Chapter 7: Family Relationships
Chapter 7: Family Relationships PSYC-3390-01
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-3390-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Chapter 7 Family Relationships The Family System Family Systems Approach Each subsystem in uences every other subsystem in the family A change in any family member or subsystem results in a period of disequilibrium until the family adjusts to the change No such thing as child therapy only family therapy Most issues result from family 3 aspects of the family system Parents development during midlife Sibling relationships Extended family relationships Parents Development during Midlife Developmental changes during midlife For most people in most respects midlife is a satisfying and enjoyable time of life NOT usually a midlife crisis Job satisfaction peaks earning power tends to increase typically more adaptable and better at handling stress In general parents marital satisfaction and overall life satisfaction improve when their children enter emerging adulthood and leave home Exceptions individuals in bluecollar professions more physical work divorce during midlife more dif cult Research Issue Adolescents Family Lives Figure 71 in textbook Shows changes in time spent with others during adolescence Experience Sampling Method Sharp declines in amount of time adolescents spent with families around 5th grade and 9th grade Mothers more deeply involved with their adolescents mostly positive interactions but also more con ict with mothers Mothers mostly performed household tasks adolescents were little help On average fathers spend 12 minutes per day alone with their adolescents Adolescents brought home their emotions form the day responsive caring parents relieved adolescents negative emotions 0 When parents were apathetic or critical the negative emotions didn t go away Sibling Relationships 5 common patterns in adolescents relationships with siblings 1 Caregiving relationship most common with older sister 2 Buddy relationship friends when they interact like friends 3 Critical relationship high con ict teasing 4 Rival relationship high competition comparison 5 Casual relationship don t have anything to do with each other Adolescents report more frequent con icts with siblings than with anyone else With age less con ict and less time spent with siblings In traditional cultures the caregiver relationship is most common form Extended Family Relationships Traditional Cultures Households typically include extended family members Adolescents often close to grandparents Grandparents may focus more on nurturing and supporting adolescents American Minority Cultures Similar to traditional Close relationships with grandparents living in same house or nearby Extended family support especially important in reducing the emotional and economic stresses of single parenthood American Majority Culture Relationships with grandparents important but less frequent contact Parenting Styles 2 Dimensions Demandingness control degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior and require compliance Responsiveness warmth degree to which parents are sensitive to children s needs and express love warmth concern 4 Categories Demandingness High Low Responsweness High Authoritative Permissive Low Authoritarian Disengaged Parenting Styles as Custom Complexes What beliefs are re ected in the parenting styles Authoritarian parenting discourages independence but the other three re ect parents beliefs that it is good for adolescents to learn autonomy Permissive and disengaged parents promote this outcome in a negative way through the absence of restraint no guidance Adolescents need to be allowed enough autonomy to develop their capacities and at the same time exercise a greater amount of responsibility Adolescents are more receptive to their parents rules and guidance when parents are warm and loving 0 Best way to get a child to be receptive and obedient Adolescent Outcomes Associated With Parenting Styles Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Disengaged Independent Dependent Irresponsible Impulsive Creative Passive Conforming Delinquent Selfassured Conforming Immature Early sex drugs Socially skilled A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects Reciprocal or Bidirectional Effects Evocative genotype 9 environment interactions adolescents may evoke certain behaviors from parents Parents behavior is affected by 1 What they believe is best 2 How resistant or compliant the adolescent is in response to parents rules Differential parenting adolescent siblings within the same family often give very different accounts of what their parents are like toward them Parenting in Other Cultures Most striking difference is how rare authoritative style is in nonWestern cultures Parents do NOT encourage discussion and debate but not the same as authoritarian Traditional parenting style high in responsiveness and high in a kind of demandingness that expects compliance by virtue of cultural beliefs supporting the inherent authority of parental role Parents