Unit 3, Week 1: Guest Lecturer, Sex Determination, Human Microbiome
Unit 3, Week 1: Guest Lecturer, Sex Determination, Human Microbiome BIOL 1108
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Skyler Tuholski on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1108 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Farmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 268 views.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Guest Lecturer Anatomy amp Physiology Wednesday ctober 7 2 15 1219 PM 0 2 guys Earnest Starling and William Bayliss became interested in some research other guys were doing in which extracts of the adrenal glands were taken 0 Adrenal gland extracts were blended in a blender mixed with saline solution filtered it and injected it into many different types of animals Killed animals but side effects were observed as they were dying o Adrenal glands make adrenaline O Starling and Bayliss wanted to see if there was something to this bc the body communicates longdistance through the nervous system but these chemicals were causing long distance effects 0 There was a powerful man in Russia Pavlov insisted definitively that all longdistance communication was strictly neurological I Starling and Bayliss said no chemicals can communicate to the bodv longdistance too 0 Bayliss and Starling set up an experiment with dogs 0 Anesthetized dog and isolated part of digestive tract The nerves supplying loop ofjejunum were dissected and divided so it was only connected to the rest of the body only by blood vessels 0 Weak HCl was added to the duodenum Secretion of the pancreas occurred and continued for a few minutes 0 Then acid was added to the jejunum and a similarly large secretion was produced quotThen it must be a chemical reflexll Determined to be secretin 0 He rapidly cut off a piece of the jejunum and filtered it and injected it into the jugular of another animal that animal39s pancreas secreted the same thing 0 3 million years ago 0 Life was simpler 0 Goals I food in I waste out I stay comfortable I move if you39re not happy or alter activity to accommodate change 0 Life became multicellular 0 Individual cells could not move if an environment became uncomfortable 0 Each cell works for the survival and comfort of every cell 0 So how do all those cells know when things are changing for cells far away communication Long Distance Chemical Signaling Hormones in the Endocrine System 0 Learning Objectives 0 Compare and contrast nervous and endocrine 0 Identify major classes of chemical messengers used for long distance comm 0 Survey some of the representative messengers their pathways and effects 0 Cellular Communication Mechanisms Biology Page 1 T e of Ran e S eed yp g It s kmd of like Duration of effect Communication and Specrfrcrty Elnacell canted very short range 1 391 passing a note in class gap jxns 39 aracrine short range mailing invitations to a few 39 p neighborhood specific neighbors I n r n fastest teX ng neuronal 39 well really it s more like milliseconds highly specrfic Snapchat longrange slower dropping thousands of ENDOCRINE widespread party invitations out of an seconds minutesyears but still specific airplane over Athens O Celltocell very short range 0 Paracrine a cell makes a chemical and secretes it to the outside Chemical does not travel far and usually stays in interstitial fluid Only cells in nearby tissues are affected 0 Neuronal Myelination and diameter affects speed of signal Specificity depends on what cells axon goes to O Endocrine Specificity varies 0 Endocrine communication Major endocrine glands Hypothalamus Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland 39 Parathyroid glands behind thyroid Adrenal glands R atop kidneys 39 Pancreas Ovaries female Testes male Organs containing endocrine cells If Thymus Heart Liver Stomach Kidneys Smal intestine Hormone Chemical messenger secreted into the blood for transport to distant cells all over the body 0 Hormones 0 Amino acid based I Tyrosine and tryptophan can be modified into hormones 11 Tyrosine gt Adrenaline aka Epinephrine and norepinephrine 11 Tryptophangt Serotonin Melatonin I Short polypeptides and whole proteins Biology Page 2 O Steroids derived from cholesterol 0 Response to hormone I Response depends on whether the hormone is hydrophilic or hydrophobic I Hydrophobic lipidsoluble hormones can easily pass through lipid bilayer effects are deep within the cell Ex testosterone