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ch 6 chem notes

by: Karlee Castleberry

ch 6 chem notes CHEM 1030 - 003

Karlee Castleberry
GPA 3.1
Fundamentals Chemistry I
John D Gorden

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Here are Dr. Gorden's lecture notes for the end of chapter 5 and all of chapter 6! :) - Karlee
Fundamentals Chemistry I
John D Gorden
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karlee Castleberry on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 - 003 at Auburn University taught by John D Gorden in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Tuesday October 6 2015 Ch 5 cont Ch 6 acids when dissolved in water produce hydrogen ions common hydrochloric hydrofluoric naming remove gen from hydrogen change ide to ic hydrogen fluoride hydrofluoric acid polyatomic ions contain 2 atoms held by covalent bond oxoanion oxygen with another ion ous ending indicates oxyanion ending in ite ammonium dichromate NH42Cr207 sulfurous acid H2803 CIO4 perchlorate perchloric acid HCIO4 CIOB chlorate chloric acid HCIOB C02 chlorite chlorous acid HC02 CIO hypochlorite hypochlorous acid HCIO N03 nitrate nitric acid HNOB N02 nitrite nitrous acid HN02 molecular mass mass in amu s of an individual molecule to calculate multiply atomic mass by number of atoms then total masses H20 2atomic mass of H atomic mass of O 21008 amu 1600 amu 1802 amu percent composition list of percent by mass of each element Tuesday October 6 2015 n X atomic mass moleculear mass of compound X 100 H 2 X 1008 amu H 3402 amu H202 X 100 5926 O 2 X 1600 amu O 3402 amu H202 X 100 9406 formula mass of aluminum carbonate Al2CO33 C3Al209 234 gmol how many moles in 737 g of calcium nitrite CaNO22 Ca N2 04 737 132088 g 056 mol Ch 6 Chemical Bonding Basic Concepts 61 The Octet Rule atoms will lose gain or share electrons in order to achieve a noble gas electron configuration Lewis structure is a representation of covalent bonding shared electrons are shown as a line or dots lone pairs are pairs of dots on an individual atoms multiple bonds in a single bond atoms held together by 1 electron pair in a double bond atoms share 2 pairs of electrons in a triple bond atoms are held together by 3 electron pairs triple bonds shorter than double bonds double bonds shorter than single bonds takes energy to break something gives off energy when you form it 62 Electronegativity and Polarity tWO extremes Tuesday October 6 2015 covalent bonds occur bt atoms that share electrons MX pure covalent bond neutral atoms held together by equally shared electrons ionic bonds bt a metal and nonmetal and involve ions MX ionic bond oppositely charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction bonds that fall between these extremes are polar M5X5 polar covalent bond partially charged atoms held together by unequally shared electrons a bond whose electronegativities differ by less than 05 is considered purely covalent or non polar a bonds bt atoms whos electronegativities differ by the range of 05 to 20 is considered polar covalent a bond bt atoms whose en differ by 20 or more is considered red more electrons electronegativity lt gt electron density varies with atomic number 63 Drawing Lewis Structures least electronegative ion on inside bracket around compound with cationic or anionic charge 64 Lewis Structures and Formal Charge formal charge can be used to determine the most plausible Lewis Structure when more than one possibility exists for a compound formal charge valance electrons associated electrons to determine associated electrons all atoms nonbonding electrons are associated with atom half atoms bonding electrons associated with atom all formal charges are zero is preferred Tuesday October 6 2015 small formal charges preferred to large should be consistent with electronegativities 65 Resonance resonance structure is one of 2 or more lewis structures for a single molecule that cant be represented accurately by only one lewis structure human invention differ only in positions of their electrons can only have a resonance with at least 1 double bond 66 Exceptions to the Octet Rule


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