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by: Ernestine Zieme


Ernestine Zieme
Texas A&M
GPA 3.92

Christine Lipsmeyer

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Christine Lipsmeyer
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ernestine Zieme on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 206 at Texas A&M University taught by Christine Lipsmeyer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/226255/pols-206-texas-a-m-university in Political Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
2212012 20200 PM Why do we think it is important 0 O O O O O O O 0 We are a democratic nation Republican form of democracy Presumably we think the opinion of those representatives matters Expresses the will of the people Founders did not intend for our government to beholden to the people that strongly To the extent that politicians go out and actually survey to make sure what they are doing is what they want Founders actually did not want government this close to the people A step removed from the masses Madison s big argument you should separate your government from the people Original constitution we only elected the House of Representatives The government was beholden to us directly Madison not going to survey to see what we think Founding era put people in place pick best and brightest not anymore Be careful how far you harken back to the government should do what we want We are very interested where PO comes from We call this whole process of acquiring your political beliefs Political Socialization You figure out your political beliefs what your values are political socialization You are socialized into the political process 5 things governments do socialization is one of them It is a process Understand government but proud of how your government works Your book also stresses means of informal socialization Family socializes you into politics a Not talking about politics still pick up opinions and values a Just little things hear a lot about school friends and peer groups n Being on playground kids with other backgrounds a Media a Church or religious organization a A lot of influences on us a Parents have some of the strongest influences on you 0 Biology Research party identification or strength of it has a biological O O 0 component Key As your book points out and political science research points out if you know the part identification of someone s parents There is a really good chance that you will have the same affiliation Finding that has been around for ages You are very likely to start off with the same party id And most people retain that it doesn t change usually Political scientists saw this as socialization Different research biology Starting in the earlymid 2000 research started to look into whether or not p i or strength of attachment were anyway attached to your biology Research that looks at actually genes and twins Findings pretty interesting Biology isn t going to be able to tell you if you are democratic republic not going to pinpoint where you are on the spectrum attachment Research has shown that biology can explain how strongly you are attached to a party How 0 O O O We are in someway wired for politics The crazy thing about it is it is starting to point out that it is not just your socialization We thought it was because of your parents social attachment may have been genes passed down remarkable it is that we tend to agree on so many things Look at U S diversity racially ethnically socially We Bill tend to agree on basic fundamental rights of rights we share an overwhelming degree of agreement on how the government should protect us We We you Actually shocking how diverse we are bc Self government limited government individual freedoms We talk about how we have an American political culture Commonality agree on fundamental principles common political culture also have differences we differ in fundamental ways if compare us to most European countries Which has also helped us come together In this American political culture There are two very big differences between us and them when it comes to political culture and helps us feel more cohesive a 1st and foremost when you think of how our society is organized it is very different from Europeans o no futile aristocracy no king we skipped that part c We then didn t have to have any revolution to overthrown aristocrats No problem of the bourgeoisie trying to gain power over the aristocrats We had our revolution from the U K and republican form of government c We never had futile classes n 2ndWe have no real tradition of socialism is the US When the U We have had socialist parties never attracted enough followers to get anywhere European countries some socialist parties are a big part of their politics and actually govern These differences that we have also effect our public opinion you hear someone say how something in S is socialist we probably don t even know what socialism is we have a snngular political lz He argues that culture it brings us all together and calls it the liberal tradition Harkens back to john Locke We all speak a political language the language of Locke We are all on the same page We tend to hear about the differences and how we disagree so much It is about which liberties are more important not that they are important in general Where does this information come from Comes down to public opinion And how we measure it If public opinion is so important is it important to know how we figure out what