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by: Bret Mills


Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Chemistry > CHEM 107 > GEN CHEM FOR ENGINEERS
Bret Mills
Texas A&M
GPA 3.66

S. Lalwani

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About this Document

S. Lalwani
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bret Mills on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 107 at Texas A&M University taught by S. Lalwani in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/226227/chem-107-texas-a-m-university in Chemistry at Texas A&M University.




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Date Created: 10/21/15
CHAPTER 10 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics SPONTANEITY SPONTANEOUS VS FAST Spontaneous process takes place without continuous intervention has nothing to do with the rate SPONTANEOUS Burning Ofgasoline Melting of ice Combustion Ofdiamond Decomposition of human remains SPONTANEITY ENTROPY CARNOT CYCLE at constant ENTROPY AND CHAOS quot RNAtemperature Simply stated entropy is a state function that relates to the amount of chaos randomness in the system heat Change STATISTICAL MECHANICS ENTROPY STATISTICAL MECHANICS EN TRO PY STATISTICAL MECHANICS ENTROPY ENTROPY Entropy S kB In Q STATISTICAL M ECHANICS Microstate associated with the state of a Boltzmann constant particle that has assumed a given energy k3 13806503 x 1023 m2 kg s392 K1 0 the number of microstates for a given energy Processes that lead to an increase in entropy Phase changes solid to liquid liquid to gas etc Temperature increase The greater the number of microstates in a added k39net39c energy System the higher the entropy Increased number of particles in the system Entropy S kB In Q SECOND LAW SECOND LAW SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS It is impossible to convert heat completely to work heating increases random motion work requires moving a certain distance with an associated direction heating increases random motion DISORDERED work requires moving a certain distance with an associated direction UNIVERSE ORDERED Sjrroundings Boundary SECOND LAW SECOND LAW SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS It is impossible to convert heat completely to work Nature always tends to proceed toward a more probable state To express this in terms ofthe total change in IN ANY SPONTANEOUS PROCESS THE entropy TOTAL ENTROPY CHANGE OF THE UNIVERSE IS POSITIVE ASuniverse gt 0 ASuniverse ASsystem ASsurroundings SECOND LAW SECOND LAW SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Case Study Polymerization ll ll ll fin u btiitrh ll L 7 H O 0 L H II Hum l mrlmryrm l vrli lmulnl mulqu rm mmlunrcr SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Case Study Polymerization Exothen39nic Forms fewer molecules than initial number Overall the chaos in the system decreases yet the reaction is spontaneouswhy SECOND LAW SECOND LAW SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ASSMWWgs AH T there is no change in T ASSNem lt 0 entropy decreases ASMWESE Assym ASSMWWWES ASWWSEgt 0 for spontaneous reactions Therefore AS gt 0 gt AS surroundings system SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Also since AS AH T surroundings As T is increased ASSWWWgs will decrease and at suf ciently high T ASWESE will no longer be gt0 SECOND LAW SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS THEREFORE To cause depolymerization such as during recycling of plastics T needs to be raised to a really high value typically around 400 C


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