I Watersoluble hormones can39t enter target cell I Response determines III Method of transport in blood III Location of receptors III Duration of hormone effect on target cell 0 Hormone Pathways I From stimulus to target cell both depend on feedback to regulate III Simple individual cells that make the hormones monitor the change in the body Ex insulin and UllS iS 0i glucagon all 45 W 0 2 blood metabolites glucose and Ca2 regulated with little oversight by central nervous 0 3 Class system CNS 0 endocrine cells themselves respond directly to environmental stimulus III Not so simple 0 CNS controls communication 0 Hypothalamus coordinates between nervous and endocrine systems by monitoring physiological changes 0 Anterior and Posterior pituitaries help the hypothalamus ltgt Posterior extension of hypothalamus Contains axon terminals that release 2 types of hormones These axons are neurosecretorv Hypothalamus Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus Neurohormone Axons Posterior pituitary I 0 Anterior I pituitary HORMONE ADIl Oxytocln TARGET Kidney Mammary glands tubules uterine muscles 0 Anterior Independent gland that synthesizes and secrets hormones ls controlled by quotreleasing hormonesquot from the hypothalamus Biology Page 3 ii II F 3 l 3951 13 CF rw 191 h if Yl 5 1 Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus N 322133 Portal vessels inhibiting hormones Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary Pituitary hormones Posterior pituitary 0 Tropic Hormones and Axes O Tropic hormones stimulate other glands to release their hormones 0 Ex HPT cascade HypothaIamuspituitarythyroid O Negative feedback in the homeostasis of the system HPT Axis Hypothalamus P amp Anterior pituitary 69l Thyroid 6 Increases metabolism 0 Hyper and Hyposecretion 0 Compare to known effect on target cell 0 What function does the hyper or hyposecretion most directly affect and how 0 Hyposecretionhypothryroidism I Myxedema goiter O Hypersecretion I Grave39s disease autoimmune Biology Page 4 Biology Page 5 10122015 Sex Determination Monday October 12 2015 1220 PM IN THE NEWS Why are pregnant women concerned with using plastic containers during pregnancy BPA 0 Estrogen plays a critical role in the development and regulation of female reproduction cycle Effects cf Estrogen Brain helps tp maintain the 39 lacucly temperature BI39EIEISt helps against mempry lpss l 39 Stin39IUlatES the deyelcupment at puberty prepare the glands far future millc prcuducticn Heart and Liver regulates prcducticn pf chplestercl Edecreas the buildup of plaque in the mammary arteries Duary stimulates the maturatipn thEI39LIS stimulates the start at stimulates the maturaticn IIcuman s menstrual cycle helps tc prepare the uterus tcu ncurish a deyelpping fetus 39u39agina stimulates the maturatipn helps maintain a lubricated and thick yaginal lining ivcy unes helps tc preseryer lacne density 0 The default gender in humans is female and estrogen levels can stimulate fatty tissue in breasts in both males and femalesgt Gynecomastia man boobs 0 An endocrine disruptor is a molecule that has a similar shape and charge of a hormone that binds to receptor and trigger biological process that the hormone would trigger BPA mimics the shape and charge ofestrogen endocrine disruptor Figure 6 Source State ofthe Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012 InterOrganization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals 0 Study used wild population of birds to measure endocrine disruption because the biological processes involved with estrogen is ancient 0 Bisphenol A BPA was synthesized in 1891 as an estrogen mimic 195039s it became polycarbonate plastics most commonly found in plastic bottles Biology Page 1 0 Sources Receipt paper plastic bottles children39s toys inside of cans sports bottles 0 Effects on children 0 We aren39t exactly sure but at most there would be SOME concern for effects on brain behavior and prostate gland 0 Phytoestrogens O Naturally occurring compounds that happen to have a similar enough shape and charge to elicit hormone effect 0 Soy just because it has phytoestrogens in it does not mean it will elicit estrogenlike effects We don39t know yet 0 Effect on animals 0 Endocrine disrupting chemicals feminize male frogs and cause homosexual behavior 0 There were many more females downstream of urban areas than upstream Why Estrogen in birth control passes through sewage system