it is Not as easy as throwing a survey out in a field First be realistic 0 Polls are fairly recent phenomenon Don t get them til 0 O 0 19405 etc early I the recent century Haven t really had until the last 30 years polling not very done well 0 Early digest 1936 FDR running for reelection running against Alfred Landon He was pretty popular he gets a landslide in 1936 Literary digest predicted Alfred Landon was going to win How do you do polling and get that result Dewy defeats Truman Bad polling Think about polling first Older means of getting public opinion Elections and voting these are ways to figure out what the public wants Voting is one of the most obvious ways to figure out public opinion Do realize you can overstate how elections do grab a picture of public opnion not everyone votes especially in the Us When you look at that and say the public wants this you are getting 50 of population other ways to go about this Crowd response one way that prepolling politicialns would see the way the crowd like their different policies measure response boos big cheers crowd response can give you public opinion obviously small percentage of public Crowd response really isn t what it once was Politician usually talk to more favorable crowds o protests and demonstrations they can tell you if people feel strongly about something They are going to go out and demonstrate How big an issue is this a They got thousands of people protesting n Has similar problems in that it may be a loud protest but may not truly give you what the average person thinks a little extreme You do have these people out there just have to put it into perspective 0 O n O O O n Polling is supposed to be the scientific way of measuring public opinion o Scientific We assume that it is unbiased and gives us a true measure of what the public thinks o Is more scientific Not necessarily unbiased How you survey people Polling you start with a sample You can t possibly interview every person Instead you take a sample of people Sample is just a smaller group of that larger group that you really want to know about If you do it correctly can be just as accurate if you had gone out to talk to people Random sample Every person in that larger population has an equal chance of being chosen for your sample Everybody has the same probably of you choosing them Not that your chance of being chosen is good just the same Stratified sample Version of random sample What we use in political science what we tend to use Want to predict voting Who is going to win a Use a stratified sample n Going to put people into subgroups a All boxes have three dots in them each box is a subgroup and random sample within the subgroup To ensure that you are getting a random sample but to make sure you are hitting all the various groups n Stratifying your sample different incomes races n Divide into subgroups and random sample within those a Voting behavior especially this is how we end up with our samples Different groups trying to get a true picture of public opnion o Margin of Error Random sampling error Not a poll that is absolutely perfect because you are going to be sampling You have to take this into account what are the true numbers The more people you interview the smallest your margin of error How many people should we interview 1 margin of error very expensive acceptable level 335 margin of error tend to interview 500 to a 1000 Margin of error for voters in the US about 100 million Sample size is not huge it is if you do it correctly 0 Literary digest It is a little magazine that has short stories poemsetc 1936 stock market crash great depressions readership is not the average American If you can still afford a subscription you were well off When they do their survey who you are going to vote for the election They ask their readership Didn t need FDR assistance from the New Deal The poll isn t a random sample Sample of a biased readership Callin or textin totally biased sample no way of knowing Any poll that you decide that you want to do it is typically wrong o Jude the reliability 0 Who sponsored the poll Logical bid to it media organization 0 Who did the polling 0 Who was interviewed How many Margin of error did you go out and poll 250 people and say it was the national opinion Who Interview people 18 and older voters likely voters 18 and older half of those people are actually not going to vote worst sample 0 What questions were asked Depending on how you ask you questions can bias your results 0 When were the interviews conducted Primaries presidential elections interview day before or day after the big debate may matter 0 What is the margin of error o Exit polls 0 All polling you have done today throw it away and take exit polls 0 Go to polling stations literally ask people as they come out who did you vote for 0 These are the people who are voting on election day 0 They predict who is going to win 0 Overwhelming win they are going to call it o Question wording can effect the outcome 0 Best example is when you talk about social issues 0 Welfare is loaded word 1 Statement The country isn t spending enough on assistance to the poor n Agreement 63 2 Statement same survey sample The country isn t spending enough on welfare 0 Wording matters 0 Policy areas asking people is the question leading one way or another You can affect the outcome As consumers you need to be aware of it To know whether or not you buy what they are selling Are political concerns when you are talking about polling o List of 