week 9 notes for exam 5
week 9 notes for exam 5 PHYS 215
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fry on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 215 at Ball State University taught by Zamlauski-Tucker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Science at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Exam 5 material 102115 some of this is week 9 Viruses vs Bacteria Viruses can be DNA or RNA 0 Example of RNA virus Rhinovirus cold 0 Example of DNA virus Herpes Virus 0 Requires a host 0 Can use a bacteria as a host Bacteria single celled organism with DNA no central nucleus 0 Can replicate without a host 0 Can uptake DNA from other bacteria either in snips or as a plasmid circle of DNA 0 Cannot infect a virus ill39ilrquotllses Bacteria Endogenous pyrogen responsible for the production of fever by causing the release of prostaglandins An increase in body temperature increases 0 Phagocytosis 0 Effects enzyme activity 0 Effects lipids and proteins Salicylates aspirintype drugs 0 Decrease histamine release decrease swelling redness and pain in ammatory responses 0 lnhibit prostaglandin production Glucocorticoids antiin ammatory drugs such as cortisol o Suppress the in ammatory process 0 Destroys lymphocytes decreases antibody production 0 Decreases improper immune responses Natural killer cells NK cells lymphocyte like cells that nonspeci cally destroy cancer cells and viruses Cytotoxic T cellscan only attack on speci c types of viruses and cancer cells it has previously been exposed to Membrane Attack Complex proteins produced by the liver C1C9 which activate each other to form a pore in the membrane C5C9 of the microorganism The pore formed by C5 through C9 allows the transport of solutes and results attack i199 Wadsworth Publishing Companwp complex Complement System 0 Activated by carbohydrate chains on the surface of microorganisms and by exposure to antibodies against a speci c invader o Complement System Components Chemotaxinsattract phagocytes Opsonins bind microbes increasing phagocytosis Histamine vasodilation vascular changes Kinins reinforce in ammatory responses Antigen a large complex molecule that triggers a speci c immune response Antibody produced in the ER of plasma cells released into the blood stream known as gamma globulins or immunoglobulins each recognizes a speci c an gen Antibody Subclasses o lgM B cells surface receptor for antigen attachment and secreted in early plasma cell response 0 lgG produced when the body is reexposed to antigen 0 lgE protects against parasitic worms and mediates common allergic responses 0 lgA found in secretions tears milk digestion respiratory and genitourinary systems 0 lgD present on the surface of B cells Antibody protein structure 0 Y shaped 2 long heavy chains 2 short light chains Arm regions determine speci c antibody binding Tail region determines what the antibody will do once the antigen is bound Primary antibody responses takes several days requires exposure to antigen and production of antibodies Secondary antibody responses faster longer lasting response mediated via memory cells Activate immunity production of antibodies due to exposure to an antigen Passive immunity transfer of antibodies as a mother to a fetus across the placenta or from a mother to an infant through breast milk Antigen presentation 0 Macrophage engulfs and digests the microbe OOOO o The antigen is bound to an MHC molecule 0 MHC molecule transports antigen to the cell surface 0 The macrophage secretes interleukin 1 which enhances B cell differentiation and proliferation Helper T cells 0 DO NOT SECRETE ANTIBODIES OR SIRECTLY ATTACK CELLS o Secrete interleukin 1 o Enhance the development of antigen stimulated B cells 0 Enhance cytosolic T cell activity 0 Activate macrophages and modulate the activity of other immune cells HIVAIDS Human Immunode ciency Virus Acquired Immune De ciency Syndrome o Selectively invades helper T cells and can infect macrophages as well thus decreases the immune system Cytotoxic T cells 0 Primarily target viruses 0 Recognize and bind to the target antigen with selfantigen o Kills the target by either releasing chemicals or signaling them to commit suicide 0 Perforin a chemical released by the cytotoxic T cell and by NK cells that forms channellike pores in the cell membrane 0 Cytokines any chemical that is secreted by leukocytes that is NOT an anUbody Tolerance prevention of attack on a person s own tissues 0 Clonal deletion elimination of clones that recognize ones own tissues by apoptosis cell death of immature cells 0 Clonal anergy 2 signals required for lymphocyte activation the antigen and B7 found on the surface of the antigen presenting cell exposure to a single selfantigen renders the T cell inactive 0 Receptor editing B cell is capable of changing the antigen that is recognized Thus when a B cell encounters selfantigen it often changes the antigen receptor 0 Antigen Sequestering self molecules that are never seen by the immune system not directly in contact with extracellular uid 0 Immune privilege certain tissues such as the eyes and testes possess a molecule that triggers cell death when approached by activated lymphocytes Autoimmune Disease 0 Failure of the immune system to