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Intro to Comp & Prob Solving

by: Aleen Crona MD

Intro to Comp & Prob Solving CS 120

Marketplace > Texas Southern University > ComputerScienence > CS 120 > Intro to Comp Prob Solving
Aleen Crona MD
GPA 3.91

Lila Ghemri

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Lila Ghemri
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aleen Crona MD on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CS 120 at Texas Southern University taught by Lila Ghemri in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/226265/cs-120-texas-southern-university in ComputerScienence at Texas Southern University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Overview of Computers What is a Computer A computer is an electronic device that can store retrieve and process data at speed millions or billions times faster than a human Modernday computers are categorized according to their size and performance Microcomputers are the most common computers They are used by a single person at a time they are single user The largest microcomputers are called workstations Minicomputers or mainframes are used by research labs or businesses and are larger and faster than workstations They are multiuser Supercomputers are the most powerful mainframes computers They are specialized computers used for highspeed computations They are mostly used by the Army and NASA A Computer System is composed of two major elements hardware and software The various devices that comprise a computer system are referred to as hardware Hardware is the equipment used to perform computations The programs that run on a computer are called software Software consists ofthe programs that enable us to use and solve problems with a computer Computer Hardware The major hardware components of a computer system are common to most computers and are Main memory Secondary memory devices Central Processing Unit or CPU Input devices Output devices The CPU main memory and secondary memory devices are usually contained in the systems unit This rectangular box is sometimes called quotthe computerquot The monitor is the TVlike screen Memom Memory is an essential component of any computer It is where the data and programs used by the computer are stored In order to be able to use any piece of information a computer must store it first What is Memom We can imagine the memory of a computer as an ordered sequence of storage locations called memory cells To store and access information the computer must have a way of identifying the individual memory cells Therefore each memory cell has a unique address that indicates its relative position in memory Most computers have millions of individual memory cells each with it own address The data stored in a memory cell are called the content ofthe cell Table below shows an example of a computer memory consisting of a 1000 cells with addresses from 0 to 999 Bytes and Bits A memory cell is a grouping of smaller units called bytes A byte is the amount of storage required to store a single character The number of bytes a memory cell can contain varies from computer to computer A byte is composed of even smaller units of storage called bits A bit is the smallest element a computer can deal with or manipulate The term bit derives from the word binary digit Binary refers to a number system based on two numbers 0 and 1 so a bit can only have two values either a O or a 1 A byte is composed ofeight 8 bits Example Bit 0010110 4 Byte Stora e and Retrieval of Information in Memor Each value in memory is represented by a particular pattern of 0 s and 1 s A computer can only store a value or retrieve a value To store a value the computer sets each bit ofa selected memory to either 0 or 1 destroying the previous content ofthe memory cell To retrieve a value from a memory cell the computer copies the pattern of Os and 1s stored in that cell to another storage area for processing the copy operation does not destroy the contents ofthe cell whose value is retrieved The memory in a computer system is oftwo fundamental types Main memory Main memory stores programs data and results This is where the programs and data are kept when the processor is actively using them Main memory is intimately connected to the processor so moving instructions from the program and data into and out of processor is very fast Main memory is sometimes called RAM RAM stands for quotRandom Access Memoryquot which means that the memory cells can be accessed in any order When we say that a computer has quot32 megabytes of RAMquot they are talking about how big its main memory is RAM Characteristics Very closely connected to the processor Used to hold the programs and data that the processor is actively working with The processor interacts with it millions of times per second The content of main memory is easily changed Not used for longterm storage Low capacity compared to secondary memory but access is fast Secondary memory Secondary memory is where programs and data are kept on a longterm basis When programs and data become active they are copied from secondary memory into main memory where the processor can interact with them A copy remains in secondary memoryThe processor does not interact directly with secondary memory Common secondary memory are disks A disk is a circular sheet of plastic or metal that is coated with a magnetic material The 0 s and 1s ofa byte of data are recorded as magnetic spots Secondam Memom Characteristics Connected to main memory Used to hold programs and data The content of secondary storage is easily changed Used for longterm storage Huge capacity compared to main memory but access is slow Usually data and programs are organized into les in secondary memory Common secondary storage devices are the hard disk and floppy disks Hard Disks The hard disk is usually contained in the systems unit of a computer There may be several hard disks in the systems unit Programs that you expect to run are kept on the hard disk Data that you save is kept on the hard diskThe hard disk has enormous storage capacity compared to main memory A hard disk might have a storage capacity that is 100s times larger than the RAM However a hard disk is very slow compared to main memory Floppy Disks Floppy disks are mostly used for transferring software between computer systems and for casual backup of software They have low capacity and are very very slow compared to other storage devicesThe reasons for having two types of storage is this Fast Slow Expensive Cheap Low Capacity Large capacity Connects directly to the Can39t connect directly to the processor processor Newer Secondary Memory Devices Compact DisksCD Flash Disks Central Processing Unit The central processing unit CPU or processor is the quotbrainquot of the computer system The CPU has two roles coordinating and controlling all computer operations and performing arithmetic and logical operations A particular computer will have a particular type of processor or CPU such as a Pentium chip Integrated circuits are often called quotchipsquot The CPU is composed of three basic components The registers The ALU The Control Unit Registers these components are special memory locations that can be accessed very fast ALU This component is the number cruncher of the CPU The Arithmetic Logic Unit performs all the mathematical calculations of the CPU It is composed of complex circuitry The ALU can add subtract multiply divide and perform a host oflogical operations such as determining whether a number is larger than another Control Unit This component is responsible for directing the ow of instructions and data within the CPU It works as process known as the fetchdecodeexecute cycle In each cycle the Control Unit 1 Fetches the next instruction ofthe program currently being executed 2 Interprets the instruction to determine what should be done 3 Executes the instruction Input and Output Devices Input and output devices allow the computer system to interact with the outside world by moving data into and out ofthe system We used lO devices to communicate with the computer An input device is used to bring data into the system Some input devices are Keyboard Mouse Microphone Bar code reader An output device is used to send data out of the system Some output devices are Monitor Printer Speaker Inputoutput devices are usually called lO devices They are directly connected to an electronic module inside the systems unit called a device controler For example the speakers of a multimedia computer system are directly connected to a device controller called an audio card such as a SoundBlaster which in turn is connected to the rest of the system Computer Software Software consists of the programs that enable us to solve problems with a computer The software that makes the computer friendly to the user and which is an integral part of every system is the Operating System Operating System The collection of computer programs that control the interaction of the user and the computer program is called operating system OS The operating system is responsible for directing all computer operations and managing all computer resources Most Common OS by user interface type nt MSDOS V ndows 9598NT2000 I VMS I UNIX X windows Systems An 08 that uses a commandline interface displays a brief message called a prompt that indicates it is ready to receive input The user then types a command at the keyboard Some tasks that the operating system performs 1 Communicate with the user receive commands and execute them or reject them with an error message Manage memory processortime and other resources Collect input from input devices such as keyboard or mouse and provide it to the program being run Conveying program output to the screen printer or other output devices Access data from secondary storage Write to secondary storage Verify that each user can only access or modify the data for which they have the proper authorization JON ICDU39IA


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