Chapter 8: Friends & Peers
Chapter 8: Friends & Peers PSYC-3390-01
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-3390-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Chapter 8 Friends amp Peers Clarifying the Difference Peers people who are about the same age Friends people with whom you chose to hang outwith you develop a valued mutual relationship Amount of time spent with family decreases by about half from 5th to 9th grade then declines even more steeply from 9th to 12th 0 More time with peers at school and in leisure time after school weekends summer break etc Family amp Friends Relationships with family and friends also change in quality Adolescents depend more on friends for companionship and intimacy emotional closeness Adolescents who have secure attachment to parents more likely to develop secure attachment to friends 0 People who are close to parents tell you that you like secure attachment you like relationships they re enjoyable it s a good thing to have Survey of over 1000 adolescents percentage preferring to discuss topics with friends or parents 0 Parents education future occupation 0 Friends more personal issues social relationships Emotional States with Friends Adolescents happiest moments are usually with friends amp generally much happier with friends than with family 0 A close friend mirrors their own emotions I Often a difference in moods between parent amp adolescent o F eel ee and open with friends Friends are also the source of adolescents most negative emotions o Worry about being liked being populat But overall positive feelings are more common with friends than with family Mood changes among 9th12th graders moods most positive on weekends when likely spending leisure time with friends Family amp Friends in Traditional Cultures Pattern of increasing time with peers decreasing time with parents More likely to have major gender differences 0 Involvement with peers much greater for boys 0 Girls spend a lot of time with adult females For both males amp females more of their time is spent with their families than in the West Remain close to families while also developing greater closeness to friends 9 Leads into marrying a stranger possibility arranged marriage sounds crazy to us but to them spouses don t look for that emotional intimacy they don t need that don t need a husband or wife to be emotionally close to or soul mate Developmental Changes in Friendship INTIMACY The need for intimacy with friends intensi es in early adolescence Better at perspective taking empathy can truly think about their friends as individuals and their worries cares etc 9 they become BETTER at intimacy What is a friend 9 someone who understands you someone you can share your problems with someone who will listen when you have something important to say 0 Children more likely to emphasize shared activities what they DO together Abstract thinking can thinktalk about qualities such as trust amp loyalty Puberty experiences can promote intimacy Gender in the development of intimacy in adolescents friendships Girls spend more time than boys talking to their friends and they place a higher value on talking together as a component of their friendships Girls friendships are more affectionate nurturing Boys more likely to emphasize shared activities as the basis of friendship Gender di erences in socialization Nature or Nurture 0 Boys may get made fun of 0 Girls may not be included if they don t Choosing Friends why do people become friends SIMILARITY Age gender Similarities especially important in adolescent friendships 0 Educational orientation 0 Media amp leisure preferences 0 Participation in risk behavior 0 Ethnicity I Ethnic similarity between friends is typical at all ages but adolescence is a time when ethnic boundaries become sharper friends become less interethnic Friends In uence and Peer Pressure Friends in uence is a better term than peer pressure friends can have substantial in uence on adolescents but the effects of the entire peer group are week Friends in uence rises in early adolescence peaks in midteens declines in late adolescence Can encourage and discourage risk behavior Can provide emotional support and coping Friends In uence Risk Behavior Correlation between an adolescents rates of risk behaviors and hisher friends rates of risk behaviors Because of friends in uence maybe not 0 Often adolescent only provides the report of self amp friends and they generally perceive their friends as more similar to themselves than they actually are 0 Selective association we choose friends who are similar to ourselves I You CHOSE to be their friend you know what they like and you like the same things Longitudinal studies both selection AND in uence contribute to similarities in risk behavior 0 Similar before becoming friends and tend to become even more similar throughout the friendship Friends can also in uence each other AGAINST risk behavior Friends In uence Support amp Nurturance 4 types of support friends can provide 1 Informational support I Advice 2 Instrumental support I Actual tasks help with tasks 3 Companionship support I Have someone to go places with you 4 Esteem support I Promoting your self esteem Support and nurturance in adolescents friendships o Positively correlated with psychological health 0 Negatively correlated with depression psychological disturbance o It could be that adolescents with more favorable characteristics attract support from friends Longitudinal studies support leads to higher selfesteem lower depressive symptoms improvements in academic performance Friendships in Emerging Adulthood Similar to friendships in adolescence intimacy is a key component friends can provide 4 types of support same as before The importance of intimacy emotional closeness rises from adolescence to emerging adulthood More like to have othersex