and into water ways Sex Determination 0 Picture shown of lots of women and a boy What do they have in common They all have an X AND Y chromosome 0 Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome 0 Early In development sex organs are undifferentiated and can develop either male or female I Most cases people go down a certain pathway when signaled by hormone I If not signaled the default sex is female I So people with this condition do produce androgen but the receptors that elicit biological response from androgen are not functional I XX individuals can have defect for androgen sensitivity but they do not express this because they have a good copy on the other X chromosome I XY individuals look like females but are sterile No pubic hair or body odor o Caster Semenya XY individual who had no special advantage athletically even though she has a Y chromosome 0 CAIS is 1 in 100000 0 Australians let people selfidentify their gender as MF or X 0 Klinefelter syndrome 0 XXY syndrome 0 Born male Puberty poor beard growth breast development underdeveloped testes tall narrow facial features wider hips usually infertile Ex Caroline Cossey 0 Chromosomal nondisjunction event that occurred in gamete mother or father 0 Very few nondisjunction events that are nonfatal DownSyndrome on chromosome 21 and sex determination 0 Most KS is determined prenatally also between ages 20 and 40 O Clicker Question Why are most cases of Klinefelter syndrome diagnosed in men between ages 2040 I That is the age when most men discover they are infertile 0 Hermaphrodites 0 Common in animal kingdom I Most mollusks and invertebrates I Marine flatworms engage in competition in which 2 males violently try to impregnate each other Loser raises the eggs I Sequential hermaphroditism in Parrotfish As the individual gets larger they become more malelike Biology Page 2 I la n1 preys I IIF39Etrcirn yzonti jrm E5 Ti I i hEl l ll39l r shes E 1122 G tEtrapudls fEarmpt EwgiiJf iii i harming E eat h Jquot W I t mnrphaj all a I salmon 31 SHIEHZE 21 W1 u IEP rntaca n thoptewg i i 39jl I hatehet sh i I Emmiatirnmes H d39 I la ntErnl sslllm I M39y39Ci pl liF l l Es I trout perches I 1Tb BF ltm kil ht l h EGEI eta l39E tE ifurmasj I PE rm peiforn iesj I may 3 wards 39quotquot Gadif rmeaj 39y if whaigfish ill I W 39 Eit ephannbe rycif rmasj a u J 1 if I tnad slllm quot Ea trachnidif ormesj battens Ema bantif rm any Er sh LEII2Il39Ii ifnrmesjl ice ah ENDtDthEniifUrInesj msitipmudemaau anemone anew 13m a eaum tuna Scnmbri j I39mES l u gr llm 39Tetraod ntif rmESJ Most animals were hermaphroditic until fish came along and started sequential hermaphroditism Clownfish protandry I Stable family dominant female one nondominant male several undifferentiated juveniles I If dominant female dies the nondominant male transforms and becomes dominant female The non differentiated ones can transform and become nondominant male or a different nondominant male fish from another grouping can join Clicker Question Why do most sequential hermaphrodites go from male to female III It39s harder to produce eggs than sperm takes much more energy It39s easier to invest extra energy if you are larger III This changed the fishing policy where we threw back the small fish and kept the large ones because this left the population as mostly males Protandry male to female protogyny female to male III How do species pick transforming to male or female Organisms settle on solution that maximizes their ability to pass on their genes III IndoPacific cleaner wrasse fish protogyny Dominant male maintains a group of females but if something happens to him one of the females will develop into the dominant male within 2 weeks SRY gene is the male determination factor experiment done on mice proves this III DNAbinding protein that is responsible for initiating male sex determination III Marsupials and placentals follow SRY method of determination Biology Page 3 I Monotremes use different sex determination ZW just like in birds and reptiles 11 22 male I ZW female III Z chromosome is larger and has more genes III Ovum determines sex of offspring not sperm like in XY I In mice there are differences in neuronal cells between sexes III Male neuronal cells have more dendritic spines and more microglial cells 0 Biological basis for gender identity 0 We don t know 0 Genes E be identified as gay Researchers looked at groups of identicalfraternal twins with samedifferent sexuality