5 political concerns 0 1 Sometimes polls don t just measure public opinion Sometimes they actually create it O Iquot We tend to think that when you ask someone a question You think that the opinion is the one they held Sometimes they don t have an prior opinion D So you have just created public opinion Isn t just measuring creating Band Wagon effect a Don t care about election then see results you jump on the band wagon not that you care but everyone else is on it so you jump on n Tend to produce an illusion of saliency o Looks like something is important to you c It is an illusion It is not really important o Can t figure it out if they just answered or thought it was important We poll so much it can push aside public I don t really need to go vote in this primary because everybody is already decided I don t really need to go see a speech because the polling already tells me who is going to win The likelihood of you going to vote after the polls tell you a guy is going to lose why waste your time He is going to lose anyway look at the polls 0 3Polls can actually create an agenda how the government is supposed to decide the policy agenda public opinion can show what the public thinks on all these different things but it can be a misleading picture of public opinion 1970 Gallup poll had questions about Vietnam and race relations business concerns sounds normal fine until you look at the breakdown of the percentage n 5 on Vietnam n 1 on race a rest on business a your impression would be that it was all about business and there was very little opinion about Vietnam and race just look at polls agenda is completely off Weiwyr39y vi l9 i4 bl ix lSit 39wisip iim w 2212012 20200 PM 2212012 20200 PM POLS 206 3210 MEDIA Is the Press Bias Journalistic Bias Influence of the Press Media The Voices of the people Why do we study media Long history of quotFree Press 1st amendment protects press Free exchange of opinionideas Early period of country Very Local Founding fathers era Print Press essays news papers Heavily biased toward one groupparty pamphlets The Democratic Republicans DR V John Adams Thomas Jefferson John Adams gets congress to pass Alien and Sedition Act 1798 made it a crime to criticize the govt they also needed to quite the DR trying to strangle the media Alien and Sedition Act courted the power of immigrants limited power In 1802 this law was fully repented Press becomes cooptive an ethnic of objectivity Don t release info that will unfairly damage not releasing private life of politicians made them more accessible Print Media magazines newspapers Do NOT need licenses and have no federal regulation Cable Media in between partially regulated Broadcast Media tv radio public television Federal regulated Federal Communication Commission FCC Need licenses because there are a limited of frequencies Channels to be used NY Times V US 1971 Dealing with some pentagon papers from the secret defense dept They dealt w govt security They did not want the press to publish them because it would pose a threat but the Supreme court said NY Times can publish them No Prior Restraint Whether or not restrain before they publish Freedom of the press wins Page 1 of 3 POLS 206 3210 1990 s CNN Noriega tapes or talking amp explaining to lawyer rights of the accused CNN could not broadcast Think of cable tv media as print press CNN Limit media after sanctions after broadcasted or published sue them w celebrities mainly False amp Malicious story NY Times v Sullivan Case 1964 In order to win a case show it was done in actual malice or reckless intent most liable cases won because of internal memo false or untrue statements Email makes this easier Broadcast Media FCC ABC NBC CBS is federally regulated bc limited of tv stations Certain of frequencies for radio Two Restrictions that affect o The Equal Time Rule 0 IF radiotv stations offer a political candidate time for commercial they have to offer all candidates the same amount of time Same price The duration of time of commercial may vary on candidates because some may not be 0 able to afford the whole time offered so they take a portion of time offered 0 The right of Rebudle 0 People must be given the right to respond to a personal attack on tv Is the PressMedia bias Potential power of media Conservatives arguing the press was bias in a liberal way Surveying Journalist Find out if biased Journalists were liberal Majority of journalist over 50 are moderate Today every last detail matters concerned w audience amp business interests Journalistic bias only write drama working together to see and understand The Need for a new story quotEverything must be dramaquot Page 2 of 3 POLS 206 3210 Influence of the Press Four Stories how media perceives candidates 0 Bandwagon quotgaining supportquot momentum 0 Best Press Coverage 0 Losing Ground quothave lost their lead AkA Horse Race 0 Worst coverage NOT NEWS Has nothing 0 FrontRunner Ahead ignored media wise Boringquot to do w issues 0 5050 Coverage Not exciting o Likely Loser Lame Image This is bad w broadcast media 0 Bad coverage Page 3 of 3 2232012 15900 PM Public OpinionMedia I Finish Polling 4 Polls do you jump on the bandwagon or dig a little deeper beyond polls 5 Using polls as marketing 0 It is not about figuring out their opinion but you are trying to alter o Seeding the electorate asking them questions not because you want to know what they think but because you want to give them information Polls are used as ideological tools Phrase push polls a Very