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Minerals- Chpt. 8

by: Summer Boone

Minerals- Chpt. 8 FDNS 2100

Summer Boone
GPA 4.0
Human Nutrition and Food

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About this Document

These are my notes from 10/20/15 on Minerals.
Human Nutrition and Food
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Boone on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Grossman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 10/21/15
Chpt 8 Minerals 339 Bottled Water I Used by 1 in 5 households 25010000 times the cost of tap water Not safer than tap water FDA regulates bottled water sold in interstate commerce Test of 1000 bottles of 103 brands 0 Around 33 was contaminated with bacteria arsenic etc 0 Around 25 was drawn from tap water anyways 339 Water I 60 of your total body weight I Essential nutrient solvent cushion joints eyes fetus brain body temperature regulation lubricant maintains blood volume 339 Water Balance I We retain water from food beverages and our metabolism I Get rid of water through urine feces sweat and respiration I US water sources 0 36 soft drinks 18 alcoholic beverages 17 coffeetea 14 milk 7 fruit juices 5 other like vegetable juices O 3 sports drinks I Regulation of Water Balance 0000 0 If blood is too concentrated I Hypothalamus sends a signal to the brain to register thirst and signals to the pituitary gland to release antidiuretic hormone ADH that causes the kidneys to conserve sodium and thus water I Kidneys respond to decreased blood flow by signaling the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone which causes the kidneys to conserve sodium and thus water 339 Dehydration I Mild thirst weight loss dry mouth low blood pressure I Severe pale skin blush lips and fingertips rapid breathing shock seizures I Chronic heart attack coma death 339 Liquid Calories I Weighing in on extra fluids I Adding sugars I Drinking calories 339 Electrolytes I Attract water I How electrolytes govern water flow 0 1 With equal numbers of dissolved particles on both sides of a water permeable divider water levels remain equal 0 2 Now additional particles are added to increase the concentration on side B Particles cannot flow across the divider in the case of fluid inside and outside a cell the divider is a cell membrane 0 3 Water can flow both ways across the divider but tends to move from side A to side B where there is a greater concentration of dissolved particles The volume of water increases on side B and the concentrations on sides A and B become equal 0 To control the flow of water cells expand energy moving electrolytes from one component to another I Proteins pump mineral ions across the cell membrane I Result is fluid and electrolyte balance I Out of balance life threatening 339 There are 7 major minerals I Calcium 0 Many factors affect absorption I We usually absorb around 30 of ingested calcium I Children and pregnant women absorb around 5060 0 Adequate calcium keeps blood pressure low 0 Low intakes of calcium are associated with an increased risk of colon and rectal cancers 0 Calcium from low fat milk and milk products helps to maintain body weight 0 Best source of calcium is from milk and milk products 0 Need about 1000 mg a day 0 US food sources of calcium are milk cheese and others 0 Calcium Balance I Depends on hormones and Vitamin D when Calcium levels get too high I You can t tell someone s calcium status from a blood sample I Phosphorous 0 High levels cause a decrease in ability to absorb calcium I Magnesium O Participates in 1005 of enzyme systems 0 Opposes calcium action 0 Hold in calcium enamel good for teeth 0 Chocolate is a great source I Sodium 0 Salt has been valued throughout all history I The word quotsalaryquot comes from the Latin word for salt 0 Being quotsalt sensitive is usually genetic 0 Most of your Sodium doesn t usually come from actual table salt 0 Typical intake In the US is 33 grams a day I The max recommendation is 24 grams a day I Guidelines say to consume less than 2300 mg a day I Potassium O Keeps the heart beating 0 Orange juice and bananas are great sources 0 Patients with heart attacks sometimes get prescribed potassium salt I This is the only way to get toxicity from potassium 0 As foods are processed more and more the potassium content goes down and the sodium content goes up I Sulfur 0 Found in ALL plant and animal proteins


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