Looked at methylgenetics which affects how gene is expressed 0 Parthenogenesis 0 Virgin birth 0 Offspring develops from unfertilized eggs 0 Occurs in many plants some invertebrates and few vertebrates IHPDW HURHEL FERMLIERMH HHE IFl 39HTHiEIH GIEIH E515 UJIIFFIEH Murnrlall Fertilieatien 1 Freewreer legg eell Three eelle el eeerjed diaritlee in te feur one been m ee egg 4 Belay eherl createl wi cme 3 Egg ie ferritill eecl eet ef eh rem eee mee ll39 FEMEIE Mala with eperm frerri each parent Rear Elhire mee em ee 1 39iil39ir39giiirl Iriirquotl zl39nF Partihenngeneei 1 Freewarer Egg mall Tl39iree Belle d e eerc ed lividere t 4 Belle err1 gerreme eembine wi 39l hire eete ef ile ntieel 3 leIIUJkI EE Elliid di39 ri dEG ghr m gnmggg fr m M33 Banal Imamquot MDEHEL lb ereete EITEIFFE Ez 39U iEt Dr H ugh Hel l39i i Biology Page 4 10142015 Human Microbiome Wednesday QCtober 14 2 15 1225 PM Liarning Objectives 0 Understand what is meant by the term quothuman microbiome 0 What roles does the microbiome play and how does this contribute to human health 0 What factors can alter an individual s microbiome 0 Microbiome all the microbes in the human body 0 Biofilm community of microbes that live together on a surface 0 Microbes include species from all major domains of life 0 They are ALL over us millions per square inch of body 0 Each thrive in different environments 0 More microbes than cells by 10 fold 0 Most microbes are in intestine 60 of the dry mass of human feces 0 Hotspots on body for microbial life 0 Nose mouth skin gastrointestinal urogenital 0 Nose 0 Primary defender against inhaled pathogens 0 Cilia and mucous lining trap inhaled microbes 0 Inflammation results from viral infection and allergic reactions 0 Common normal microbes found in nasal passage I Staphylococcous epidermidis forms biofilm that coats mucosal lining I Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a protist but can go out of control and make you sick I Apergillus fungal spores often inhaled If not cleared out mold grows in lungs I Corneybacterium accolens rarely a pathogen but can enter bloodstream from torn blood vessel and cause infection 0 0 Mouth 0 Saliva pH temp immune system prevent many species from surviving in mouth 0 Symbiosis of oral microbes form scaffold on tooth enamel at interface with gums as a barrier to bad bacteria 0 Normal microbes I Fusobacterium sp helps form scaffold on which other bacteria can attach and help form biofilm I Streptococcus mitis forms biofilm on hard enamel surface of teeth If gums are inflamed it can enter bloodstream and cause infection I Prevotella spp Have natural antibiotic resistance genes Can attach to epithelial cells or other bacteria and cause infection in inflamed areas I Candida albicans fungus commonly known as thrush 0 Skin 0 Environments oily dry moist Bacteria feed on oil dead skin cells organic matter and each other Natural defenses sweat is acidic antimicrobial peptides Damaged skin gives opportunity for microbes to invade bloodstream Natural flora of bacteria on skin is primary defense against pathogens Normal microbes I Propionibacterium acnes colonizes healthy pores but if pores become clogged it grows out of control I Staphylococcus epidermidis When P acnes grows out of control S epidermidis also grows out of 00000 Biology Page 1 control in infected pores I Staphyllococcus aures can also infect clogged pores Many antibiotic resistant strains I Trichophyton and Microsporum fungi feed on keratin in skin and give rise to ringworm infections 0 Urogenital tract 0 O 0 Urinary system usually sterile due to urea and other chemicals Escherichia coli from GI tract can infect urinary tract Vagina has low pH due to Lactobacillus secreting lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide gt controls pathogens I If Lactobacillus decreases from antibiotics III Candida albicans can cause yeast infection III Gardenerella vaginais cause vaginosis 0 Birth and Microbiome O O O O 0 Gut 0 000000 0 O 0 When levels of lactobacillus drops pH becomes more neutral and risk of infection rises Composition of vaginal microbiome proportion of Lactobacillus and therefore pH linked to race Vaginal microbiome changes during pregnancy bacteria that contribute to an acidic vaginal environment increase to help inhibit STDs Weight gain during pregnancy is associated with Bacterioides excessive gain and Bifidobacterium normal gain Vertical transmission of microbiome to the infant