Chapter 10: Intelligence Lecture Notes
Chapter 10: Intelligence Lecture Notes PSYCH-1000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
II 111 Lecture Notes Chapter 10 Intelligence October 914 2015 Introductory Psychology with Dr Rollins Chapter 10 Intelligence 9a possession of knowledge and ability to use it adaptively in different environments 9ability to master the information and skills needed to succeed in a particular culture 9problemsolving skills ability to adapt to new situations and learn from everyday experiences Is intelligence one ability or several a Some believe that intelligence is one general mental ability i g b Others believe in multiple intelligences i Gardner 9 intelligences ii Stemberg 3 intelligences 1 Analytical creative and practical History of Intelligence Tests i Binet was asked by the French government to develop a test that could identify kids that needed extra educational help 1904 ii His test measured reasoning thinking and problemsolving skills iii It could measure a child s 9a level of performance associated with a particular chronological age iv Binet s concems the test would be used to limit and label children i Lewis Terman adapted the SimonBinet scale for use in the United States ii Could be used to test children OR adults iii Used to report scores 1 Mental AgeChronological Age X 100 IQ iv Misuse due to cultural biases in test IV IQ Tests Today a StanfordBinet b Wechsler Scales WAIS WISC WPPSI i Most widely used ii WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale iii WISC Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ages 616 iv WPPSI Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence below age 6 c Calculating IQ i Representative samples ii Normsdescriptions of frequency of scores iii Normal distribution bellshaped curve iv Average IQ 100 V Score re ects standing compared to peers vi Extremes of IQ gifted or mentally retarded 1 To be diagnosed with an intellectual disability you have to have an IQ below 70 bottom 2 and you have to be unable to live and work independently d Good tests must be reliable and valid i 9 stability of scores over time ii 9 authenticity does the test measure what it claims to measure V In uences on Intelligence a Genetics Environment Intelligence i ii The more closely related two people are the more similar their IQs are Group differences cannot be attributed solely to genetics 1 Dissimilar environments differences due more to environment 2 Similar environment differences due more to genes b Ethnicity and IQ i ii iii iv Small differences in IQ averages among ethnic groups means you cannot predict IQ based on ethnicity Race is more of a social construction than a biological reality People with similar skin color are not necessarily more genetically similar than people with different skin color There is no relationship between the degree of European genes and IQ Socioeconomic Factors 1 Poverty rates and IQ negative correlation a Asians are the exception 2 Highincome communities have higher IQ s than lower income communities of the same ethnic group 3 Similar IQ gaps throughout the world between privileged and disadvantaged groups 4 Poverty factors a Education nutrition expectation less access to health care and prenatal care less brain development prefrontal cortex more stress etc
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