much about trying to change your opinion on a candidate a Example 2000 republic primary south Carolina a Bush v McCain competition and Carl surveyed 1 question o Would you vote for McCain if you found out he had an illegitimate black child o Rumor that has no basis in reality but hit exactly that race card in South Carolina a Even if it not a blatant lie they are surveys to alter your opinion not measure it u If you were to alter voters opinions on an issue as well n Wording and push polls often go together II The American Media Why do we study it We have a long history of a free press Bill of rights very much important to the founders First 10 Amendments Give us the ability to change opinions Regardless of government and elite Allows press to publish almost anything they want to Tabloids Press was obviously a print media in the time of Founders O O 0 Newspapers The press is local not a lot of national newspaper Heavily partisan Pick up a newspaper and read it because it was the Federalists or DemocraticRepublic Heavily Biased Press was vicious towards the opposition lies amp rumors When John Adams was president he got so tired of being attacked by the DemocraticRepublicans who supported Jefferson a He proposed and congress passes the Alien and Sedition Acts Makes criticizing the government a crime False scandalous and malicious writing against congress or the president or both you can go to jail o His attempt to shut up the Democratic Republicans Most were appealed by 1802 At the founding era the press is not upstanding or unbiased completely biased and political Politics was just ugly Starts with a heavily partisan media they start to be cooptive Relationships between politicians and the Media changes Politicians realize if they bring the media into politics they can change this The press realizes the ethic of objectivity O O 0 Press become less partisan They are not beholden to a party This leads up to The press is completely cooptive to the political Example Roosevelt and Kennedy Press wants to be objective and get a bigger audience Private lives of politicians in the background FDR barely pictures of him in a wheelchair JFK allegations of infidelities come out later The hear but don t write Being almost nonpartisan o Gacha press everything is fair game o Everything effects the politicians ability to actually govern o The Media 0 1 Print media newspapers magazines n n n n n Very few restrictions Primary doctrine comes from a New York Times V US court case The print media can publish almost anything it wants to The case deals with the Pentagon Papers A liberal opponent of the Vietnam war gets his hands on classified defense department documents The New York Times wants to publish them Supreme court says NY times can publish them There can be no prior restraint on the media Prior restraintrestraining them prior to publication o Supreme court no prior restraint o Since 1971 the court has narrowly decided in a few cases where we can t let something be published o Case NY Times v US 1971 o 1990 issue CNN being cable 0 gets hands on footage of Manuel Noregia Talking to his lawyer and CNN wants to play it o Noregia s right to a fair trial would by trumped pinning freedom of press against right to a fair trail 0 The ability of CNN to show this does not outstand his right to a fair trial O O Fundamental rights against eachother Very narrow instances where no prior restraints doesn t work 0 You can limit the power of the media not before or prior you can only sanction them after they publish Lawsuits Sue them for liable not slander spoken They have printed false and malicious stories NY Times V Sullivan 1964 Public official something is published about him Not true and he sues The supreme court here is quite clear If you want to prove liable you have to show the publication of that was done with actually malice and reckless intent Not just a lie you have to show Easy to show when something is not true But hard to show Liable is incredibly hard to actually win this is why tabloids keep publishing Why the media for the most part get a free pass a When a celebrity sues and wins it is not often and is in the media 0 Almost impossible to put a restraint on them prior to publication and very difficult to restrain them after that Down below o 2 Broadcast media radio traditional TV a n n i not cable TV very much about airwaves o limited number of frequencies o Government can regulate Before cable limited number ofTV stations Cable looks more like print media c From up above Federal Communications Commission Regulates airwaves Radio and traditional TV o Grant licenses you can t have a radio station or channel without a license 8 year license Very much about the administration of the airwaves Limited number of airwaves regulate through these licenses who can hold a radio station o Idea is business ensure competition o Not one company owning all airwaves 1 Equal Time rule stations must offer political candidates with the same amount of air time buy it Your radio station might offer each of 3 candidates the same amount of times and same price This allows all candidates to have aces to TV and Radio They were both offered Arnold Fred Thompson time on law and Order 0 D A 0 They agreed no to show episodes of him in it during the campaign n 2 Right of Rebuttal c There to protect candidates politicians etc o If you are a politician and someone personally attacks you you have the right of rebuttal They have to give you time to come in Has to be a