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Chapter 6: The Self

by: Kaitlyn Mirabella

Chapter 6: The Self PSYC-3390-01

Kaitlyn Mirabella
GPA 3.8
Adolescent Psychology
Fabian, Melinda

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Hi all! Here are the class notes for Chapter 6: The Self. Let me know if you have any questions!
Adolescent Psychology
Fabian, Melinda
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-3390-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 10/21/15
Chapter 6 The Self Overview I Culture and the Self II Selfconceptions III Selfesteem IV The Emotional Self V Identity VI Identity VII The Self Alone Adolescents enhanced cognitive capacity means that adolescents change their self conceptions their selfesteem their emotional understanding and their identities 9 What kind of person am I What am I good at How do other people see me What kind of life will I have in 20 years Culture and the Self Broad Socialization Narrow Socialization Independent individualistic self Interdependent self Encourage selfre ection Needs and interests of the group Selfesteem is valued take precedence over the individual An individual with high selfesteem might pursue own interests and threaten group harmony The self de ned by relationships SelfConceptions Childhood vs Adulthood I have a dog named Rex and a brother I m complication I m sensitive outgoing named John I m good at sports but not so popular and tolerant I can be shy in some good at school circumstances I can also be selfconscious even obnoxious when I m upset Concrete terms related to traits More traitfocused and traits more Childhood abstract personality characteristics Adolescence More Abstract The capacity for ABSTRACT thought means an adolescent can distinguish between 0 Actual self who am I 0 Possible selves who I might become I Ideal self who you want to be I Feared self who you don t want to be The size of discrepancy between actual amp ideal self is related to depressed mood However awareness of actual amp possible selves can motivate adolescents to strive for ideal self and avoid becoming feared self More Complex Adolescents can perceive multiple aspects of a situation or idea 0 I recognize my contradictions in my personalitywhich is the REAL me I m shy around my relatives but outgoing with my friends 0 I m aware that I sometimes show a FALSE self to others that isn t really me or the way I think or feel SelfEsteem Selfesteem overall sense of worth and wellbeing Selfconcept my concrete characteristics roles relationships and personality characteristics Selfimage evaluation of my qualities and relations with others The increased concern about selfesteem over the past 50 years is a distinctly American phenomenon Selfesteem declines in early adolescence then rises through late adolescence and emerging adulthood Imaginary audience afraid that others are judging me harshly Adolescence in Western cultures are STRONGLY peeroriented and value the opinion of their peers highly Different Aspects of SelfEsteem Baseline selfesteem stable enduring sense of worth and wellbeing Barometric selfesteem uctuating sense of worth and wellbeing as one responds to different thoughts experiences etc The Experience Sampling Method I Keep a beeper on them I Throughout the day random times the person gets beeped I At that moment the person has to respond with whatever the experimenter asks what are you doing What are you feeling Who are you with 0 Has revealed the I Rapid uctuations of moods among adolescents in a typical day I The more enjoyable and secure their social relationships the more stable their selfesteem The SelfPerception Profile for Adolescents Susan Harter 8 domains of adolescent selfimage Scholastic competence Social acceptance Athletic competence Physical appearance Job competence Romantic appeal Behavioral conduct Close friendship OOOOOOOO Each domain in uences global selfesteem only to the extent that the adolescent views that domain as important 0 If Romantic Appeal is very important to you and you have it you will feel good about it o If it s very important to be Athletically Competent and you re not you might be really upset Physical Appearance most strongly related to global selfesteem followed by Social Acceptance Girls are more critical of their physical appearance and their selfesteem tends to be lower than boys during adolescence White adolescence Causes and Effects of SelfEsteem 9 Do kids today get too much empty praise 9 Does high selfesteem help adolescents to do well in school Adolescents selfesteem most in uential factors feeling accepted and approved especially by parents and peers 0 Parental affection concern setting clear and fair rules harmony in the home School success and selfesteem are mutually reinforcing o BUT raising selfesteem does NOT increase school success other way around 0 If you want somebody to do better in school have to give them the actual skills to do better in school tutoring different study methods Teach knowledge and skills that can lead to real achievements In ated selfesteem may lead to conduct problems in classroom SelfEsteem in Emerging Adulthood Improvements in selfesteem during emerging adulthood More comfortable with physical appearance