by normal vaginal birth helps boost its immune system Breastfeeding greatly positively impacts microbiome I Clostridorium difficile and Bacterioides are more common in formula fed babies Infections of the placenta that induce preterm births seem to relate to bacteria found in oral cavity Barriers to pathogenic microbes low pH saliva and bile immune system finding a place to attach to intestinal wall Healthy flora in gut assist digestion and produce vitamins I Synthesis of Vitamin K biotin folic acid I Harvest nutrients I Renew epithelial cells lining intestinal tract I Development and function of immune system I Locomotion I Cardiac size Gene transfer btwn species in guts can generate new drugresistant super bugs Their genome contains 100x as many genes as our genome Gut microbes distinguish self from other Enriched for methanogenic pathway that releases H2 through methanogenesis Microbes secrete compounds that regulate Tcells cytokines and chemokines Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron bacteria ferments simple carbohydrates in the gut releasing hydrogen and C02 Methanobrevibacter smithii is an arcahaean that consumes hydrogen gas from Bacteroides and produces methane which is lost from gut as gas Ruminococcus sp breaks down cellulose to assist with digestion Helicobacter pylori is known to be major cause of stomach ulcers in some people Microbial genes turn onoff in response to what we do and vise versa 0 Clicker Question What does a healthy human microbiome do 0 O 0 Produce vitamins Influence metabolism and body weight Contribute to normal healthy brain function Biology Page 2 O Assists immune system 0 All of the above Identical twins have more similar microbiomes is genetics a link 0 Microbes most strongly affected by genes belong to family Christensenellaceae which was most abundant in lean twins and rare in obese twins 0 Fecal matter from lean humans kept mice lean Fecal matter from obese twins made mice obese 0 When lean fecal matter was transplanted mice remained lean even if Christensenellaceae was transferred as well Our microbiome changes through our life 0 Age puberty diet medical conditions medication pets etc 0 You see variation in kinds of microbes number of species number of each species ratio of species relative to each other and kinds of active microbial genes Microbial cloud 0 You are surrounded by cloud and is unique to you It is easily stirred up 0 This will help research in contagious disease and forensics MicrobiomeBrain Connection 0 Relation between stress and microbiome O Bacteria can activate neural pathways and signaling systems 0 Could be used to help cure mental illness 0 Microbiome affects behavior and mood Unhealthy diet is linked to depressive disorders Antibiotics 0 If overused can result in infections 0 Gut flora have modified action of some drugs during metabolism Does this cause different side effects in people 0 Clicker Question What are doctors telling you to do to help restore a damaged microbiome I Change your diet I Consume Probiotic pills I Eat fermented and cultured foods I Have someone else39s poo introduced into your intestine fecal transplant C diff Clostridium difficile is major cause of antibiotic induced colitis and diarrhea 0 Use of antibiotics can kills gut microbiota and allows C diff to flourish bc its resistant to antibiotics 0 As C diff overgrow they release toxins that line intestine causing Cdiff colitis O Cdiff infection most likely to infect patients in hospitals 0 Fecal transplant from a healthy donor restored healthy microbiome in intestine in 14 days Clicker Question How can you maintain your ideal microbiome 0 Eat diverse diet 0 Avoid antibiotics 0 Avoid deodorants and antibiotic soaps O Consume foods with active cultures Scientists think the composition of your microbiome explain differences in metabolic rates and weight tendencies 0 Does diet allow proper microbes that help you stay lean or the other way around 0 Diet and nutrition are the most effective way to improve health I After a McDonalds diet the healthy bacteria numbers plummeted and altered microbial gene expression 0 Diet 0 High in fresh vegetables fruits little refined food less red meat lots of whole grains lots of cultured and Biology Page 3 fermented foods 0 Avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics 0 Microbiome may be related to many diseases Biology Page 4
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