personal attack o Ensure that you can have TV time radio time III Is the Press Biased o Argument the press had a liberal biased and conservatives pointed to one big piece of evidence 0 Is that journalist when asked answer 31 that they vote for the Democratic party 0 Assumption the journalists tend to be democratic 0 New affect the biased of the journalist 0 Big piece of evidence why doesn t it come out in coverage 0 Publishers corporate pressures Those tend to be conservatives Businesses wanting to advertise tend to be conservative 0 They counteract eachother o The whole media is not biased 0 Not say the media doesn t have any biased o No liberal or conservative biased Journalistic Biased IV Journalistic Bias o The Journalists need a story 0 Got to get you to their website channel 0 They need an audience 0 They need money o Very much of how they need drama a story whatever makes you watch and listen o Politician side elections become competitions you follow it through the whole process 0 Think about the media and how they portray politicians o How they build things up dramatize elections V Influence of the Press 0 2232012 15900 PM 2232012 15900 PM 1 2 Public Opinion History of Public Participation a Public opinion S S Very important We re a democracy we believe that our representatives are interested in what we think Madison did not think about public opinion in a way to connect public opinion polls to democracy the modern public opinion 1 2 4 5 6 Most of our founders feared the public opinion Divided government up and only gave the people one place to directly affect the government a The only reps we elected directly were in the house b Only wanted us really to indirectly affect the government Argued that government should be a step removed from the llnational passions Worried about a majority fashion taking over branches of government We re all just a little too emotional Can t change government all in one election Public opinion has come a long way from the founding idea Founders wouldn t like how it is now 1 Think we directly affect government too much Just because we re a democracy it doesn t mean the government is supposed to do exactly what we want Political Socialization a American Political Culture b How public opinion is formedpolitical socialization Political Socializationthe process through which an individual acquires his or her particular political orientations 1 2 3 4 Political knowledge feelings about political process evaluations of politics How you view your political world Start out with same political views as their parents People tend to have the same political ideas as their parents A lot of informal socialization 1 2 Influences affection political attitudes a Parents b School c Peer group d Media Socialized into politics and the American culture Don t have a history of aristocracy iv Don t have a history of socialism v The Liberal Tradition in America 1 The Language of Locke 2 Limited Government c 3 Polling a Before the 20 h Century really didn t have polling b Wasn t very good when they first started using it i A lot of problems 1 1936 Election between FDR and Alfred Landon Literary digest said Landon was going to win in a landslide and then FDR won by a landslidepolling data completely off 2 llDewey defeats Truman in the Chicago Tribute Their poll said Dewey was going to win but it didn t happen ii They tried to use polling data to predict the election but it was not very reliable c Have to start with a sample of people i If you sample correctly it will be just as accurate as if you talk to everybody ii Next step is you are going to need a random sample 1 Everyone in the group you re interested in have the same probability of being chosen iii The larger the sample is the smaller the margin of error should be d Judge the reliability i Who sponsored the poll ii Who did the polling iii Who was interviewed How many iv What questions were asked v Howwhen were the interviews conducted vi What is the margin of error e Before polling crowd response was the only way politicians could try out their ideas with their supporters f Talk about polls in horse racing terms g Exit polling the day of the election i Ask people who they re voting for as they leave the polls and they come up with a prediction of who is going to win the election ii Only uses people who did vote so comes out pretty accurate but must be done very fast h Political concerns when translating polls to public opinion i Polls don t always measure public opinion sometimes it creates it ii The Bandwagon Effect iii Polls can create a bandwagon affect iv Can create an illusion of importance v Can push aside other expressions of public participation E 5 Polls can create an agenda where one doesn t really exist A 1970 Gallop poll Vietnam is the issue only 5 of the questions in the poll asked about Vietnam only 1 asked about race the majority asked about businesses 1 It looked like people weren t concerned about Vietnam or race they were concerned about business and economic issues 2 If the government is polling numbers to figure out what is important to the people this would be very misleading i Polls have become the news Instead of the news telling us about where candidates stand on issues or policies they now give us polling numbers Instead of the news really laying it out for us telling us about the issues or candidates it is now strictly numbers j When polls are used as marketing Push polls Polls can be used as ideological tools Polling isn t to find