Week 4 Reading - Ch. 10,13 Psych 202
Week 4 Reading - Ch. 10,13 Psych 202 PSY 202
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
134 How is Personality Assessed Unique and Common Characteristics 0 Two main approaches 0 ldiographic Approaches Person centered Focus on one s lives How characteristics are embedded in a person Assumes all people are unique 0 Nomothetic Approach Focus on common characteristics among groups but vary person to person General traits Traits 0 Central Traits How individuals de ne themselves 0 Secondary Traits Less descriptive Methods for Personality Assessment Projective Measures 0 Explore the unconscious 0 Have people describerecite stories about ambiguous stimulus things 0 People project mental contents onto items 0 Reveals hidden motives wishes and desires Rorschach lnkblot Test 0 Person analyzes meaningless inkblot and describes shape 0 How it is describes reveals hidden con icts Poorjob in diagnosing psychological disorders 0 Can nd people to be mentally disturbed Thematic Apperception Test TAT Developed to study types of motivation Shown a picture and asked to develop a story Can reveal hidden motives about a person Reveals if a person is dependent SelfReports o Questioners and survevs NEO Personality Inventory 0 designed to asses 5 personality factors Minnesota Multiphasic Personalitv lnventorv MMPI TrueFalse questions Assesses emotions thoughts and behaviors Indicates if one has a psychological disorder California QSort Participants given 100 card with statements 0 Sort cards into 9 piles based on how relative they are too said person 0 Can place only so many cards in each pile Life History 0 ldiographic approaches can utilize case studies of individuals 0 Stresses idea that personality grows over one s life 0 People create personal myths Fuse past and present events into one story Help individual make sense of the world and nd its meaning Behavioral Data 0 EAR Electronically activated recorder Picks up snippets of conversations Extroverts have more conversations than lonely people Agreeable people swear less often Observers Show Accuracy in Trait ludgement Acquaintances of a person have good trait judgement Occurs because friends know how a one behaves in certain situations People come to know one another better over time People have blind spots in assessing their own personality to feel good about themselves 0 Easily observable traits are more accurately rated by friends then by oneself 135 How Do we Know Our Own Personalities SelfConcepts and Self Knowledge SelfSchema 0 Embedded memories beliefs and generalizations about the self 0 Helps one to organize analyze and perceive information about the self 0 Helps lter information that is relevant to the self such as hearing one s name 0 Frontal lobe is important for processing info on the self 0 Working Self Concept 0 Immediate experience of the self 0 Limited to amount of info that can be processed at a time o Selfdescriptions change on situation and environment 0 People stress characteristics that make them unique Canadians stress nationality if in a place other than their home country Canadians then act more 39Canadian than normally would Social Regard and SelfEsteem N America obsessed with selfesteem o Evaluative aspect of one s self 0 Believed to be based upon how others perceive one Sociometer Theorv 0 Mark Leary 1995 quotselfesteem is a way to evaluate the likelihood of social exclusionquot Humans have a despite need to belong History teaches that humans who stay in packs high higher survival rate If one acts in a way that leads to him being excluded reduction in selfesteem Thus is a sociometer internal monitor of social acceptance 0 Death Anxiety 0 Selfesteem correlated to human39s anxiety over mortality 0 People ght mortal fears by trying to create symbolic immortality by contributing to culture and societies 0 Reminding one of mortality causes one to act to enhance selfesteem Terror Management Theorv give meaning to peoples life from terror that they will eventually die 0 Life Outcomes o Selfesteem may not be related to life outcomes 0 Just because you think you have a high IQ doesn39t make it so 0 People of both lowhigh esteem successful in life 0 Challenging one with high selfesteem leads them to act in a manner that is disliked o Narcissism comes along with selfesteem Mental Strategies to maintain Positivitv Most people believe themselves better than average at everything 0 People also perceive personal control over events lucky jersey at a sports event 0 People unrealistically optimistic about personal futures Positive illusions can be good but lead one to overestimate their