recognize and tolerate selfantigens associated with certain tissues 0 Examples multiple sclerosis rheumatoid arthritis type 1 diabetes mellitus PANDAS pediatric autoimmune neurological disorders associated with streptococci Neurological Autoimmune Disorders 0 PANDAS o Tic disorders OCD and Tourette Syndrome o D817 antibody streptococci M6 antibody found in large percentage of patients with Tourette syndrome Serum from Tourette Syndrome patients causes spontaneous verbalization of rats when injected into rat brain 0 M6 antibody binds myosin responsible for mitral valve and heart damage associated with rheumatic fever MHC molecules major histocompatibility complex 0 Escorts antigens to the cell surface for presentation 0 Can recognize 3 to 6 antigens o By itself signals the immune system to leave the cell alone 0 With antigen signals the T cell speci c for the antigen to bind with the infected cell Class I MHC molecule Benign vs Malignant o Benign tumors are NOT cancerous They grow slowly They do NOT leave the original location 0 Malignant Tumors Cancerous Grows at variable rates but generally faster than a benign tumor Can spread outside of its original location metastasize Immediate hypersensitivity allergic responses involving B cells 0 Examples pollen bee venom penicillin nut allergies mold dust cat saliva dog dander mites 0 Result in the synthesis of antibodies 0 Release of antibodies by memory cells upon reexposure leads to a more powerful response 0 See lgE thing allergy Delayed hypersensitivity take a day or so to occur involve T cells 0 Examples poison ivy poison oak poison sumac emu Collins ennui hair shaft multiple layers of dead epithelial cells effector T eelll willlh uruslhi mllreceptnrs on its membrane 59 a Elicitation Phase a quot Iymplhulkilmes release g i39 1355 lkilller Tfeellls attracted by by e e meter T eelllsl 39 lymphekines release toxins which destroy urushiel allergen and skin cells 0 Week 9 102115 Respiratory system 0 Function to exchange gases between organism and outside environment 0 Includes Nose where air should enter Mouth air can enter but main exit Pharynx upper part of the throat behind the nasal passage and tongue Larynx where vocal cords are located Trachea o A rigid tube made out of cartilaginous rings 0 The ridges prevent the collapse of the trachea by negative pressures generated during inspiration Bronchioles has cartilage stiff walls for structure with smooth muscle that contracts and dilates 2 branches Alveolus smallest structure at end of branched network Alveolar sacs they arise from the clusters of alveoli Alveolar ducts between alveolar sacs Terminal bronchiole Acinussingle alveolar network including the terminal bronchiole o Surfactant a lipid material lines the lung This substance decreases the chance of alveolar collapse by decreasing the surface tension of spherical alveoli Terminal Smoocth bronchiole muscle 39 Branch of Branch of gnaw pulmonary artery Masai c passages r r u Mouth Hasniwatory I Phawnx bronchiole Brynn U 1 7 z 39 l g Pullmonar v Alveolusw r V anneal 7 gt 3 capillaries Cartilaginous 7V 3 r quot1 i f f l Alveolar V y 397 I L I Peres Of Kahlil SEC Flight 77 r 7 Left 1 b39m n39ChlUS f l I v bronchus Bronchiole 7 m n 7 A rquot v Termnnal bronchiole quot 39 1 Respiratory bronchiole Alveolar sat li lil o Pleural space Parietal lining on inside of rib cage Visceral lining on top of the lung 0 Thermoregulation Ventilation increasing so that hot air is expelled fasterdogs panUng o Bohr effect Increase in acidity means decrease in pH 0 DPG Product of glycolysis 0 Fetal Hemoglobin Has a higher af nity for 02 than adult hemoglobin which enhances the transfer of 02 from mother to fetus o Diffusion 02 leaves lumen of alveolus to a red blood cell and C02 leaves from the red blood cell or plasma to the alveolus via a passive process known as diffusion 0 Protective mechanisms against disease Mucous traps small particles as it is moved by cilia toward the mouth and is swallowed as it reaches the throat Nasal cavities nasal hairs and nasal mucous trap larger particles Macrophages round granular mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs They ingest small inhaled particles phagocytosis resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells 0 Continual elastic tendency the lungs actually have a tendency to collapse pull away from the chest wall This is due somewhat to the surface tension of the alveoli and also to the elastic content of the lung 0 Total recoil tendency is the amount of negative pressure in the intrapleural space needed to prevent collapse of the lungs o lntrapleural pressure pressure in the intrapleural space that is equal to 4 mm Hg in a healthy individual 0 Spirometer an instrument that can measure the amount of air normally present in the respiratory system and the rate at which ventilation occurs 0 VC maximum amount of air that can be inhaled or exhaled from the lungs 0 TV maximum amount of air that is normally inhaled and exhaled from lungs with each breath under resting conditions 0 ERV amount of air that still can be exhaled after the normal level of the TV 0 Total lung capacity equal to the VC plus the RV amount of air left in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume has been used