out what you think but it is more to give you information to sway your opinion 1 South Carolina republican primary BushMcCain and Carl Rove there was a telephone poll that asked registered republicans would it affect their vote if they found out that McCain had an illegitimate black child It was a lie but it was an ideological tool to sway a vote Not measuring an opinion trying to sway and change it Maximizing popularity through the selection and order topics 1 Do you approve or disapprove of Bush s increased security measures following the Sept 11 h Terrorist attacks 2 Do you approve or disapprove of Bush s efforts to the no child left behind act 3 Do you agree to bush s decision to go into Iraq after admitting that the pretenses he gave the trusting American public were all lies 4 Don t you agree that allegations of corruptions like those levied ab Review POLS 2 10312011 44500 AM What is the best way to measure public opinion o Gallup polls What are the problems with public opinion polling o Limited respondent options lack of information difficulty measuring intensity What restrictions are placed on print and broadcast media o Journalistic standards Government regulation media ownership content How has the American media changed over the years c Papers used to be partisan 4 trends the growth of conglomerates narrowcasting increasing use of experts growth of citizen journalists How has the role of public opinion changed since the founding era o Founding fathers feareddidn t trust public opinion Reflected in lack of direct election to Senate o Now debates occur to influence public opinion and tracking polls are all the rage Describe the importance of elections in American politics o Paine Purpose of elections is to elect someone who looks just like you Incredibly strong representative link o Madison didn t trust the masses o Purpose is to improve upon public opinion o Elections will filter out the best and the brightest that should govern o Representatives are stability anal To head people are passionate heart o Hamilton very much an elitist o Purpose is to elect a natural aristrocracy we should be able to spot their greatness from afar What affects voter turnout How has turnout changed since the founding o Voter turnout is higher among citizens who are white older more educated have higher incomes belong to civic organizations and attend religious services more frequently o Suffrage has increased What is the purpose of political parties o Give us options 0 Debates candidate sells their vision o Give us shortcuts 0 Need to win elections o Try to find good candidates o Provide leadership in government How has the American party system changed over time Why does it look different than our European counterparts o Looks different because of our lack of proportional representation o Changed because the government has assumed some of the parties functions more candidate centered detached from centered weakened party support Why do critically realigning elections occur How do they happen o In reaction to crucial developments such as war or economic depression o Ex New deal GOP winning cuz of slavery in 1860 Thomas Jefferson creating a states rights party in 1800 o Voters are polarized around new issues or personalities Why are certain interest groups more likely to form c There is a population ecologymeaning groups reflect the hierarchy of issues ECONOMY first What important activities do interest groups do Affect change on public policy They do so by lobbying Lobbying Hire someone to represent your opinion to the policymakers Key Terms and Concepts 10312011 44500 AM Pollinginterviews with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population Ideological biasLiberal bias by media that infiltrates their coverage Austrailian ballot spilt ticket controlled by state not colorcoded secret Internal mobilization political parties formed within the government External mobilization people forming political parties outside the government Spoils system winner places members of his party into offices Stratified sample sample taken from certain groups Progressive reforms Australian ballot civil service exam voter registration Liberal tradition tradition of freedom and democratic government ideas of Locke Reapportionment the change in seats per state in the House based off the census Plurality systemsa singlewinner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on singlemember constituencies Electoral rules Secret ballot Office blockparty column ballot sorted by officesorted by party Neoliberal critique fear that small interest groups will dominate policy and may not influence policy for the majority of people Party structure Party in the Electorate voters party ID Party Organization party platform Party in Government officials chosen under party banner Primaries an election in which voters select candidates for a subsequent election Electoral college consists of the popularly elected representatives electors who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States Pluralism Factions will form on both sides of an issue and will therefore balance out Interest groups a group of individuals or organizations with interest in a shared area Hyperpluralism o We suffer because there are too many options o Madisionism gone crazy o Interest groups keep politicians from doing their jobs o The groups are too close to leaders too much sway Retrospective evaluations Evaluating candidates based on their past actions Sampling Random sample of