skills 0 Social Comparisons People evaluate own skills by comparing with others Do this to see where they stand in aptitude Usually compare on a downward comparison 0 SelfServing Biases High esteem people take credit for success and blame others for failure Also think criticism is motivated by jealousy Humans are well equipped to protect own beliefs about one39s self Cultural differences in the Self People can view themselves separate or connected to other people Westerners are independent and autonomous stressing individuality Easterners stress being part of the collective o Collectivists Value family ties Social groups Conformity to societal norms Group cohesiveness o lndividualists Emphasize rights and freedoms Selfexpression Diversity 101 What are Emotions Emotion an immediate positivenegative reaction to one39s environment or internal thoughts 0 Has three components 0 Physiological response 0 Behavioral response 0 And feelings Moods long lasting emotional states Emotions Vary in Valence and Arousal Primary emotions o lnnate adaptive and universal 0 Ex Fear Anger Sadness Happiness etc Secondarv Emotions o Blends of primary emotions 0 Ex Remorse submission shame love Circum ex Model 0 Emotions are plotted on Valence How negativepositive they are Arousal Physiological reaction 0 Positive activation states are associated with increased dopamine 0 Negative activation states associated with increased norepinephrine thsiolooical Component 0 Does each emotion have speci c bodily responses or shared core reactions 0 Skin color dilated eyes heart rate etc suggest speci c reactions for different emotions Limbic System 0 1937 James Papex suggested subcortical brain regions are involved in emotion o Hippocampus important for memory 0 Hypothalamus involved in motion Insula and amygdala are most important limbic structures 0 Insula Receives and integrates somatosensory signals from entire body Involved in awareness of bodily states sensing heartbeat 0 Amvgdala Processes emotional signi cance of stimuli Generate immediate emotional and behavioral reactions Important for emotional learning Damaged Amygdala don39t develop fear responses Involved in perception of social stimuli Responds to fear expressions as a warning to potential dangers Three Major Theories of Emotion lamesLanoe Theorv A person39s interpretation of physical changes leads a person to an emotion bodily perception come before the feeling of emotion Seeing a bear produces a faster heart rate Fast heart rate you interpret as fear 0 If you mimic an emotional facial expression you will feel that emotion CannonBard Theory Emotional and bodily reactions happen independently but at the same time SchechterSinger TwoFactor Theory a person experiences a bodily change and applies a cognitive label to explain the change and then apply an emotion to that label 102 How Are Emotions Adaptive Emotion serve cognitive functions 0 Decision Making 0 AffectasInformation Theory Current moods are used to make judgements and appraisals o Moods In uenced by day of the week weather health etc If people are aware of their moods emotions have less in uence on decisions Somatic Markers 0 Decisions in uenced by consequences of an action 0 Somatic Markers bodily reactions queasy stomach Facial Expressions People interpret facial expression to anticipate another39s behavior Facial expressions are adaptive information Smileswide eyesfrowns Across Cultures Darwin argued that the face innately communicates emotions to others that can be understood by people of all cultures 0 Paul Ekman believed facial expression meanings varied culture to culture 0 Research proved Darwin correct studied people in New Guinea a remote area 0 Some facial features are universal Disolav Rules Differ between Cultures and Sexes Display Rules govern how and when people exhibit emotions o Learned through socialization o Dictate which emotions are suitable in given situations 0 Different between men and women 0 Women show more emotion generally more than men Sexes emotional expressions re ect learned patterns of behavior Strengthening Interpersonal Relations 0 Language pivotal in communicating Babies express themselves in nonverbal manners and expressions Bene ts close relationships Af rms social bonds 0 Effective in holding against someone else who has power kids and parents 103 How Are People Motivated D ves o Maslow39s Need Hierarchy o SelfActualization o Esteem o Belonging and Love 0 Safety 0 Physiological Selfactualization someone achieves dreams and aspirations Drive Reduction 0 Psychological state that creates arousal and motivates an organism Homeostasis tendencv for bodilv