and children are often very close and spend a lot of time together interdependence mutual obligations Parents in ethnic minority cultures in US may be more like those in traditional cultures Examples Asian American 0 Chao 2001 argues that white researchers misunderstand Asian American parenting and mislabel it as authoritarian o Adolescents show none of the negative effects typically associated with authoritarian parenting 0 They have higher educational achievement lower rates of behavioral and psychological problems Latino American 0 Latino parents in American society have typically been classi ed as authoritarian 0 Cultural belief system emphasizes respecto respect for and obedience to elders and parents especially fathers 0 Cultural beliefs emphasize familismo love closeness and mutual obligation in family life Attachment to Parents Attachments between parents and children have an evolutionary basis in the need for vulnerable young members of the species to stay in close proximity to adults who will care for and protect them 0 Infants need touch more than food 2 types of attachment Mary Ainsworth 1 Secure attachment I Infants use mother as secure base from which to explore I Seek physical comfort from her if frightened or threatened 2 Insecure attachment I Infants are wary of exploring the environment not sure if she is going to come back so the infant clings and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort According to Bowlby interactions with primary caregiver help form an internal working model shapes expectations and interactions in relationships with others throughout life Secure Attachment Secure attachment to parents in adolescence is related to a variety of favorable outcomes Effects on adolescence 0 Higher selfesteem and wellbeing 0 Better psychological health and physical health 0 Closer relationships with friends and romantic partners 0 More autonomous and selfreliant Effects on emerging adulthood 0 Higher educational and occupational attainment 0 Higher quality of romantic relationships 0 Lower psychological problems 0 Lower drug use Autonomy and relatedness feeling close to parents emotionally seem like opposites but they should be complementary Rather than promoting prolonged dependence a secure attachment gives children the confidence to go out into the world ParentAdolescent Con ict Adolescents and their parents agree on many of the most important aspects of their views of life and typically have a great deal of love and respect for one another However con ict increases sharply in early adolescence 0 Observed con ict per minute between mother amp son in 30 minute videotaped interactions 0 Peaks around ages 1516 As con ict rises closeness declines Sources of Con ict with Parents Why is early adolescence a time when con ict with parents is especially high Biological changes adolescents are bigger stronger can t just make them do things by dragging their arms Cognitive changes increased thinkingreasoning abilities make adolescents better arguers 0 Can be logical reason better Regulating the pace of adolescents autonomy is often a source of con ict 0 Eg dress choice of friends state of order in adolescent s bedroom Seemingly minor issues could be substitutes for more serious underlying issues o Eg sexual issues drugs Culture and Con ict with Parents Conflict is not universal or natural even though biological and cognitive changes in the adolescent are Uncommon in traditional cultures why 0 Economic reasons in nonindustrialized traditional cultures families rely on each other economically expected to assist one another routinely 0 Cultural reasons beliefs about parental authority and the appropriate degree of adolescent independence Parents and adolescents in the West agree that independenceselfsufficiency is the ultimate goal for adolescents 0 An increase in autonomy prepares Western adolescents for adult life in an individualistic culture I The question is how much independence and when Leaming to suppress disagreements and submit to parents authority prepares adolescents in traditional cultures for an adult life of interdependence and a designated position in a family hierarchy Emerging Adults Relationships with Parents In US leaving home typically takes place around ages 1819 Emerging adults report greater closeness and fewer negative feelings toward parents after moving out No more daytoday friction and can control frequencytiming of interactions with parents Emerging adults staying at home more common among Latinos Blacks and Asian Americans compared to the majority culture About 40 of American emerging adults return to living at home at least once after they leave 0 Works best if they learn a mutually respectful form of relating on an adult to adult basis Emerging Adults Living at Home In European countries emerging adults tend to live with their parents longer than in the US Cultural values emphasize mutual support within the family while also allowing young people substantial autonomy 94 of Italians ages 1524 live with their parents only 8 of them view their living arrangements as a problem