people interested in Larger the sample smaller the margin of error Alien and Sedition Acts made it a crime to publish quotfalse scandalous and malicious writingquot against the governrr officials ticket splitting Choosing candidates from different parties for different offices Majorityminority districts congressional district in which the majority of the constituents in the district are racial or ethnic minorities excludes white nonHispanics Proportional representation either representation based on the population of the district or an election system where the percentage of votes per party results in a split of a states seats Partisanship Membership to a particular party Singlemember districts a voting system in which a predetermined constituency elects a single person to some office Critical realigning elections Elections that change the majority in congress from one party to another Also elections that result in major party realignment usually occur every 40 years Party platform a list of the actions which a political party supports Third parties a political party other than one of the two major parties Patronage the support encouragement privilege or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another Collective benefit Benefits given by an interest group gained by everyone even nonmembers Census the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population Theory of collective action Why we join the groups that we join Economic selfinterest Selective benefitsonly gained by members Collective benefitsgained by everyone Prospective evaluations Evaluating candidates based on what they say they will do in office Party bell curve Need the majority of the moderates in order to win elections aka the Downs Bell Curve Model Random sample a subject chosen from a population for investigation Journalistic bias Bias towards the bestsensational story Voter registration Voters must register to vote prior to election Gerrymandering Forming of electoral districts Majority system Need 51 to win election Turnout problem Rational Choice cost and benefits of voting Withdrawal Argument people want to feel like their vote matters Institutional Explanation people feel like they don39t fit into one party or the other Populist critique Interest groups only target upper classes and therefore cut out the majority of voters Selective incentivebenefit Incentives benefits ofjoining an interest group Free riders People who take advantage of the collective benefits of interest groups while choosing to not participate in the groups Political socialization The process through which an individual acquires their political orientation Illusion of saliency illusion that people care about an issue just cause they answer a poll question Seeding the electorate using polls to influence people to choose certain candidates New Deal coalition northern blacks southerners labor unions urban ethnics middle class liberals united for the New Deal Ballots a device used to record choices made by voters 10312011 44500 AM Second Exam Review Sheet POLS 206 Sections 505 amp 506 Lipsmeyer The second exam will cover material from O Connor et al Chs 1012 and the lectures This study sheet is NOT meant to tell you everything you must know It can provide an outline for your studying by giving you important questions to consider Important Court Cases There are only two key court cases you need to know NYTimes v Sullivan NY Times v US Key Terms and Concepts polling sampling random sample ideological bias Alien and Sedition Acts journalistic bias suffrage ticket splitting voter registration Australian ballot maj orityminority districts gerrymandering reapportionment proportional representation majority system plurality system partisanship the turnout problem election rules singlemember districts populist critique neoliberal critique critical realigning elections selective incentive party structure platforms selective benefit primaries third parties free riders electoral college patronage political socialization pluralism collective benefit illusion of saliency interest groups census seeding the electorate hyperpluralism Theory of Collective Action liberal tradition retrospective evaluations prospective evaluations New Deal Coalition internal mobilization party bell curve external mobilization spoils system progressive reforms ballots Questions you may want to think about By going through these questions you should become familiar with many of the terms used in the lectures and the textbook But do not rely only on this review sheet What is the best way to measure public opinion What are the problems with public opinion polling What restrictions are placed on print and broadcast media How has the American media changed over the years How has the role of public opinion changed since the founding era Describe the importance of elections in American politics How do elections parties and voting t together What affects voter turnout How has turnout changed since the founding What is the purpose of political parties How has the American party system changed over time Why does it look different from our European counterparts Why do critically realigning elections occur How do they happen Why are certain interest groups more likely to organize than others What important activities do interest groups undertake Format 50 Multiple Choice Questions Once again Don39t forget a grey scantron sheet a pencil your seat number or your ID


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