Bio Lecture 21: Vertebrates 1
Bio Lecture 21: Vertebrates 1 BIO 209L-001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 209L-001 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Renee Kopulos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab - SL in Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Lecture 21 Vertebrates 1 1 Chordates De ning derived characteristics 0 Some of these characteristics only present in Embryo Vertebrates Fishes Amphibians Reptiles and Mammals 4 De ning Terms of Chordates 1 Notochord Semirigid rod along length of body in embryo lower 2 cord a In humans forms discs between vertebrae b Tissue around the rodgt skeleton 2 Dorsal hollow Nerve Core Neutral Tub 1St Cord Ectoderm cells along back dorsal surface of embryo fold upward to create a tube Cord develops into brain and spinal cord 3 Pharyngeal slitsgrooves a Pharynx region of digestive behind mouth b These slitsgrooves develop into 1 Filter feeding structure 2 Gills opening in Fish 3 In humans remain as groove not slit Develops into Jaws Inner ear Tonsils 4 Postanal Tail 0 Usually composed of segmented muscles and skeleton Propulsion thru water or as in humans reduces during development to small vertebrae at the end of spine Lancelet Basal Invertebrate Chordate Displays all 4 characteristics even in adults studied to better understand chordate genetics immunology and brain development 2 Chordate Groups De ned based on Shared Derived Characteristics EX Lancelet No Head Backbone Jaws Limbs or Amniotes Hag sh Head No Backbone Jaws Limbs or Amniotes Lamprey Head Backbone No Jaws Limbs or Amniotes Fish Head Backbone Jaws No Limbs or Amniotes AmphibiansHead Backbone Jaws Limbs No Amniotes Reptiles Birds Mammals Has all 5 characteristics Hag sh o Chordate that Lack backbone has head 0 Makes slime mucus that may help them escape from predators Lamprey o Vertebrate that lack jaws has head and backbone o Attaches to shes and feeds on their blood 0 Control programs have reduced their numbers but still present Vertebrates with jaws aka Fishes 0 One hypothesis of Jaws evolution Modi cation of skeletons rods that support Pharyngeal Gills Slits 0 Ex Cartilaginous shes Sharks and Rays Ex Bony shes Regular shes Vertebrates with Limbs aka Amphibians o Tetrapod s four feet 0 Limbs have digits ngers toes 0 Allow movement on land Terrestrial o Transitional fossils in between sh and amphibians exist Frogs Lizards salamanders Eggs surrounded by gelatinous coating that is permeable gas and water Amniotes Reptiles Mammals Birds can lay eggs 0 Similar extraembryonic membranes Most have shell Produced in mother Provides uid environment on land Extraembryonic Membranes Amnion Contains embryo baby and uids to protect shock Yolk Sac Contains nutrients that are transported to embryo baby Allantois Waste receptacle Cnorion Gas Exchange oxygen in carbon monoxide out 000
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