcium and strontium are only elements that make strong bases Strong acid lowest negative pH Look for strongest acid by adding H to the weak base Weakest acid has smallest Ka 0 Highest pH strongest base weakest acid lowest Ka o Hydrolysis salt breaking up 0 Always hydrolyze the weak ion 0 Neutralization equivalence point hydrolysis 0 Strong acids and bases do not have Kaor Kb values AG K E Spontaneous Exergonic K gt 1 Rxn will happen AG lt 0 LARGE E gt 0 Favor products equilibrium AG 0 K 1 EO 0 N onspontaneous Endergonic K lt l Rxn will not happen AG gt 0 SMALL E0 lt 0 Favor reactants 0 Increase in Entropy HAS 0 s gt 1 gt g 0 small of moles gt larger of moles only gases 0 small of molecules gt larger of molecules only gases 39 larger molecules more complex 0 Increase in temperature 0 Decrease in pressure 0 Pure gt Impure AG spontaneous low T T all T low T Based on equation AG AH TAS 0 State Functions are independent of path 0 AH AG 0 AS 0 AB 0 V O O T 0 Non State Functions 0 O O O F q heat w work d distance n moles 0 Nuclear Chemist O O O 0000 Bombard capture add as reactant Decayemission add as a product If of protons is larger than 83 an alpha particle will be emitted gt radioactive I Stable nuclei have even of protons and even of neutrons I Radioactive unstable Modulator 7 slow down the neutrons given off in a ssion reaction Fuel Rod slow down the rate of the ssion reaction Coolant cool the reactor core BE Amc2 I Am is in kg actual massMW 7 mass of all parts protons neutrons elections