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by: Ernestine Zieme


Ernestine Zieme
Texas A&M
GPA 3.92

Stephen Sargent

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Stephen Sargent
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ernestine Zieme on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 207 at Texas A&M University taught by Stephen Sargent in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 314 views. For similar materials see /class/226250/pols-207-texas-a-m-university in Political Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
Unit 3 Review Political Sciences Chapter 14 3 GDP the sum of all the goods and services produces in the United States in a year Total government spending 31 Federal spending 20 State and local 11 3 Social services and Education are the most costly sources of state and local spending Social Services State Education Local I Public Safety environment and housing as well 3 Ways State and Local Governments gain revenue Taxes are 1 Also federal grants quotuser feesquot Lotteries and fines 3 Types oftaxes Progressive taxes high income groups pay larger percentage of their income than lower income groups Regressive taxes low income groups pay larger percentage of income than high income groups Proportional taxes all income groups pay same percentage of their income in taxes Property Taxes largest source of revenue for local governments Regressive I Burden depends on 1 Ratio of assessed value of property to the fair market value 2 The rate at which assessed property is taxed mills tenths of a percent 3 Tax exemptions and reductions for certain types of property Sales Taxes largest source of revenue for state governments Regressive Maybe but many states exclude quotnecessities of lifequot from taxation Often considered quotpainlessquot taxation Excise Taxes quotsin taxesquot State revenue Often earmarked for specific programs eg cigarette tax to health care Gas tax also excise tax Income tax State revenue May be progressive defended because of quotability to payquot of high income groups of flat 16th Amendment federal income tax Corporate taxes State revenue Tax on income of corporations May be flat or on a quotsliding scalequot based on profits 3 Other Sources of revenue Lottery and Gambling only 2 User Charges 25 Only people who use service pay fee 3 Types of Tax Limits Property tax limits limit allowable rates eg to 10 or 15 mills limit increases allow reassessments only when property is sold Personal income limits limit state taxes to a certain percentage ofthe state s total personal income State expenditure limits limit spending to a certain percentage of a state s personal income Prohibitions on specific taxes Exemptions and special treatments 3 Explaining Tax Revolts m Self interest explanation people who benefit from government spending should oppose tax limitation measures People whose tax burdens are heaviest should support limitation measures Only limited support for this explanation High Tax explanation people who pay taxes should support limitations while those who pay only a moderate burden should show little interest in a tax revolt Little evidence quotWaste in Governmentquot explanation people who think government wastes money should support limitation proposals Supported by surveys Ideological explanation conservatives support tax limits liberals should oppose them Some support Fairness explanation people who feel the system is unfair will support tax limits Alienation explanation tax revolt reflection of declining confidence in government Cutback Management deciding how to reduce spending and services in order to relieve fiscal stress 3 Problems I Resist cutting vs smooth the deadline I Take a deep gouge vs series of decrements I Share the pain vs targeting the cuts I Promote efficiency vs promote equity Cutback Strategies I quotNo change strategyquot across the board cuts seniority retention hiring freezes I Hierarchy of community needs strategy set priorities I quotPrivatizingquot Strategy I Reduction in capital spending strategy I Reduction in labor strategy Capital financing loans in the form of bonds sold to finance roads schools parks libraries prisons government office buildings water and sewage hospital etc Even quotprivate activitesquot like stadiums and convention centers Pay back with interest General Obligation Bonds pledge quotfull faith and creditquot including tax revenues to repayment Revenue bonds issued for specific projects and backed only by whatever revenues the projects generate Industrial Development Bonds issued by a municipality to purchase land and build facilities for private business I Pollution control revenue bonds I Single family mortgage revenue bonds I Hospital revenue bonds 3 Debt ceilings limits amount of money a government can borrow to a proportion ofthe tax base Chapter 15 3 Fourteenth Amendment equal protection under the law 3 Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka Kansas separate but equal is not in fact equal 3 Separate but equal segregation is constitutional as long as equal facilities are provided 3 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Desegregated public areas I Title VII unlawful for any employer or labor union with 25 or more persons to discriminated against any individual because of race color religion sex or national origin 3 Regents of the University of California v Bakke challenging affirmative action race may be considered a quotplusquot factor in evaluation admissions but banned specific quotas 3 Set aside programs governments requiring a certain percentage of contracts to go to minority contractors 3 Immigration Reform Act of 1986 placed principle responsibility on employers set fines for knowingly hiring illegal aliens 3 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibits discrimination against the disabled in employment government programs public accommodations and telecommunications Required full and equal access to hotels restaurants stores schools etc 3 Education Act Title IX 1972 prohibited sex discrimination in education athletics housing academics etc 3 Comparable Worth pay levels for traditionally male and female jobs should be equalized either by employers or gov regulations 3 Roe v Wade 14th Amendment guarantee of quotlibertyquot included a woman s decision to bear or not to bear a child No restrictions on abortion in first trimester standards could be set in second trimester may prohibit in third trimester 3 State Restrictions on abortions Denial of public financing Conscience laws Fetal Disposal Informed consent Parental notification Spousal notification overruled by Supreme Court Hospitalization requirement Clinic licensing Chapter 16 3 Types of dropout rates 3 3 School Event dropout rate marked in the 10th 11th or 12th grade as no longer attending high school Status dropout rate 18 24 year ods who are not attending school and have not graduated from high school Controversies with Testing Testing narrows the scope of learning teachers teach to the test Claims that tests are racially biased based Management reforms designed to decentralize educational decision making to individual schools rather that central school district administrations 3 Vouchers Arguments for Vouchers 1 Parental choice would promote competition and enhance achievement 2 Racialreligious discrimination would be prohibited 3 Allow children to attend good schools iftheir public schools were performing poorly 4 Parents are already paying school taxes should be able to use that money for their own children s education Arguments against Vouchers 1 Disrupts educational planning and threatens the viability of schools perceived as inferior 2 Stratification of schools 3 Public school would be undermined 3 Magnet school emphasize construction in a particular area to improve quality and attract students 3 Charter school operated with public funds by private community groups under a charter from a public school district 3 0 0 3 education 0 0 3 0 0 Federal Roles in Education Try to assure racial equality Assure separation of church and state No Child Left Behind create a sense of national accountability for states quality of Gave parental choice parents may take children out of a failing school district Controversies tries to encompass too many different people and areas it doesn t have enough funding to do an adequate job should federal gov control education Supervision in State Schools State Boards of Education boards appointed by the governor have formal power to decide teacher certification and textbook selection Rely heavily on state commissioner of education and state department of education State Commissioners of Education chief education officer eg state school superintendent superintended of public instruction Most important influence over education in the state public spokesperson for education Head of state department of education 0 State Departments of Education disburse state funds to schools prepare statewide curricula select textbooks and materials determine teacher qualifications establish and enforce school building codes supervise statewide testing 0 School District Consolidation 0 Financial control in the form of grants 3 Responsibilities of Superintendents 0 Set agenda for school board decisions 0 Make policy recommendations 0 Implement Board decisions 3 Free Exercise Clause Supreme Court declared unconstitutional an attempt to prohibit private religious schools 3 Support government gives to religious schools 0 Provide free textbooks to both schools 0 Bus service is allowable 0 State income tax deductions for educational expenses 3 Lemon Test whether a state law constitutes quotestablishmentquot of religion 0 Must have a secular purpose 0 As its primary effect it must neither advance nor inhibit religion 0 Must not foster quotan excessive entanglement with religionquot


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