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by: Albert Cassin


Albert Cassin
Texas A&M
GPA 3.65

Sarah Fulton

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Sarah Fulton
Class Notes
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Albert Cassin on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 206 at Texas A&M University taught by Sarah Fulton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/226253/pols-206-texas-a-m-university in Political Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
Biology 113 Introduction to Biology Chapter Thirteen 7 How Populations Evolve Vocabulary and Terms List 0 39 139 the 139 39 quot quot 39 ofspecies o Bottleneck effect genetic drift resulting from a drastic reduction in population size 0 Comparative anatomy the study of body structures in different organisms 0 Comparative embryology the study of the formation early growth and development of different organisms o Directional selection natural selection that acts in favor of the individuals at one end of a phenotypic range 0 Disruptive selection natural selection that favors extreme over intermediate phenotypes 0 Evolution genetic change in a population or species over generations all the changes that transform life on Earth the heritable changes that have produced Earth s diversity of organisms 0 Fossil record the chronicle of evolution over millions of years of geological time engraved in the order in which fossils appear in rock strata 0 Fossil a preserved remnant or impression of an organism that lived in the past 0 Founder effect random change in the gene pool that occurs in a small colony of a population 0 Gene ow the gain or loss of alleles from a population by the movement of individuals or gametes into or out of the population 0 Gene pool all the genes in a population at any one time 0 Genetic drift a change in the gene pool of a population due to chance 0 HardyWeinberg equilibrium the principle that the shuf ing of genes that occurs during sexual reproduction by itself cannot change the overall genetic makeup of a population 0 HardyWeinberg formula a formula for calculating the frequencies of genotypes in a gene pool from the frequencies of alleles and vice versa 0 Homology anatomical similarity due to common ancestry 0 Modern synthesis a comprehensive theory of evolution that incorporates genetics and includes most of Darwin s ideas focusing on populations as the fundamental units of evolution 0 Mutation a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA the ultimate source of genetic diversity 0 Natural selection differential success in reproduction by different phenotypes resulting from interactions with the environment Evolution occurs when natural selection produces changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population s gene pool 0 Polymorphic referring to a population in which two or more physical forms are present in readily noticeable frequencies 0 Population a group of interacting individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area 0 Population genetics the study of genetic changes in populations the science of micro evolutionary changes in population 0 Stabilizing selection natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes o Vestigial organs a structure of marginal if any importance to an organism Vestigial organs are historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors


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