friendships The importance of friendships tends to decline as romantic relationships develop Cliques amp Crowds Cligues small groups of friends who know each other well do things together and form a regular social group Crowds larger reputationbased groups of adolescents whoa re not necessarily friends and do not necessarily spend time together 0 Help adolescents de ne own identities and the identities of others I Elites populars preppies I Athletes jocks I Academics brains nerds geeks I Deviants druggies burnouts I Others normals nobodies Sarcasm amp Ridicule in Cliques Critical evaluations of one another are a typical part of the social interactions in adolescent cliques Antagonistic interactions include sarcasm ridicule Directed at individuals within clique 0 Establish dominance hierarchy o Reinforce clique conformity ridiculed if you are doing something that does not t Directed at individuals outside clique o Clarify boundaries between us amp them Relational Aggression Nonphysical aggression that harms others by damaging relationships More common among girls Their gender role prohibits more direct expressions of disagreement and con ict means of being aggressive without physical violence And a way of asserting dominance Developmental Changes in Crowds Spending so much time around peers on a daily basis elevates the importance of peers as social reference groups Kinney s Longitudinal Research 0 From early to midadolescence crowd structure becomes more differentiated and more in uential 0 Middle school grades 68 two groups populars and not populars 0 Early high school grades 910 more differentiated groups 0 From mid to late adolescence less hierarchical more spread out and less in uential By 11th grade signi cance of crowds diminishes less important in de ning social status and social perceptions Parallels in identity development 0 Identity issues prominent early to midadolescence and crowd structures help de ne one s identity 0 Late adolescence no longer need to rely on crowds for selfde nition Crowd membership related to o Deviants highest in risk behaviors lowest in school performance and social acceptance 0 Academics lowest in risk behavior highest in school performance 0 Elites highest in social acceptance in between the other groups on risk behaviors and school performance Crowds in American Minority Cultures In high schools with mostly nonWhite students the same kinds of crowds exist Elites Athletes Academics Deviants Others In schools with multiethnic populations adolescents tend to see fewer crowd distinctions in other ethnic groups than they do in their own 0 9 ex All Asians are alike but WE are diverse Changes in Clique amp Crowd Composition during Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Early Adolescents spend most of their time with samesex friends Gradually these cliques of samesex friends begin to spend time together in larger mixedsex cliques and crowds Still even in 12th grade more time is spent with samesex friends than with other seX friends Popularity amp Unpopularity Sociometry a research method in which students rate the social status of other students May also rate students on attractiveness intelligence friendliness aggressiveness Popular wellliked Popularity related to physical attractiveness amp social skills 0 Have to have good social skills to be popular 0 High intelligence tends to be related to popularity social intelligence amp general intelligence are correlated What typically makes the nerds amp geeks unpopular is the perception that they social skills and put academics above social life The Importance of Social Skills Skills for successfully handling social relations and getting along well with others Sensitive to others needs listen well communicate their own point of view clearly Confident without being arrogant Unpopularity 2 types and implications about social skills 0 Rejected adolescents actively disliked mentioned by students we hate them they suck aggressive quarrelsome I Usually have a problem with social information processing they process social information incorrectly usually intense aggravating in your face I A lot more likely to see other people s intentions as hostile when they re totally not I Much more likely to assume someone tripped them on purpose immediately more likely to look for threathostile intentions from others I Not good at reading people process social cues incorrectly o Neglected adolescents barely noticed withdrawn 0 Controversial kids strongly disliked by some strongly liked by others may use aggression often Stable things in adolescence Throughout adolescent years reputation tends to be stable If you develop a rep for being popularunpopular it s extremely hard to change Traits affect popularity attractiveness and socialness are stable What can we do for neglectedrejected kids Based on social skills so let s target social skills Both categories likely need help with social skills Might not know how to initiate a conversation Might not know how to begin a relationshipto be a friendmaintain a conversationpresent themselves as interesting or fun to be around May be socially phobic Others just take over Rejected kids also need emotionmanagementbehavior regulation 0 Need to control emotions and behaviors Bullying Has to do with aggression repetition and power imbalance Power imbalance someone with higher social status picking on someone with lower social status not a fair ght Boys are more likely to be bullies AND more likely to be victims Victims of bully high risk for 0 Depression 0 Anxiety Cyberbullying 0 Online through social media sitestexting 0 Many avenues to bully other people 0 You can be way more cruel when you don t SEE the other person People bully 0 To deal with own problems 0 To gain status 0 To avoid being a victim themselves
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