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Introduction to Operant Conditioning

by: Aimee Castillon

Introduction to Operant Conditioning PSYC 304

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 304 > Introduction to Operant Conditioning
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy

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About this Document

Chapter 6 lecture notes
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 304 at George Mason University taught by Patrick McElroy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of Learning in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Organization name Student name student email address 101 Bio 0 Spring 2012 Lugllglugsl39 gll lil t wgul llug l ill xgrl lll l l Thorndike animal intelligence has no proof e rat running the maze Difference between classical vs operant examples of each Onerant Conditioning Introduction aka Instrumental Conditioning operant behaviors are affected by their consequences or outcomes Thorndike s Law of Effect animal intelligence how animals find their way home continuation of a behavior is determined by its consequences behavior gt satisfying event strengthened stamped in behavior gt annoying event weakened stamped out Thorndike s puzzle box is an example of a discrete trial procedure animal removed from apparatus at end of each trial instrumental response only occurs once during each trial Skinner s selection by consequences free operant procedure allows for repeated operant responses Skinner box operant chamber operant conditioning the future probability of a behavior is affected by its consequences behaviors that lead to favorable outcomes are more likely to be repeated behaviors that lead to unfavorable outcomes are less likely to be repeated three parts a response produces a consequence the consequence either increases or decreases the likelihood the response will occur again there is a discriminative stimulus that precedes the response and signals that a consequence is now available operant behavior pigeon pecks a response key gt food pellet effect future probability of key pecking increases dog sits on command gt gets a biscuit effect future probability of sitting on command increases child hits her brother gt scolded effect future probability of hitting her brother decreases classical vs operant behaviors classical elicited involuntary inflexible behavior is a function of what comes before it threeterm contingency antecedent notice something behavior do something consequence get something 102115 involves a SSR sequence operant emitted voluntary flexible behavior is a function of what comes after it involves a SRS sequence operants involve a class of responses may take any form the lever might be pressed with the left paw right paw nose etc but is part of the class of responses lever press operant consequences reinforcers consequences that increase the probability a behavior will occur again SR reinforcing stimulus punishers consequences that decrease the probability a behavior will occur again SP punishing stimulus examples lever press R gt food pellet SR hit brother gt scolding SP only the behavior is reinforced or punished not the individual we can only tell if a stimulus is a reinforcer or a punisher by observing its effect on subsequent behavior not by trying to predetermine if it is pleasant or annoying Thorndike ls PBampJ sandwich a reinforcer or a punisher operant antecedentsdiscriminative stimuli stimulus that s presence indicates a response will be reinforced or punished SD discriminative stimulus for reinforcement SDP discriminative stimulus for punishment example operant box SD lever press R gt food pellet SR home cage no SD lever press R gt no food pellet parent present SDP hitting brother R gt scolding SP no parent present no SDP hitting brother R gt no scolding extinction in operant conditioning extinction involves the unavailability of a previously available reinforcer SA discriminative stimulus that signals extinction tone SA lever press R gt food pellet SR buzzer SA lever press Rgt no food pellet classical and operant conditioning Four tvpes of contingencies in operant conditioning the delivery of the reinforcer or punisher is contingent on the response reinforcement and punishment can each be divided into two subtypes positive or negative reinforcement increases probability that the response that preceded it will occur again punishment decreases the probability that the response that preceded it will occur again positive behavior is followed by presentation of something negative behavior is followed by removal of something to determine which contingency does consequence involve something being presented or withdrawn does consequence increase probability of the response will occur again or decrease probability of the response will occur again Response produces a Response eliminates a stimulus stimulus Positive reinforcement Increase in response Positive reinforcement Negative Kid gets 20 for getting good rate remforcement d 39 h l tt39 t gra 982186 00 p9 quot191898 Decrease In response Posmve punishment Negative punishment belt on Click it or ticket sign rate positive reinforcement presentation of a stimulus that increase the probability the response it follows will occur again negative reinforcement removal of a stimulus that increases the probability the response it follows will occur again escape termination of an aversive stimulus avoidance prevention of an aversive stimulus positive punishment presentation of a stimulus that decreases the probability the response it follows will occur again negative punishment removal of a stimulus that decreases the probability the response it follows will occur again Further distinctions positive reinforcement immediate vs delayed reinforcement more immediate reinforcers have a stronger effect on behavior ie training your dog primary and secondary reinforcers primary innate ie food water social interaction etc secondary reinforcers that have been paired with some other reinforcer ie grades certain people etc generalized secondary reinforcers have been associated with several reinforcers ie money and attention intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement intrinsic reinforcement is provided by the activity itself ie drink alcohol for its physical effects extrinsic reinforcement has to be provided by something external to the activity ie drink alcohol to gain friends approval natural and contrived reinforcers natural reinforcers typically provided for a behavior ie food from a vending machine contrived reinforcers that have been deliberately arranged to modify a behavior ie token economies toy for being good at the doctor shaping creating new behaviors through the reinforcement of successive approximations to the desired behavior a stepbystep process ie dog learning to catch a frisbee ie clicker training with dogs click sound is a secondary reinforcer Negative reinforcement example taking a painkiller to relieve headache escape turn on heater when it gets cold avoidance turn on heater so it doesn t get cold Positive punishment washing your mouth with soap because you cursed car is out of gas but still early for curfew Negative punishment putting kids on time out grounding the child ask to leave what are some behaviors that are shaped in children potty training can be presented immediately works at a distance no satiation


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