Historical Change amp the Family Patterns over 2 centuries in the US Lower birth rate I In 1800 women gave birth to an average of 8 children today 2 children Longer life expectancy I Many adolescents experienced the death of a parent remarriage Increased urbanization leaving the farms The Changing Functions of the Family The range of family functions the family serves has been greatly reduced The family today has mainly emotional or affective Function Responsibility 1800s Responsibility Modern times Educational Family School Religious Family Church Medical Family Medical professional Economic support Family Employer Recreational Family Entertainment industry Affective Family Family Historical Change amp the Family The past 50 years 1 Rise in divorce rate a Nearly HALF of the current generation of young people are projected to experience their parents divorce by their late teens 2 Rise in rate of singleparent households a Currently about onethird of White children and twothirds of Black children are born to single mothers b Only 20 of Blacks and 4045 of Whites grow up through age 18 living with both of their biological parents 3 Rise in rate of dualeamer families a Employment among women with schoolaged children has increased from about 10 to 70 from 1940 to 2000 Effects of Divorce Adolescents adjustment in divorced families Increased risk of 0 Behavior problems e g drug use initiate sex at earlier age 0 Psychological distress e g depressed withdrawn anxious 0 Lower academic achievement In emerging adulthood Greater problems forming close romantic relationships Higher risk of divorce themselves How does divorce affect family process Quality of family members relationships degree of warmth or hostility etc A Exposure to con ict between parents Exposure to parents hostility beforeduringafter divorce is stressful and damaging as is high con ict in nondivorced households B Divorce affects parenting practices Mothers tend to be less affectionate more permissive and less consistent in their parenting especially in first year Contact with father declines more negative feelings toward him C Increase in economic stress Income in motherheaded households decreases by 4050 on average Effects of Remarriage another disruption of the family system Probably more consistent parenting lessened economic stress Increased risk of a variety of problems anxiety depression lower academic achievement conduct disorders delinquent activities Although following divorce adolescents tend to have fewer problems than younger children following remarriage adolescents have more problems adjusting compared with younger children WHY 0 Have to integrate new person into a family system already strained by divorce 0 Adolescent may regard stepfather as an unwelcome intruder establishing an attachment may be dif cult o Adolescents are less likely than younger children to accept a stepfather s authority Effects of Single Parenthood Adolescents in nevermarried singleparent households 0 Increased risk of low school achievement psychological problems behavioral problems 0 Support of extended family is usually bene cial I Financial support emotional support sharing of parenting responsibilities Effects of DualEarner Families few substantial effects have been found Important variables Gender of the adolescent 0 Girls tend to be more con dent and have higher career aspirations 0 Boys may have more arguments with mothers amp siblings possibly over greater household responsibilities potential school problems Number of hours parents work 0 Higher risk for problems if both parents work full time especially if adolescent is regularly unsupervised after school hours Quality of relationships between parents amp the adolescent 0 Parental monitoring demandingness amp responsiveness Physical Abuse many abused adolescents are resilient amp grow up to be normal adults What leads parents to be physically abusive o Abused themselves 0 Experienced parental con ict harsh discipline or loss of a parent traumatic event 0 Family stresses eg poverty amp parents problems eg depression poor health alcohol abuse 0 Poor parenting skills amp poor coping skills Abused Adolescents o More aggressive with peers amp adults modeling andor genes 0 Antisocial behavior substance use depression anxiety poor school performance difficulty in peer relationships Sexual Abuse While physical abuse is more commonly in icted on boys sexual abuse is usually in icted on girls by their brothers fathers or stepfathers a known adult Abusers usually insecure and socially awkward with adults not usually aggressive usually don t fit in well Abused adolescents 0 Difficulty trusting others amp forming intimate relationships 0 Risk for depression anxiety social withdrawal substance abuse variety of psychological disorders suicidal thoughtsbehaviors 0 Either highly avoidant of sexual contacts or highly promiscuous Best thing to do LISTEN to them believe them direct them to help No such thing as child therapy JUST FAMILY THERAPY need to work with WHOLE family system
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