Relationships with parents generally improve Left the social pressure cooker of high school More control over social contexts 0 High school limits how many friends you have 0 The world opens up after high school The Emotional Self Experience Sampling Method assesses emotions at numerous speci c moments o Decline in positive emotional states from 5th through 9th10th grades then leveled out o Emotional highs and lows occur more frequently during adolescence more extremes 0 An overall de ation of childhood happiness Biological o The amygdala is active in the processing of strong emotions while not much activity in frontal lobes the brakes on emotions are the frontal lobes which are not as developed as the amygdala Cognitive amp Environmental factors likely more in uential o Stressors life changes personal transitions romantic experiences social pressures lack of sleep 0 How stressors are interpreted Identity Erik Erikson s Theory of Human Development Each period of life is characterized by a crisis Potential for a healthy path or an unhealthy path of development at each crisis Developing via the healthy path provides a stable foundation for the next stage Approximate Age Psycho Social Crisis Infant 18 months Trust vs Mistrust 18 months 3 years Autonomy vs Shame amp doubt 3 5 years Initiative vs Guilt 5 13 years Industry vs Inferiority 13 21 years Identity vs Role Confusion 21 39 years Intimacy vs Isolation 40 65 years Generativity vs Stagnation 65 and older Ego Integrity vs Despair Identity Erikson s Theory Adolescence IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION Establish a clear sense of who you are and how you fit into the world What are your traits abilities interests What are the life choices available to you 9 Ultimately have to make commitments Key areas in which identity is formed love work and ideology How to develop a healthy identity 0 Re ect on identi cations reject some embrace others 0 Explore life options 9 psychosocial moratorium actively trying to figure it out possible selves ideologies Identity Research James Marcia Identity Status Interview 4 possible identity statuses Commitment Yes No Exploration Yes Achievement Moratorium No Foreclosure Diffusion Adolescents in achievement and moratorium categories are more likely to be self directed cooperative good at problem solving Moratorium status more likely to be indecisive unsure Diffusion status lower in selfesteem and selfcontrol higher in anxiety and apathy disconnected relationships with parents Foreclosure status higher in conformity conventionality obedience to authority close relationships with parents 9 It takes a long time to reach identity achievement emerging adulthood or beyond 9 Over recent decades the late teens and early 20s have become a period of free role experimentation for an increasing proportion of young people Critiques of Identity Theory Identity Status Model A Postmodern Perspective 0 Identity is not so stable and unitary it does not develop in a set of stages 0 The postmodern identity diverse elements not always unif1ed changes across contexts and throughout the life course Gender 0 Biased toward male development the healthy standard is striving for an independent identity 0 Girls put more emphasis on relationships and sometimes have dif culty integrating their aspirations for love and aspirations for work Culture 0 Erikson s theory assumes an independent self that is allowed to make free choices 0 Psychosocial moratorium period of exploration is considerably more possible in some cultures than others 0 Traditional cultures explorations in love work and ideology are limited or nonexistent Ethnic Identity Adolescents have a sharpened awareness of what it means to be a member of their minority group and what prejudices stereotypes are associated To what extent do they develop an identity that re ects the values of the majority culture and to what extent do they retain the values of their minority groups Identification with Ethnic Culture Identification with High Low Majority Culture High Bicultural Assimilated Low Separated Marginal Which status is most common Among Mexican Americans and Asian Americans and some European minority groups Bicultural Among African American adolescents Separated 0 Pride in ethnic identity possibly beneficial in a society where they are likely to experience discrimination Native American adolescents Marginal Having a strong sense of one s ethnicity related to overall wellbeing academic achievement lower rates of risk behavior Identity and Globalization Globalization Increasing worldwide technological and economic integration which is making different parts of the world increasingly connected and increasingly similar Because of globalization more people around the world develop a bicultural identity Globalization often alters traditional cultural practices and beliefs may lead more to a hybrid identity integrating local culture with elements of the global culture Also leading to an increase in identity confusion a marginalized identity 0 Don t completely fit in the traditional culture but the global culture is too foreign 0 Identity confusion could lead to problems e g depression substance use


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