functions to remain in equilibrium 0 Body responds to negative feedback 0 The more hungrier you are more motivated to nd food 0 Behaviors that in uence drive become habits Arousal and Drive 0 Yerkes Dodson Law dictates that performance on challenging tasks increase arousal up to a point Afterwards performance is impaired by additional arousal 0 People function better with arousal Motivated bv Incentives 0 External objects or goals that motivate behaviors 0 Good grade incentive for studying hard 0 Subliminal cues in uence behaviors Extrinsic Motivation motivation towards an external goal more likely a reward lntrinsic Motivation value or pleasure associated with an activity SelfDetermination Theorv people are drive not satisfy needs for competence relatedness to others and autonomy a sense of personal control Extrinsic rewards diminish pleasure of intrinsic rewards SelfPerception people aren39t aware of motives Draw conclusions based on what makes most sense Pleasure Principal people seek pleasure and avoid pain Hedonism human39s desire for pleasantness Setting Goals 0 Personal expectations plays a part in motivation 0 Low self efficacy not motivated o Achievement motive desire to do well and achieve 104 What Motivates Eating thsiolooical Factors Hypothalamus in uences eating 0 Integrates various inhibitory and exciting feeding messages 0 When Ventromedial region of the hypothalamus is injured rats eat more 0 When Lateral is damaged rats eat less Limbic system and Prefrontal cortex also involved 0 Damaged Limbic system gourmand syndrome People become with quality and variety of food 0 Internal Sensations o Contractions and distensions of the stomach growling stomach o Hungry when de cient in glucose 0 Hormonal Activity 0 Leptin involved in fat regulation 0 Affects the reward properties of food o Ghrelin triggers eating In uenced by time and Taste 0 Eating on schedules makes little sense people differed on metabolic levels 0 People eat because they are conditioned to associate eating with mealtimes 0 Flavor also in uences eating 0 Humans stop eating when there is only one food to eat Culture 0 People will eat determined on personal experience and culture beliefs 0 Infants innately love sweets o Familiarity determines food preferences 0 Avoid unfamiliar foods as an adaptive measure 0 Cultural norms on how to eat what 0 Food taboos typically idiosyncrasies 105 What Motivates Sexual Behavior Biology OOOOO Hormones produce and terminate sexual behaviors Hypothalamus critical for stimulating sexual behaviors Sex hormones released from gonads The more testosterone a woman has more sexual thoughts and desires Oxytocin helps with arousal and orgasm Neurotransmitters O O O Dopamine receptors important for pleasure and sexual activity Depression treatments reduce sexual interest Nitric Oxide o Promotes blood flow to penis and clitoris 0 Big role in sexual arousal and penile erections o Viagra and erectile disorder medicine increases sexual experience in women Menstrual cycle 0 O 0 Woman process social info differently when fertile When fertile they prefer masculine faces and selfassured men Women not ovulating had no preference Sexual Resoonse Cvcle O The predictable pattern of physical and psycho responses 0 Excitement stage contemplating sex kissing 0 Plateau Phase inhibitions are lifted o Orgasm Phase involuntary muscle contractions in body dramatic increases in breath and heart rate women have variable orgasms 0 Resolution phase return to normal arousal Culture 0 Sexual scripts o Beliefs on how a sexual episode is put in motion 0 Who makes the rst move sequence of sexual acts etc o Doublestandards for who enacts activities men vs women Sexual differences 0 Men o Masturbate more Want sex earlier in a relationship Fantasize about sex more Spend more time and money getting sex 0 Initiate sex more refuse less 0 Women 0 Higher erotic plasticity Sex drive shaped by socialcultural factors 0 Sexuality evolves and changes throughout life 0 More cautious about sex 0 Mate Preferences 0 Avoid bad manners loudness insensitivity 0 Both seek attractive partners implies fertility 0 Woman are choosier than men Considerate Kind Dependable Prefer status over attractiveness OOO Good looks Cooking skills Sexual faithfulness Sexual Orientation 0 Once regarded as psychological disorder 0 Biology determine sexual orientation 0 Exposure to androgens in prenatal development has a role 0 Females exposed have more masculine characteristics and are later reported lesbian o No concrete study to explain homosexuality 0 Therapy does not work to suppress homosexuality
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